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GREAT BRITAIN, with 16 Maps, 30 Plans, and a Panorama. 

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'Go, little book, God send thee good passage, 
And specially let this he thy prayere, 
Unto them all that thee will read or hear, 
Where thou art wrong, after their help to call, 
Thee to correct in any part or all. 1 


The Handbook for Southern Germany, .which is 
now issued for the eighth time, and corresponds with the 
twenty-fifth German edition, is designed to assist the travel- 
ler in planning his tour and disposing of his time to the best 
advantage, to render him as far as possible independent of 
the services of hotel-keepers, commissionnaires, and guides, 
and thus to enable him the more thoroughly to enjoy and 
appreciate the objects of interest he meets with on his tour. 

The Handbook has been compiled almost entirely from 
the personal observation of the Editor, and most of the country 
described has been repeatedly explored by him with a view 
to procure the latest possible information ; but, as many of 
the data in the Handbook relate to matters which are con- 
stantly undergoing alteration, he will highly appreciate any 
corrections or suggestions with which travellers may favour 
him. Those already received, which in many instances have 
proved most useful, he gratefully acknowledges. 

In previous issues of the Handbook, Southern Germany 
was combined in one volume with Austria, but the two coun- 
tries will henceforth appear separately. In the present volume 
special attention has been devoted to the art- treasures of 
Munich and other large cities; and it is believed that the in- 
troductory article upon South German art, by the late Pro- 
fessor Anton Springer, will be welcome to many travellers. 
The Alpine tourist will find the mountainous districts more 
fully described in the Handbook to the Eastern Alps. For 
Baden, Alsace, Lorraine, and Rhenish Bavaria the traveller 
is referred to the Handbook to the Rhine. 

The Maps and Plans, on which special care has been 
bestowed, will, it is hoped, render material service to the 
traveller in planning his tour. 

Time Tables. Information as to the departure of trains, 
steamboats , and diligences is seldom to be relied upon un- 
less obtained from local sources. Full and accurate time- 


tables are contained in the ' Reichs-Kursbuch' , published at 
Berlin, and in ' HendscheV s Telegraph', published at Frankfort 
on the Main, both of which are issued monthly in summer. 

Distances by road are given approximately in English 
miles ; but in the case of mountain-excursions they are ex- 
pressed by the time in which they can be accomplished by 
average walkers. Heights are given in English feet (1 Engl, 
ft. = 0,3048 metre = 0,938 Parisian ft. = 0,971 Prussian ft.), 
and the Populations from data furnished by the most re- 
cent census. 

Hotels. The Editor has endeavoured to enumerate, not 
only the first-class hotels , but others of a less pretending 
kind, which may be safely selected by the 'voyageur en gar- 
§on', with little sacrifice of comfort, and great saving of ex- 
penditure. Hotel-charges , as well as carriage-fares and fees 
to guides, are liable to frequent variation, and generally have 
a strong upward tendency; but these items, as stated in the 
Handbook either from the personal experience of the Editor or 
from data furnished by numerous correspondents, will at least 
afford the traveller an approximate idea of his expenditure. 
Those hotels which the Editor has reason to believe good of 
their class are distinguished by an asterisk, but he does not 
doubt that equal excellence may often be found in hotels that 
are unstarred and even unmentioned. 

To hotel-keepers, tradesmen, and others the Editor begs 
to intimate that a character for fair dealing towards trav- 
ellers forms the sole passport to his commendation, and that 
advertisements of every kind are strictly excluded from his 
Handbooks. Hotel-keepers are also warned against persons 
representing themselves as agents for Baedeker's Handbooks. 



I. Language. Money xi 

II. Passports. Custom Houses xii 

III. Conveyances xii 

IV. Excursions on Foot xiii 

V. Hotels xiii 

South German Art, by Professor Anton Springer ... xv 



1. Stuttgart and Environs 1 

2. From Heidelberg to Stuttgart by Bruchsal 14 

Maulbronn, 16. — From Zuffenhausen to Calw and Horb, 16. 

3. From Stuttgart to Wildbad 17 

From Pforzheim to Calw, 17. — From Pforzheim to Durlach, 
18. — Excursions from Wildbad, 19. 

4. From Stuttgart to Hanau 19 

From Jagstfeld to Osterburken and to Heidelberg, 22. 

5. From Heilbronn to Schwabisch-Hall (Nuremberg). ... 23 

6. From Stuttgart to Crailsheim and Nuremberg via Backnang 24 

From Backnang to Bietigheim, 25. — From Crailsheim to 
Mergentheim and to Nordlingen, 26. 

7. From Stuttgart to Nordlingen and Nuremberg 27 

From Aalen to TJlm, 28. 

8. From Stuttgart to Friedrichshafen 29 

From Geislingen to the Swabian Alb, 31. — From Ulm to 
Kempten, 33. — Veitsburg. Waldburg, 35. 

9. From Stuttgart to Tubingen and Horb 35 

Bebenhausen. Wurmlinger Capelle. The Baths of Imnau. 
Haigerloch, 38. 

10. From Stuttgart to Boblingen and Scbaffhausen 39 

From Eutingen to Hausach, 39. — From Rottweil to Vil- 
lingen, 40. — Hohentwiel, 41. 

11. The Swabian Alb 42 

12. From Tubingen to Hechingen and Sigmaringen .... 48 

Hohenzollern, 48. — The Upper Valley of the Danube, 52. 

13. From Ulm to Radolfzell and Constance 52 

Schmiechthal. Grosse Lauterthal, 53. — Zwiefalten. From 
Herbertingen to Memmingen. From Mengen to Sigmaringen, 
54. — From Schwakenreute to Aulendorf, 55. — Mainau, 
Meersburg, Ueberlingen, 57, 68, 


Route. Bavaria. Page . 

14. From Frankfort to Nuremberg by Wurzburg 59 

From Frankfort to Hanau via Offenbach, 59. — Kahlgrund, 
59. — From Aschaffenburg to Mayence direct. From Aschaf- 
fenburg to Amorbach, 61. — From Miltenberg and from 
Lohr to Wertheim, 62. — The Spessart. From Gemiinden 
to Elm, to Hammelburg, and to Schweinfurt, 63, 64. — 
Windsheim, 69. — From Fiirth to Cadolzburg, 70. 

1 5. From Wurzburg to Heidelberg 70 

From Lauda to Wertheim and to Mergeutheim, 70. — From 
Osterburken to Jagstfeld. From Neckarelz to Meckesheim, 71. 

16. From Leipsic to Nuremberg by Bamberg 72 

From Plauen to Eger, 72. — The Baths of Steben. From 
Hof to Eger, 73. — From Hochstadt to Saalfeld, 74. — Ban?,. 
Vierzehnheiligen, 75. — From Erlangen to Grafenberg, 81. 

17. From Wurzburg to Bamberg. Kissingen 81 

The Ludwigsbad Wipfeld, 82. — Excursions from Booklet 
and from Briickenau, 85. — From Kissingen to Meiningen, 85. 

18. From Neuenmarkt to Weiden. The Fichtelgebirge ... 86 

19. Franconian Switzerland 92 

20. Nuremberg 95 

21. From Nuremberg to Eger by Schnabelwaid 109 

The Nuremberg Switzerland. From Schnabelwaid to Bai- 
reuth, 110. 

22. From Nuremberg to Augsburg Ill 

From N ordlingen to Dombiihl, 112. — From Donauworth to 
Neu-Offingen, 113. 

23. From Nuremberg to Ratisbon 118 

The Walhalla, 124. 

24. From Ratisbon to Donauworth (and Augsburg) .... 125 

Kelheim and the Befreiungshalle. The Altmiihl-ThaJ. The 
Danube from Kelheim to Weltenburg, 125, 126. — From 
Abensberg to Eining (Abusina). The Teufelsmauer, 127. — 
From Ingolstadt to Augsburg, 127. 

25. From Frankfort to Munich by Ansbach and Ingolstadt . . 128 

Rothenburg on the Tauber, 128. 

26. From Stuttgart to Munich 133 

27. From Leipsic to Munich via Hof and Ratisbon .... 134 

Burg Landshut, 135. — From Landshut to Landau, 136. 

28. Munich 137 

Environs of Munich. Grosshesselohe. Nymphenburg. Schleiss- 
heim, 193, 194. — From Munich to Wolfratshausen (Isir- 
thal Railway), 194. — The Churches of Pipping and Bluten- 
burg, 195. 

29. The Starnberger See andAmmersee. TheHohePeissenberg 195 

Schloss Berg. Rottmannshohe, 196. — From Peissenberg to 
Ober-Ammergau, 197. 

30. From Munich to Lindau 198 

From Kaufering to Schongau and to Bobingen. From Augs- 
burg to Buchloe. From Buchloe to Memmingen, 198. — The 
Stuiben, 199. — From Immenstadt to Oberstdorf. Griinten, 
200. — Excursions from Lindau. The Lake of Constance, 201, 


Route. Page. 

31. From Munich to Fiissen (Hohenschwangau) and Reutte . 202 

From Kempten to Fiissen, 202. — Excursions from Hohen- 
schwangau. Marienhriicke. Jugend. Schiitzenateig. Tegel- 
berg Alp, 205. — Stuiben Falls. From Eeutte to Imst via 
Lermoos and Nassereit, 206. 

32. From Munich to Partenkirchen and Mittenwald 207 

Kohlgrub, 207. — Excursions from Partenkirchen and Gar- 
misch. Faukenschlucht. Eiesserbauer. Partnachklamm 
and Vorder-Graseck. Eckbauer. Schlattan and Gschwandner 
Bauer. Badersee. Eibsee. Krottenkopf. Schachen, 208- 
210. — From Partenkirchen to Lermoos. Barmsee, 210. — 
From Mittenwald via Seefeld to Zirl, 211. 

33. From Munich to Ober-Ammergau and via Linderhof to 
Reutte-Hohenschwangau 211 

From Ober-Ammergau to Peissenberg through the Ammer- 
Thal. From the Plansee to Partenkirchen, 212. 

34. From Munich to Mittenwald via Benediktbeuern .... 213 

Schlehdorf. Herzogstand. Heimgarten, 214. 

35. From Munich to Tolz and Mittenwald 215 

From Tolz to the Walchensee. From Hinter-Riss to the 
Achensee over the Plumser Joch, 216. 

36. From Munich to Tegernsee, Wildbad Kreuth, and the 

Achensee 217 

Excursions from Tegernsee. Kaltenbrunn. Parapluie. Falls 
of the Rottach. Neureut. Hirschberg, 217, 218. — The Un- 
ntitz. From the Achensee to the Inn Valley, 219. 

37. From Munich to Kufstein via Schliersee and Bairisch-Zell 220 

From Neuhaus to Falepp, 220. — The Wendelstein. From 
Bairisch-Zell to Oberaudorf via, the Tatzelwurm, 221. 

38. From Munich to Salzburg and Eeichenhall 221 

From Grating to Glonn, 221. — From Munich to Rosenheim 
via Holzkirchen, 222. — The Chiemsee, 222. — From Prien 
to Niederaschau. The Baths of Adelholzen. Hochfelln. 
From Traunstein to Reichenhall via Inzell, 223. — From 
Traunstein to Trostberg, 224. — Excursions from Reichen- 
hall. Gross-Gmain. Zwiesel. Thumsee. Mauthhausl, 225, 
226. — From Reichenhall to Lofer, 226. 

39. From Reichenhall to Berchtesgaden. Konigs-See .... 226 

From Salzburg to Berchtesgaden, 227. — Excursions from 
Berchtesgaden. Lockstein. Bischofswiesen. Gern. Schonau. 
Upper Salzberg. Almbach-Klamm. Vorderbrand. Scharitz- 
kehl-Alp, etc., 228-30. — Gotzen-Alp. From Berchtesgaden 
to Reichenhall. Ramsau. Wimbach-Klamm, 231. — Watz- 
mann, 232. — From Berchtesgaden to Ober-Weissbach. 
Hintersee. Kammerlinghorn. SeisenbergKlamm, 232, 233. 

40. From Munich to Linz by Simbach 233 

Alt-Oetting, 233. 

41. From Nuremberg to Furth (and Prague) 234 

From Neukirchen to Weiden. From Cham to Lam, 235. — 
The Hohe Bogen, 236. 

42. From Ratisbon to Passau and Linz 236 

Excursions from Passau, 240, 241. — From Passau to Freyung 
in the Bavarian Forest. The Dreisesselstein, 241. — The 
Bohemian Forest, The Danube from Passau to Linz, 242. 


Route. Page. 

43. From Rosenheim to Eisenstein by Muhldorf and Plattling. 

The Bavarian Forest 243 

From Neumarkt to Passau, 244. — The Ruse). Hirschen- 
stein. From Gotteszell to Viechtach, 245. — From Zwiesel 
to Grafenau. Rachel. Bodenmais. Arber, 247. — Excursions 
from Eisenstein. Osser. From Eisenstein to Pilsen, 248. 


1. The Environs op Stuttgart: R. 2; p. 12. 

2. The Swabian Alb: RR. 8, 9, 11-12; p. 42. 

3. The Spessart: R. 14; p. 62. 

4. The Franconian Switzerland: R. 19; p. 77. 

5. The Fichteloebirge: RR. 18, 21; p. 89. 

6. The Starnberger See and Ammersee : RR. 29, 32; p. 196. 

7. The Environs of Fusses, Reotte, Nassereit, Partenkirchen, Mit- 

tenwald, and Walchensee : RR. 31-35; p. 202. 

8. The Environs of Hohenschwangau : R. 31; p. 204. 

9. The Environs of Partenkirchen : R. 32; p. 208. 

10. The Environs of Tolz, Tegernsee , and Schliersee : RR. 34-38; 

p. 214. 

11. The Environs of the Acheksee : RR. 35, 36; p. 218. 

12. The Environs of Rosenheim, Kufstein, Trauxstein, and Lofer (the 

Chiemsee and Achenthal): R. 38; p. 222. 

13. The Environs of Salzburg, Eeichenhall, and Berchtesgaden : RR. 

33, 39; p. 224. 

14. The Bavarian Forest: RR. 42, 43; p. 244. 

15. Southern Germany: after the Index. 

16. Railway Map of Germany : at the end of the hook. 


Aschaffenburg (p. 64); Augsburg (p. 112); Bamberg (p. 76); Bayreuth 
(p. 88); Constance (p. 55); Heilbronn (p. 13); Hohenzollern (p. 49); Kis- 
singen (p. 83); Munich (p. 136); Nuremberg (p. 96); Passau (p. 237); 
Ratisbon (p. 118); Stuttgart (p. 1); Ulm (p. 42); Wurzburg (p. 65). 


I. Language. Honey. 

Language. A slight acquaintance with German is very de- 
sirable for travellers who purpose exploring the more remote dis- 
tricts of Southern Germany. Those who do not deviate from the 
beaten track will generally find that English or French is spoken 
at the principal hotels and the usual resorts of strangers. But 
those who are entirely ignorant of the language must be prepared 
frequently to submit to the extortions practised by commission- 
naires, waiters, cab-drivers, etc., which even the data furnished 
by the Handbook will not always enable them to avoid. 

Money. The German mark (Jl), which is nearly equivalent 
to the English shilling, is divided into 100 pfennigs. Banknotes of 
5, 20, and 50 Jl are issued by the German Imperial Bank ('Deut- 
sche Reichabank'), and others of 100, 500, and 1000 Jl by the 
Imperial Bank and by twelve other banks which possess the privi- 
lege. The current gold coins are pieces of 10 ('Krone') and of 
20 marks ('Doppelkrone'), the intrinsic value of which is slight- 
ly lower than that of the English half-sovereign and sovereign 
(1 1, being worth about 20 Jl 43 pf.). The paper currency is of the 
same value as the precious metals. The silver coins are pieces of 
5, 3 (the old thaler or dollar), 2, 1, 1/2 (50 pf.), and '/ 5 mark (20 pf.). 
In nickel there are coins of 10 and 5 pfennigs (groschen and half- 
groschen), and in copper there are pieces of 2 and 1 pfennig. 

English sovereigns and banknotes may be exchanged at all the 
principal towns in Germany, and Napoleons are also favourably re- 
ceived (20 fr. = 16«. = 16 Jl 20 pf., and often a few pfennigs 
more). Those who travel with large sums should carry them in the 
form of circular notes (issued by the chief British and American 
banks), rather than in banknotes or gold, as the value of circular 
notes, if lost or stolen, is recoverable. 

The expense of a tour in Southern Germany depends, of 
course, on a great variety of circumstances. It may, however, 
be stated generally that travelling in this region is less ex- 
pensive than in most other European countries. The modest 
pedestrian, who knows something of the language, and avoids the 
beaten track of ordinary tourists as much as possible, may succeed 
in limiting his expenditure to 8-10s. per diem. Those, on the 
other hand, who prefer driving to walking, frequent hotels of the 


highest class, and employ guides, commissionnaires, etc., must 
be prepared to expend 25-30*. daily. 

II. Passports and Custom Houses. 

Passports are now unnecessary in Germany, as in most of the 
other countries of Europe, but they are frequently serviceable 
in proving the identity of the traveller, procuring admission 
to collections, and obtaining delivery of registered letters. The 
following are the principal passport-agents in London: Lee and 
Carter, 440 West Strand; E. Stanford, 55 Charing Cross; W. J. 
Adams, 59 Fleet Street; C.Smith & Son, 63 Charing Cross (charge 
2s.,- agent's fee Is. 6d.). 

Custom House formalities are now almost everywhere lenient. 
As a rule, however, articles purchased during the journey, which 
are not destined for personal use, should be declared at the frontier. 

III. Conveyances. 
Railway Travelling in Germany is less expensive than in 
most other parts of Europe , and the carriages are generally clean 
and comfortable. The second-class carriages, furnished with 
spring -seats, are sometimes as good as those of the first class in 
England. The first-class carriages, lined with velvet, are com- 
paratively little used, but are recommended to the lover of fresh 
air, as he will be more likely to secure a seat next to the window. 
The third-class travelling community is generally quiet and re- 
spectable, but the carriages are generally very poor. On a few rail- 
ways there is even a fourth class, unprovided with seats. Smoking 
is allowed in all the carriages, except those 'Fur Nichtraucher' 
and the coupe's for ladies. The average fares for the different 
classes in S. Germany are l 3 /sd., IVs^-i and*/ 5 d. per Engl. M. 
respectively. The speed seldom exceeds 25 M. per hour, and as the 
railways are generally well organised and under the immediate 
supervision of government, accidents are very rare. On many lines 
20-50 lbs. of luggage are free, in addition to smaller articles carried 
in the hand. Over-weight is charged for at moderate rates. In all 
cases the heavier luggage must be booked, and a ticket procured 
for it. This being done, the traveller need not look after his lug- 
gage till he arrives at his final destination , where it will be kept 
in safe custody, generally gratis for the first day or two, until he 
presents his ticket. When a frontier has to be crossed, the traveller 
is strongly recommended to take his luggage with him, and to 
superintend the custom-house examination in person. If luggage 
be sent across a frontier by goods-train or diligence, the keys must 
be sent along with it, as otherwise it will be detained at the 
custom-house ; but the pecuniary saving effected by such a course 
is far outweighed by the risk of vexatious delays, pilferage, and 
damage, for which it is difficult or impossible to obtain redress. 


The enormous weight of the trunks used by some travellers not un- 
frequently inflicts serious injury on the hotel and railway porters who have 
to handle them. Travellers are therefore urged to place their heavy ar- 
ticles in the smaller packages and thus minimize the evil as far as possible. 

DrLiGBNCEs generally carry three passengers only, two in the in- 
terieur, and one in the coupe. As the latter alone affords a toler- 
able survey of the scenery, it should if possible be secured in good 
time. In much-frequented districts it is frequently engaged several 
days beforehand. The guards, who are often retired non-com- 
missioned officers, are generally -well-informed and obliging. The 
usual amount of luggage carried free by the diligence does not ex- 
ceed 20-30 lbs., over- weight being charged for by tariff. Pass'engers 
are required to book their luggage two hours before the time of 
starting, and sometimes even on the previous evening ; but these 
rules are seldom rigidly enforced. An 'extra-post' conveyance for 
one or more persons may generally be obtained on application at 
the post-offices. The average tariff is 50 pf. (6d.) per mile for 1-2, 
and ljt (Is.) per mile for 3-4 persons. Private conveyances may 
be hired at the rate of 10-15 M for a one-horse, 12-25 M for a two- 
horse carriage per diem. 

IV. Excursions on Foot. 

The pedestrian is unquestionably the most independent of trav- 
ellers, and to him alone the beautiful scenery of some of the more 
remote districts is accessible. For a short tour a couple of flannel 
shirts, a pair of worsted stockings, slippers, the articles of the toi- 
lette, a light waterproof, and a stout umbrella will generally be 
found a sufficient equipment. Strong and well-tried boots are es- 
sential to comfort. Heavy and complicated knapsacks should be 
avoided ; a light pouch or game-bag is far less irksome, and its 
position may be shifted at pleasure. A more extensive reserve of 
clothing should not exceed the limits of a small portmanteau, which 
can be easily wielded, and may be forwarded from town to town 
by post. 

Southern Germany comprises many attractive and picturesque 
districts, such as the Swabian Alb (R. 11), the Fichtelgebirge 
(R. 18), Franconian Switzerland (R. 19), and the Bavarian Forest 
(R. 43). The student of art is strongly recommended to visit Munich, 
Nuremberg, and Stuttgart. By consulting the Handbook the traveller 
will discover many other interesting places, whether the object of 
his tour be amusement or instruction. 

V. Hotels. 

Little variation occurs in the accommodation and charges of 
first-class hotels in the principal towns and watering-places through- 
out Germany ; but it frequently happens that in old-fashioned ho- 
tels of unassuming exterior the traveller finds as much real comfort 
as in the modern establishments, while the charges are lower. The 
best houses of both descriptions are therefore enumerated. 

xiv HOfECT: 

Where the traveller remains for a week or more at a hotel, it 
is advisable to pay, or at least call for, his account every two or 
three days , in order that errors may be at once detected. Verbal 
reckonings are objectionable. A waiter's arithmetic is faulty, and 
his mistakes are seldom in favour of the traveller. It is also objec- 
tionable to delay paying one's bill till the last moment, when errors 
or wilful impositions must be submitted to for want of time to in- 
vestigate them. Those who intend starting early in the morning 
will do well to ask for their bills on the previous evening. 

Pedestrians and travellers of moderate requirements will find 
the country inns in Southern Germany very reasonable, 5-6s. a day 
being generally sufficient to include every item. 

Hotel - keepers who wish to commend their houses to British and 
American travellers are reminded of the desirability of providing the bed- 
rooms with large basins , foot-baths , plenty of water , and an adequate 
supply of towels. Great care should be taken to ensure that the sanitary 
arrangements are in proper order, including a strong flush of water and 
proper toilette-paper ; and no house that is deficient in this respect can 
rank as first-class or receive a star of commendation, whatever may be 
its excellencies in other departments. 

The word Pension is used in the Handbook as including board , lodg- 
ing, and attendance. 

English travellers often give trouble by ordering things almost 
unknown in German usage ; and they are apt to become involved 
in disputes owing to their ignorance of the language. They should 
therefore endeavour to acquire enough of the language to render 
them intelligible to the servants, and should try to conform as far 
as possible to the habits of the country. For this purpose Baedeker 1 * 
'Conversation Dictionary' (in four languages ; 3 Jl) and 'Traveller's 
Manual of Conversation' (3 M) will be found useful. 

Valets-de-place generally charge 2-3 M for half-a-day, and 
3 '/2-5 Jt for a whole day. 


R. = Room; also Route. 

B. = Breakfast. 

D. = Dinner. 

A. = Attendance. 

L. = Light. 

M. = English mile. 

R., L. = right, left. 

ft. = English foot. 

omn. = omnibus. 

N. = North, northern, etc. 

S. = South, etc. 

E. = East, etc. 

W. = West, etc. 

Jl = mark. 

pf. = pfennig. 

fl. = florin. 

kr. = kreuzer. 

pens. = pension. 

Objects of special interest, and hotels which are believed worthy of 
special commendation are denoted by asterisks. 

The number prefixed to the name of a place on a railway or high-road 
indicates its distance in English miles from the starting-point of the route 
or sub-route. The number of feet given after the name of a place shows 
its height above the sea-level. The letter d, with a date, after the name 
of a person, indicates the year of his death. 

South German Art. 

A Historical Sketch by Professor Anton Springer. 

It is neither the function nor the intention of the following 
sketch to divert the traveller's attention from the beauties of nature 
and to direct it instead to the study of art. But the great cities of 
Southern Germany, whether they be the express object of the travel- 
ler's journey or his temporary resting-places on his way elsewhere, 
cannot fail of themselves to inspire him with some interest in the 
art both of the present and of the past; while at numerous other 
points his glance is arrested and his attention excited by ancient or 
modern monuments of art. Interest in such things has widened and 
deepened to a surprizing extent within recent times. A few decades 
ago old-fashioned German furniture was ignored, and German build- 
ings of the 16th and 17th centuries were for the most part passed 
with a contemptuous shrug. Now the 'German Renaissance' is a 
theme of admiration and an object for eager imitation. Then only 
a few mediaeval cathedrals received the meed of general admiration 
or passed muster as true works of artistic genius , while the over- 
whelming majority of mediaeval woTks remained unknown and un- 
regarded. Now hardly anyone is either wholly indifferent to or wholly 
ignorant of the development of art in the middle ages. The culti- 
vation of the historic sense has largely affected the aesthetic attitude 
in this direction , swelling the aggregate of artistic interest and 
bringing the more remote periods within the limits of intelligent 
comprehension. It is the object of the following lines to support and 
extend this historic sense. 

The civilization and art of Southern Germany reach back to a very 
early period ; they antedate by a thousand years the entrance of the 
North German lands into the light of authentic history. Numerous 
excavations have yielded traces of an early intercourse with Italy, 
carried on to some extent before the Christian era; and not less 
numerous traces have been found of the Roman settlements that 
were established along the great trade-routes and waterways, though 
these Roman discoveries are far inferior both in extent and import- 
ance to those in the valley of the Moselle and elsewhere on the left 
bank of the Rhine. The Roman remains at Treves appeal to the 
imagination of the ordinary traveller, while the Roman remains in 
Noricum and Rhaetia arrest the attention of the archaeologist only. 
Christianity early made its way into Southern Germany (St. Severin- 
us; 5th cent.), and Frank and Irish missionaries reaped a rich 
harvest. Convent after convent was founded ; and there is probably 
no other district where monastic establishments weTe so thickly 

xvi SOu^S uaaIkaw A355 

planted about the close of the 10th cent., as the banks of theDanube, 
at the foot of the Alps. Most of these preserved their celebrity and 
their wealth almost down to the present century, though their im- 
portance as art-monuments has in many instances disappeared with 
the substitution of new buildings for old ones. No considerable art- 
monuments have come down to ns even from the Carlovingian 
period, which saw the beginning of Ratisbon's importance, except 
in the domains of the goldsmith's craft and miniature-painting. The 
Reiche Capelle at Munich contains the finest specimens of the 
former, the libraries at Munich and "Vienna of the latter. 

The unbroken chain of artistic activity begins for us about the 
10th century. The art- style which prevailed from the 10th to the 
13th cent, is generally known as the Romanesque. Its characteristics 
find their most distinct expression in ecclesiastical architecture. The 
plan of the Romanesque church was suggested by the Roman basilica 
of early-Christian times, the essence of which consisted in an oblong 
hall, divided into three aisles by two rows of columns. At one end 
of the basilica was a semicircular vaulted recess, known as the Apsis; 
at the other end was a fore-court (Atrium), enclosed by a portico. 
Occasionally a transept was interposed between the three-aisled nave 
and the apse, and thus the whole building gradually assumed the 
clearly marked form of a cross. In the course of centuries and in 
different countries this early-Christian nucleus underwent numerous 
modifications, some due to the use of new building materials, some 
to peculiarities of national customs, but most to the at first slowly 
growing improvement in technical skill. It is apparent from the 
earliest Romanesque edifices, that their builders had difficulty in 
rising to the demands of their task, and that they had but scanty 
notions of measure and proportion. Romanesque architecture did 
not attain an artistic perfection until the 12th century. 

It is not difficult to identify a Romanesque building and at the 
same time to decide with some certainty whether it belongs to the 
earlier or later period (i.e. 11th or 12th cent.). The characteristic 
forms of the Romanesque style are everywhere essentially the same. 
The round arch is used to unite the interior pillars or columns, to 
finish off windows and portals, and to form a continuous frieze on 
the exterior wall ; the columns have either cubical capitals or foliage- 
capitals modelled on the antique ; the ornamentation is predominantly 
either in the geometric style (lozenges; zigzags; checker-work) or 
of conventionalized foliage. In the earlier churches vaulting is used 
only for the crypt, the burial vaults, and the apse, while the nave 
has a flat roof; but by the 12th cent, we find the vault-principle 
triumphant, while the supporting pillars are also more richly articulat- 
ed. At the foot of the columns appears the base-ornament, uniting 
the plinth with the torus of the base. 

Though it is thus easy to recognize the general Romanesque 
character of a building, there are no sufficiently distinctive peculi- 


arities to differentiate the style prevailing in Southern Germany from 
that prevailing elsewhere. Even when we confine ourselves to nar- 
rowed limits and enquire whether the Romanesque buildings in 
Southern Germany could be classified into Alemannic, Swabian, 
Bavarian, and Austrian groups, we arrive at no satisfactory result. 
All that we can say is that columns are frequently used to support 
the upper walls (this form being known as the columned basilica) 
and that there is a frequent tendency towards a richly decorative, 
and even fantastic arrangement of the interior fittings. No traveller 
in the neighbourhood of the Lake of Constance should omit to visit 
the three churches on the island of Reichenau (p. 55) ; that at Ober- 
zell, a small columned basilica, dates back to the 10th cent. ; while 
the larger church at Mittelzell is probably one of the oldest pillar- 
basilicas in the district. The church of the former Benedictine abbey 
of Alpirsbach (p. 39) in the Kinzig-Thal, founded in the 11th cent., 
surprizes us by its stately proportions and the perspicuous devel- 
opment of the ground-plan; while another Swabian church, at Maul- 
bronn (p. 15), is an excellent specimen of a large, mediaeval con- 
ventual edifice. Ratisbon (p. 119) is rich in Romanesque buildings, 
including the Cathedral, the Obermunster, the Schottenkirche, and 
the church of St. Emmeram. Several of these have been sadly 
disfigured by later decorations; and, indeed, the true Romanesque 
nucleus of many churches can only with difficulty be disentangled 
from later alterations. The meaning of the chaotic plastic embel- 
lishments on the portal of the Schottenkirche will probably excite 
the curiosity of the ordinary traveller even less than the sculptures 
in the spacious crypt of Freising Cathedral (p. 136), which are, at 
any rate, decorative in their general effect. 

The churches above mentioned, some of which lie quite off the 
main lines of communication, appeal on the whole mainly to the 
professional archaeologist or architect. There is, however, at least 
one Romanesque church in Southern Germany which will^excite the 
warm admiration of the tourist and yield him unqualified delight — 
viz. the Cathedral of Bamberg (p. 77). The plan of this church in- 
cludes a nave and aisles, an elevated choir at each end with a crypt 
below, and a transept between the W. choir and the nave. In 
comparison with other buildings in the same style it takes a preem- 
inent place by its imposing dimensions, by its spacious, airy, and 
harmonious proportions, by the elaborate ornamentation of its portals 
(Furstenthor), and by the number and variety of its towers. The 
occurrence of the pointed arch must not mislead the visitor into the 
error of taking it as a sign of the admixture of Gothic elements. 
The Gothic style is not characterized by the pointed arch, which 
was also used in earlier times, but by its system of buttresses to 
counteract the thrust of the vaulting, by its abundant use of ar- 
ticulation, and by the rich ornamentation applied to wall-surfaces 
and other non-constructive portions of the building. 

Baedekeb'b S. Germany. 8th Edit. D 


satisfaction. The greatest activity took place in Southern Germany 
and Austria, and those who can overcome their dislike on general 
grounds to the Bakoque Style will And here many and varied proofs 
of a renewed interest in ait. In Italy a decided revolution in archi- 
tecture had taken place towards the close of the 16th century. "While 
the individual Renaissance forms were retained, a new spirit was 
apparent in their embodiment and combination. The old and genuine 
Renaissance style seemed too cold and too simple, and not sufficiently 
effective. The architectural members were made coarser and more 
massive, the straight line was replaced by curves, the help of light 
and shade was appealed to. The facade assumes a curved form; 
columns are moved towards the front and draw the entire entablature 
with them; gables and cornices are made to project strongly; the 
profiles are more accentuated ; ornamentation is used to an exaggerated 
extent, almost obscuring the constructive elements. This baroque style, 
which is at bottom closely akin to the contemporary mannerism and 
the increased realism in painting and sculpture, soon found acceptance 
in Southern Germany. We see it in the numerous churches and 
convents that were rebuilt with increased magnificence after the 
close of the Thirty Years' War; and we likewise see it in all its 
pomp, but also with all its weaknesses, in the numerous palaces built 
between 1680 and 1740. The Palace of Versailles is imitated in a 
few cases only (Nymphenburg, Mannheim); the predominant style is 
the Italian baroque, especially as it had been developed by Borromini. 
Excellent examples of the baroque style are found in Wurzburg, 
Munich, Vienna, and especially at Prague, where the traveller may 
go through a complete course in baroque architecture and become 
familiar with all its peculiarities. 

Architecture became practically paralysed about the middle of 
last century in consequence of the wars between Prussia and Austria. 
On the other hand an attempt was made, without much success, to 
revive the art of painting by the foundation of academies at Vienna 
and Stuttgart (Karlsschule). At the beginning of the present century 
the young artists of Germany had still to make the pilgrimage to Rome 
in order to train their eye and taste and to enkindle their imagination 
before the works of classical and old Italian art. More recent events 
must be passed over with a word. In the reign of King Lewis I. Munich 
won a European reputation as a school of art through the creations 
of Cornelius and his associates ; and after a period of stagnation about 
the middle of the century it has again reached a position of great 
importance. Vienna has been specially distinguished for its successes 
in architecture, while Stuttgart enjoys a well-merited renown in the 
domain of industrial art. 


1. Stuttgart and Environs. 

Railway Stations. 1. Baupt-Bahnhof, or Central Station (PI. E, 3), at 
the corner of the Schlo>s-Str. and the Friedrichs-Str. — 2. West Station 
(the former Hasenberg Station), at the W. extremity of the town (see 
p. 12). — 3. Zahnrad ■ Bahnhof or Mountain Railway Station (PJ. D, 7), 
Filder-Str., for the trains to Degerloch, Mohringen, and Hohenheim. 

Hotels. "Marqoaedt (PI. a; E, 3), conveniently situated near the 
station, with electric lighting and steam-heat, R., L., & A. 2 1 /2-6, B. 1, D. 
at 1 o'clock 3, at 5 o'clock 4 Jl, pens, for a prolonged stay at lower charges. 

— 'Hotel Dieelamm (PI. e; E, 3), Friedrichs-Str. 30, near the station, R. 
2'/2 Jl; *H6tel Royal (PI. b ; E, 3), Schloss-Str. 5, opposite the station, R., 
L., & A. 2-3, B. 1, D. 21/2 Jl; "Silbee (PI. d; F, 4), Dorotheen-Str. 2, R., 
L. , & A. 2-3 Jl, B. 80 pf., D. 2V2, omn. 1/2 -*, g° od cuisine; Weber 
(PI. f; E, 3), Schloss-Str. 7, opposite the station, R. 2-272 Jl, B. 70 pf. ; 
"Textor (PI. h; E, 3), R. 1 Jl 80 pf., B. 1 , D. 21/2 Jl; Oberpollingee 
(PI. g; E, 3), Zach (PI. i; E, 3), Bilfinger , Drei Mohren, all in the 
Friedrichs-Str., near the station, moderate and unpretending; Konig von 
Wuettembeeg (PI. c ; E, 4), Kronprinz-Str. 26; Hot. Ihle (PI. k; E, 3), 
Schelling-Str. ; Goldnee Bab (PI. 1; F, 5), Esslinger-Str. 19; Bertrand, 
Calwer-Str. 7, R., L., & A. lV'2-2, B. '/2) D - 2 «*> - Hiller, Leder-Str. 6, 
unpretending ; Heezog Christoph (Evangelischer Verein), Christoph-Str. 16, 
R. \>\\-2Jl; Europaischer Hop (Katholischer Verein), Friedrichs-Str. 10. 

— Pensions. Sigle, Moser-Str. 28; Gobert, Schloss-Str. 57; Strich, Blumen- 
Str. 27; Erpf, Neckar-Str. 48B; Bunzel, Olga-Str. 10; Riithling, Olga-Str.31; 
Statu, Wera-Str. 6. 

Cafes-Restaurants. "Bechtel, Schloss-Str. 14; "Wiener Cafi Kiinigsbau, 
in the Kbnigsbau (p. 3), with ladies' room ; Bachner, Charlotten-Str. 26 ; 
Residenz-Cafi, Friedrichs-Str. 62; Wiener Cafi, Konigs-Str. 62; Konig Karl, 
Schul-Str. 20, overlooking theKbnigs-Str. ; Krug, Charlotten-Str. 8 ; Murschel, 
Post-Sir. 1. — Restaurants. "Railway Restaurant; "Dierlamm, "Hit. Royal, 
with garden (see above); "Kaiserhof, Marien-Str. 10; Weber (see above), 
near the station; "Zach (see above), Friedrichs-Str. 54; Feil, Kronprinz- 
Str. la; Michoud, Linden-Str. 5 ; Rauh, Sophien-Str. 35; Adler, Marktplatz 18; 
Old German Beer-Room in the H6t. Hiller, Leder-Str. 6; Friedel (Munich 
beer), Linden-Str. 14. — Beer Gardens. " Stadt- Garten (p. 10), adm. 50 pf. ; 
NiWs Thiergarten (p. 2); Englischer Garten, Ludwigsburger-Str. 16, above 
the horse-groups in the Anlagen, with fine view; Schiitzenhaus-Garlen, 
Kanonenweg, with fine view; Dinkelacker, Tiibinger-Str. 46; Wulle, Neckar- 
Str. 60; Liederhalle-Garten (p. 10), free except on Sun. afternoon and Tues. 
evening; B6t. Royal, Dierlamm, Textor, see above. —Wine Rooms. "Weber & 
Fromm (in the old-German style), Kanzlei-Str. 3 ; Gulscher, Rothebiihl-Str. 1 ; 
Klug, Esslinger-Str. 10; Zur Schule, Scliul-Str. 11; Treiber, Calwer-Str. 2. 

Cabs. Per drive of 10 min. for 1-2 pers. 60 pf., 3-4 pers. 80 pf. ; >/ 4 hr. 
80 pf. or 1 Jl; 20 min. 1 Jl or 1 Jl 20 ; 20-30 min. 1 Jl. 20 or 1 Jl 60; 
30-40 min. 1 Jl 50 or 2 Jl ; 40-50 min. 1 Jl SO or 2 Jl 40; 50-60 min. 2 Jl 10 
or 2 Jl 80; each additional 10 min. 30 or 40 pf. — In driving to the railway 
station, theatre, concerts, or at night, the driver may demand the fare in 
advance. For drives in the environs a bargain should be struck beforehand. 

Tramway. Chief station in the Schlossplatz, by the Kbnigsbau. Thence 
every 6 min. through the Neckar-Strasse to Berg and the Konig-Karl-Briicke 
at Cannstatt; through the Konigs-Str., Tiibinger-Str., Marien-Platz (Moun- 
tain Railway Station, p. 11), Boblinger-Str., Esslinger-Str., Hauptstatter- 

Baedeker's S. Germany. 8th Edti. 1 


plication of metal to monumental works is of comparatively late 
introduction; hence in this sphere the deviation from the mediseval 
style is most striking, while in works of marble, stone, and wood sug- 
gestions of Gothic art may be traced even in the 16th century. Sculp- 
tures in stone and wood continue to be decidedly the most popular 
branches of a-t. Wood-carving was diligently practised from the 
earliest times in such Alpine districts as Ammergau, while the wood- 
carvers of the great towns of Southern Germany also found ample 
employment in the preparation of large altars, choir-stalls, and the 
like. The sculptures on the altars were usually painted. This poly- 
chrome decoration was rendered necessary, partly by the nature of 
the material, which possessed no rich colouring of its own, and 
partly by the immediate neighbourhood of the pictures, which were 
generally added as wings to the carved centre of the altar. Altars 
of this kind may be studied either in museums (Bavarian National 
Museum at Munich, Germanic Museum at Nuremberg"), or in their 
original positions at Rothenburg, Blaubeuren, Gmiind, St. Wolfgang, 
and many other places. A few of their artists are still known by 
name. The two most important are Jorg Syrlin, first heard of in 
1458 and the creator of the choir-stalls of the Minster of Ulm, and 
Veit Stoss of Cracow (? 1438-1532), who is known to us by his works 
in Nuremberg, produced almost wholly towards the close of a long 
life. Vim and Nuremberg, and next to them Augsburg, are the chief 
centres of South German art in the 15th and 16th centuries. But 
this by no means implies that the other free towns of the empire 
neglected the pursuit of art. On the contrary, local research is con- 
stantly adding new names to the artistic roll of honour. It is, how- 
ever, only in the three towns named that we find anything like 
schools of art or an artistic activity of more than local interest. The 
chief painter at Ulm was Bartholomaus Zeitblom, the son-in-law of 
the venerable Hans Schuelein. He flourished in 1484-1517, and his 
works, which may be seen in the galleries of Stuttgart and Augs- 
burg and the Pinakothek of Munich, are distinguished by the 
clearness and vigour of their colouring, though the drawing is hard 
and the types of his heads unpleasing and deficient in variety. Of 
his pictures, as of early-German paintings in general, it may be as- 
serted that the colouring is their strongest point, even though lack- 
ing in a delicate graduation of tone. They also succeed better with 
individual figures and quiet groups than with dramatic situations, 
the representation of which often led to exaggerated effects and the 
admixture of coarsely realistic traits. 

The Augsburg school is best represented by Hans Burgkmair 
(1473-1531), a master gifted with a fine sense for landscape beauty, 
and by Holbein the Elder (1460-1524). The latter in especial, now 
that a number of works formerly ascribed to his son have been ac- 
credited to him, ranks among the most interesting of early-German 
painters. His professional activity may be traced from the last decade 


of the 16th century onwards. For a considerable time his personal 
gifts do not help him to transcend the limits of the prevailing style. 
Eeven his Madonnas and women are lacking in charm ; in emotional 
scenes, such as the Passion, a tendency to the coarse and common is 
apparent. [This early manner of the painter is best studied at the 
Augsburg gallery.] It was not till towards the end of his career — and 
so far we have not material enough to trace the intermediate devel- 
opment — that the elder Holbein produced in the Altar of St. Sebastian 
(Munich Pinakothek) a work that placed him far above all his contem- 
poraries. He has learned to use the new graces borrowed from Italy, 
he endues his women's heads with elegance and charm, he models 
the nude with surprizing accuracy, he exhibits a vigorous realism 
restrained within due bounds. With the completion of this work in 
1516 he disappears from the scene; and the only later information 
hat we possess about him is the news of his death in Alsace some 
time before 1526. The works of his son Hans Holbein the Younger 
(1497-1543) cannot be effectively studied except at Bale, to which 
he migrated at an early age, and in England, where he spent the 
latter part of his life. The South German galleries, however, contain 
a few fine examples of his talent. Thus, at Darmstadt is the Ma- 
donna of Burgomaster Meyer, the original of the celebrated picture 
at Dresden; and in the Pinakothek of Munich are two fine portraits. 
The picture presented by the old, art-loving city of Nuremberg 
is one that takes by storm the fancy of all. Poets and romance-writers 
have celebrated the life and activity of the town in trade and in- 
dustry, scienoe and art, and the spirit of its people, easily moved to 
love or hate; and they, perhaps, exaggerated its importance as the 
beau ideal of a mediaeval city. As a matter of fact its artistic activity 
began at the close of the mediaeval period, and it was in the 16th 
century that it reached its zenith. The Nuremberg artists are known 
far and wide. The names of Michael Wohlgemut, Veit Stoss, Adam 
Krafft, and Peter Vischer are authoritative even with those who know 
nothing more of early-German art. Wohlgemut (1434-1519) gener- 
ally passes as the type of the respectableand conscientious painter, who 
practises his art with honest simplicity. Later researches have, how- 
ever, somewhat modified this view and credited Wohlgemut with a 
more important personality ; but this revised judgment applies to 
him rather in his capacity as engraver than as painter. Adam Krafft, 
the stone-cutter (ca. 1450-1507), also stands to some extent on the 
footing of the handicraftsman and follows the tracks of the old 
tradition. His religious representations (such as the Schreyer Tomb 
on the outside of St. Sebald's, and the Seven Stations on the way 
to the Cemetery of St. John) show the regular 15th century mix- 
ture of pictorial and plastic elements in the composition, and the 
usual realistic hardness in the individual figures and in the drapery. 
A few of the heads only (such as those of the Dead Christ and of the 
Virgin in the relief of the Seventh Station) are permeated by a finer, 

xxii south- tSERnranr xmr 

personal feeling. He shows himself at his highest degree of freedom 
from the traditional limitations in the fresh and true relief of 
the Stadtwage (p. 102) and in the three small and lifelike statu- 
ettes that adorn the large late-Gothic ciborium in the church of 
St. Lawrence. Krafft's works are superior to most of the productions 
of the other Nuremberg sculptors and their congeners, even to those 
of the diligent Tilman Riemenschneidtr (d. 1531) of Wiirzburg, 
whose masterpiece is in Bamberg Cathedral (p. 77). The nameless 
sculptor of the wooden figure of the Praying Virgin (now in the 
Germanic Museum, p. 106), of whom we know no other work, is, 
however, superior to Krafft and to all contemporary sculptors. 
Krafft's art may be thoroughly studied in his native city; and Nurem- 
berg also possesses at least the masterpiece of Peter Vischer (1455- 
1529), the celebrated bronze-founder (St. Sebald's Monument). The 
architectural frame-work enshrining the silver coffin of the saint 
still shows traces of the conflict between Gothic and Renaissance 
forms. The small figures of children, Prophets, and Apostles, on 
the other hand, are creations of a free play of fancy, aiming not 
merely at truth to nature but also at grace and charm or at dignified 
and measured seriousness. Peter Vischer was afterwards joined in 
his foundry by his sons ; but Nuremberg does not afford adequate 
examples of his later development or of the ever stronger infusion of 
the Italian Renaissance in the native style. The Little Goose-Man of 
Pancraz Labenwolf (1492-1563) is an almost solitary instance of the 
continued lifelike conception of nature coupled with freshness and 
naivete'. A visit to Nuremberg is still less satisfactory for a full ap- 
preciation of Albrecht Buret (1471-1528), the greatest of German 
painters, though the imagination cannot but be pleasantly stimulated 
by lingering on the spot where he lived and worked. In order to form 
an adequate judgment of this many-sided master, remarkable alike 
for the profundity and the richness of his artistic conceptions, we 
must study not only his wood-cuts and engravings, but also his draw- 
ings. The best collection of these last is found in the Albertina at 
Vienna, a visit to which will intensely interest the serious student 
of art. The drawings also afford the only means of uninterruptedly 
tracing Durer's artistic evolution from his early boyish efforts to the 
products of his closing years. This cannot be said of his paintings, 
which are distributed very unequally among the different periods of 
his life. It is really only twice in his career that his activity in 
painting is so great as to form the main ground of our judgment 
of him ; the first of these periods was during and immediately after 
his visit to Venice (1505-09), the second was at the end of his life. 
From the Venetians he borrowed certain details of composition and 
learned the secret of his clear, warm, vigorous, and harmonious 
colouring; in the evening of his days he reached a complete plastic 
command of the pithy power of characterization visible in all his 
figures. The South German galleries still contain the most important 


products of his art. Munich possesses the Paumgartner Altar, one 
of his earliest pictures; the portrait of himself, unfortunately retouch- 
ed, and probably painted somewhat later than the date (1500) on 
the work itself; and, finally, his masterpiece, the double-panels 
known as the Four Temperaments (p. 162), with the heads of SS. 
Peter and John, SS. Paul and Mark. In this work he has, in allusion 
to the religious disorders of his environment, created four permanent 
types of Christian character, the corner-stones of the Reform move- 
ment; he has given pure and lifelike artistic form to the test and 
the defence of truth. Of the numerous Diirer treasures once preserved 
in Nuremberg scarcely one remains. The portrait of Hieronymus 
Holzschuher (1526), the most perfect portrait we possess from Durer's 
hand, formerly in the Germanic Museum, is now at Berlin. 

The South German galleries afford abundant opportunity for a 
study of the painters, who were grouped round Diirer and to some 
extent influenced by him , such as Ham Schauffelein (d. 1540), 
Sebald Beham (ca. 1450), Barthel Beham (d. 1540), Alb. Altdorfer 
(d. 1538), Hans Baldung Qrien (A. 1545), and Christoph Amberger 
(d. 1562). Numerous specimens of these masters will be found in 
the Munich Pinakothek and in the galleries of Augsburg, Donau- 
eschingen, and Sigmaringen. Those who have not the leisure or the 
inclination to study their religious and historical pictures should at 
least spare a glance for their efforts in portraiture. In this field 
these masters show to the best advantage their fresh and vigorous 
observation of nature, unhampered by the prevalent custom of ob- 
scuring the main subject by a multiplicity of detail, or by the at- 
tempt to create ideal forms without the requisite powers. 

A revolution in artistic tendencies is already obvious among the 
masters last named. The traditional style no longer sufficed. The 
knowledge of Italian art, fostered by the custom, which grew up 
towards the end of the 15th century, of the visiting of Italy by 
northern artists, broke through the old barriers and encouraged 
the imitation of the new models. This Italian influence, how- 
ever, did not bring any very desirable fruit to maturity. The 
German masters, like those of the Netherlands, remained essentially 
Northerners; they studied Italian art but could not assimilate the 
Italian nature. Though the Italian painters did homage to the ideal 
in their works, they never disguised their nationality. Even their most 
idealized creations reveal a direct life which smacks of the soil and 
the atmosphere. Foreigners could not inspire their paintings with 
this national trait, and thus, in spite of their personal talents, never 
advanced beyond the out-works of the Italian style. The race of 
artists that flourished in the second half of the 16th century stamped 
the Italian manner still more strongly on their works, aided and 
abetted in this by the gradual change in the patronage of art. While 
the earlier form of art was most at home in middle-class circles, 
various princely patrons of art, such as the Emp. Rudolph II. and the 


Dukes of Bavaria, now step into the foreground. Wood-cuts still 
remained popular and were widely circulated in the homes of the 
people; engravings were chiefly sought as patterns for the metal- 
worker and other artistic handicraftsmen; hut painting now solicited 
the favour of the art-loving courts. In these Italian art, like Italian 
culture generally, was strongly in the ascendant. Italian artists and 
Italian works of art hegan to migrate across the Alps ; and thus the 
native artists, already attracted by the forms of the Renaissance, 
received a new inducement to perfect themselves in the schools of 
Rome, Florence, and Venice. It would be unjust to eliminate en- 
tirely from the lists of northern artists the names of the Dutch and 
German masters who followed this course (such as Bartholomatu 
Spranger, Oeorg Hufnagel, Christoph Schwarz, Johann van Aken, and 
Johann Rottenhammer) ; and some of them have produced works of 
considerable value, especially as regards technical qualities. But 
it remains true that, however great may be our desire to make 
'historical rescues' by emphasizing their merits, it certainly has not 
yet gone far enough to induce us to profess unqualified pleasure in 
the works of these mannerists. Those who take an interest in the 
subject will find innumerable examples of their art in "Vienna and 
in other Austrian galleries. 

The corresponding movement in architecture and the decorative 
arts has, on the other hand, become of late astonishingly popular. 
For the last quarter-of-a-century the German Renaissance has 
obtained almost universal favour and plays a most important role in 
the national art. Even the layman now shows lively interest in the 
once unregarded and despised buildings of the German Renaissance, 
and considers a visitation of them a worthy objeot for a tour. The 
name German Renaissance of itself indicates the double root from 
which the style springs. The German Renaissance could not have 
come into being without a knowledge of the architecture, which 
became predominant in Italy through the revived interest in the 
antique in the 15th century. It borrowed from it the columnar 
orders, the pilasters, the varieties of cornice, innumerable ornament- 
al motives, and many other details. It seldom, however, sank to a 
slavish imitation of its Italian models, but remained faithful in 
many points to its native traditions and tried to combine these 
harmoniously with the new forms. It is true that the Gothic tracery, 
mullions, mouldings, and geometrical patterns had to be given up, 
and that the pointed arch lost its importance. In the constructive 
parts, however, in the articulation and ground-plan old usages still 
generally held their ground. The genesis of the German Renaissance 
is also the best explanation of it. Even in the early years of the 
16th century the German painters and engravers had begun to use 
the graceful schemes of foliage and branches that were characteristic 
of the Renaissance ornamentation of Italy; and a knowledge of the 
different orders of architecture, the rules of which were sought in 


Vitruvius, also quickly penetrated to the N. side of the Alps. The 
masters of decorative sculpture were the next to adapt themselves to 
the new Italian style, which we meet on tombstones, screens, foun- 
tains, and works in wood and metal. Its latest conquest was in the 
sphere of architecture, where it at first appears only in the ornament- 
al parts such as doors, windows, and the articulation of wall-surfaces. 
If the builder wished the work to be erected in a pure Italian style, 
he had to send for an Italian architect ; and many Italians crossed 
the Alps and made plans, which they left to be executed by native 
workmen. The traces of this intercourse are distinctly recognizable 
in the German buildings. It was in the sphere of the handicraftsman 
that the new movement and the artistic advance found their greatest 
strength; no wonder that the forms here created attained a universal 
application and were adopted also by architecture and the monumental 
arts. Asa matter of fact we meet numerous suggestions of metal-work 
in architectural ornamentation. The lower parts of the shafts of 
columns appear as if adorned with mountings of metal ; in other 
cases hammered iron-work is imitated or the stone is treated as if 
it were a soft and elastic material. The lofty gable is a distinct 
reminiscence of the mediaeval house, while the Italian Renaissance is 
practically destitute of roof-structures; the richly decorated balcony 
or oriel is also a northern peculiarity. The manner in which the 
German Renaissance came into existence explains the want of a 
uniform type or a normal style. It assumes a different character in 
each different district. The Renaissance in Northern Germany, so 
brilliantly developed in timber and brick architecture, differs widely 
from the Renaissance in Southern Germany, where the greater proxim- 
ity of Italy exercised a stronger influence. This is especially marked 
in such imposing ecclesiastical edifices as St. Michael's in Munich 
(p. 190). These buildings, erected under the influence of the order 
of the Jesuits, bear the stamp impressed by the Jesuits on their 
buildings in all countries. But the secular buildings also show the 
influence of the neighbourhood of Italy and of the Italian culture 
predominant in courts and in aristocratic circles generally. Some 
buildings are German only through the soil on which they stand, 
while in style they belong exclusively to the Italian Renaissance ; 
of this number are the so-called Belvedere of Emperor Ferdinand I. 
at Prague and the Fugger Bath Rooms at Augsburg (p. 116). 

The preference for the Italian style is revealed more strongly in 
the chateaux of the noblesse than in the private buildings of the 
towns, the free towns of the empire clinging especially to the older 
traditions. Southern Germany contains a stately series of chateaux, 
which, in giving up the character of castles and assuming that of 
palaces, illustrate in the most signal manner the difference be- 
tween the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. At the head of these 
stands the Olto-Heinrichs-Bau at Heidelberg, the gem of German 
castle-architecture, which is remarkable for its harmonious propor- 


tions and architectonic articulation and still more for its rich and 
well thought - out plastic decoration. When the Friedrichsbau was 
taken in hand a few generations later (1601), the native workmen 
had already become entirely accustomed to the new style. The 
ornamentation of the younger building shows clear traces of its 
Germanic origin. Few of the other princely chateaux can at all com- 
pare with that of Heidelberg. The Schloss of Tubingen (p. 37) 
still suggests the old style of castle-building, while the fresh and 
somewhat coarse strength of the Renaissance is most strikingly 
illustrated in the portals. In the Old Palace of Stuttgart (p. 4), 
the most attractive part is the inner court, with its arcades ; but our 
fancy must lend the colours for a picture of the fitting-up of the 
now somewhat neglected state-rooms. The constantly increasing 
power of the Bavarian dukes is mirrored in the magnificence of their 
Palace at Munich (p. 145). 

It was not always possible to proceed according to a uniform 
plan. The famous Castle ofLandshut (p. 135), for instance, is wholly 
irregular in plan and shows clear traces of the different periods in 
which it was built. The decoration of the rooms is mainly entrusted 
to the painter, — a fact that alone shows the growth of Italian in- 
fluence. The same tendency is seen more clearly in the New Palace 
of Landshut (p. 135), the court of which is articulated and decorated 
exactly in the taste of Italian palaces. A building of great interest 
is the Old Palace of Munich, erected by Elector Maximilian in 
1602-19, planned on an extensive scale, and elaborately adorned 
with plastic and pictorial ornamentation (the latter now sadly faded). 
The group of buildings at Prague is, perhaps, the most interesting 
of the kind on Austrian soil. The new style established itself in the 
Bohemian capital at an astonishingly early date and maintained itself 
in comparative purity down to the 17th century. The large loggia 
on the garden-side of the Wallenstein Palace is the final link of a 
chain of building artivity extending across the whole of the country. 
In order to give an adequate idea of the German Renaissance, it 
would be necessary to attempt a full enumeration of the individual 
buildings, for not only every district, but often each monument in 
each district, shows peculiarities, the study of which affords genuine 
pleasure and reveals the wealth of Renaissance art. Now it is a 
portal, now a balcony, or, again, the arrangement of a court or the 
fittin<?-up of a room that especially calls for our admiration. 

The lover of the Renaissance is advised not to confine his wander- 
ings to the great cities and the chief lines of communication. The 
keen eye will discover interesting buildings in almost every parish. 
Thus the towns and villages of Tyrol contain many, hitherto neglected 
examples of the Renaissance. A similar remark may be made about 
many other buildings, not merely with regard to chateaux and manor- 
houses but also, and in a still higher degree, with regard to the resi- 
dences of the ordinary citizen. In most cases, indeed, it will be the bare 


architecture alone that the connoisseur will have a chance to enjoy; 
the interior fittings, which add so much to the charm of a Renaissance 
house and contribute not a little to its comprehension, have invari- 
ably disappeared — perhaps to satisfy the recent craving of museums 
and collectors. The contents of the older industrial museums were 
mainly drawn from the treasures of the princely collections that came 
into vogue in the 16th century. The predominant objects were works 
of the goldsmith and furniture of costly woods, inlaid with ivory and 
metal. The equipment of the private house of the Renaissance period 
was, naturally, much more simple. The panelling of the walls found 
a counterpart in the well-carved cabinets and coffers; the metal 
utensils were often made of brass, the general appearance of which 
harmonized admirably with the wooden fittings; the coarse nature 
of the pottery was disguised by colour, plastic ornamentation, and 
variety of form. Where the original furnishing is still in place, the 
eye will easily recognize the perfect harmony subsisting between the 
interior fittings and the architectural plan, and will see how the house 
has, as it were, grown from within outwards. A mere sight of the 
facades is not enough, especially when the Renaissance houses 
occur sporadically among modern edifices. A better idea is gained 
from rows of houses, streets, or squares not yet invaded by the modern 
builder. Nuremberg formerly stood unquestionably at the head of all 
German Renaissance towns. A number of patrician houses of the 
16th and the beginning of the 17th century can, it is true, still be 
cited ; but the general appearance of the town has begun to alter. On 
the other hand Eothenburg on the Tauber (p. 128), with its Rathhaus, 
towers, fountains, and well-preserved houses, still presents an almost 
unimpaired picture of a German town of the Renaissance period. Here, 
as in most of the free towns of the empire, the details of construction 
and ornamentation borrowed from the native traditions or directly due 
to the national spirit are seen in great force, while the Italian influence 
is much slighter than in the case of palaces and chateaux. It is not 
till the 17th century that the Italian style becomes predominant in 
municipal architecture, as in the facade of the Nuremberg Rathhaus 
and the splendid interior (Goldner Saal) of the Augsburg Rathhaus. 
Owing, however, to its lively intercourse with Venice, the Italian 
style found comparatively ready acceptance at Augsburg and had familiarized the Augsburgers with the fashion of painted facades. 
The period of the Thirty Years' War sadly interrupted the evolu- 
tion of German art and broke off many bleeding branches from the 
tree of German culture. Some departments of art did not recover 
for two centuries ; the once so popular work of the wood-carver was 
forgotten ; painting was but scantily cultivated and sank to a greater 
dependence on foreign models than ever before. From this calamitous 
period dates the predominance of the foreigner in all matters of taste. 
Thus the contemplation of the art-life of Germany in the second half 
of the 17th and the first half of the 18th century gives but little 


satisfaction. The greatest activity took place in Southern Germany 
and Austria, and those who can overcome their dislike on general 
grounds to the Baroque Style will find here many and varied proofs 
of a renewed interest in ait. In Italy a decided revolution in archi- 
tecture had taken place towards the close of the 16th century. While 
the individual Renaissance forms were retained, a new spirit was 
apparent in their embodiment and combination. The old and genuine 
Renaissance style seemed too cold and too simple, and not sufficiently 
effective. The architectural members were made coarser and more 
massive, the straight line was replaced by curves, the help of light 
and shade was appealed to. The facade assumes a curved form; 
columns are moved towards the front and draw the entire entablature 
with them; gables and cornices are made to project strongly; the 
profiles are more accentuated; ornamentation is used to an exaggerated 
extent, almost obscuring the constructive elements. This baroque style, 
which is at bottom closely akin to the contemporary mannerism and 
the increased realism in painting and sculpture, soon found acceptance 
in Southern Germany. We see it in the numerous churches and 
convents that were rebuilt with increased magnificence after the 
close of the Thirty Years' War; and we likewise see it in all its 
pomp, but also with all its weaknesses, in the numerous palaces built 
between 1680 and 1740. The Palace of Versailles is imitated in a 
few cases only (Nymphenburg, Mannheim); the predominant style is 
the Italian baroque, especially as it had been developed by Borromini. 
Excellent examples of the baroque style are found in Wurtburg, 
Munich, Vienna, and especially at Prague, where the traveller may 
go through a complete course in baroque architecture and become 
familiar with all its peculiarities. 

Architecture became practically paralysed about the middle of 
last century in consequence of the wars between Prussia and Austria. 
On the other hand an attempt was made, without much success, to 
revive the art of painting by the foundation of academies at "Vienna 
and Stuttgart (Karlsschule). At the beginning of the present century 
the young artists of Germany had still to make the pilgrimage to Rome 
in order to train their eye and taste and to enkindle their imagination 
before the works of classical and old Italian art. More recent events 
must be passed over with a word. In the reign of King Lewis I. Munich 
won a European reputation as a school of art through the creations 
of Cornelius and his associates ; and after a period of stagnation about 
the middle of the century it has again reached a position of great 
importance. Vienna has been specially distinguished for its successes 
in architecture, while Stuttgart enjoys a well-merited renown in the 
domain of industrial art. 


1. Stuttgart and Environs. 

Railway Stations. 1. Haupt-Bahnhof, or Central Station (PI. E, 3), at 
the corner of the Schlo s-Str. and the Friedrichs-Str. — 2. West Station 
(the former Hasenberg Station), at the W. extremity of the town (see 
p. 12). — 3. Zatmrad - Bahnhof or Mountain Railway Station (PI. D, 7), 
Filder-Str., for the trains to Degerloch, Mohringen, and Hohenheim. 

Hotels. "Mabqdaedt (PL a; E, 3), conveniently situated near the 
station, with electric lighting and steam-heat, R., L., & A. 2!/2-6, B. 1, D. 
at 1 o'clock 3, at 5 o'clock 4 Jl, pens, for a prolonged stay at lower charges. 

— "Hotel Dieelamm (PI. e; E, 3), Friedrichs-Str. 30, near the station, R. 
2'/2 Jl; "Hotel Royal (PI. b ; E, 3), Schloss-Str. 5, opposite the station, R., 
L., & A. 2-3, B. 1, D. 21/2 Jl; 'Silbek (PI. d; F, 4), Dorotheen-Str. 2, R., 
L. , & A. 2-3 Jl , B. 80 pf. , D. 2V2, omn. 1/2 Jl, good cuisine; Weber 
(PI. f; E, 3), Schloss-Str. 7, opposite the station, R. 2-272 Jl, B. 70 pf. ; 
"Textok (PI. h; E, 3), R. 1 Jl SO pf., B. 1 , D. 21/2 Jl; Obeepollingee 
(PI. g; E, 3), Zach (PI. i; E, 3), Bilfixger , Deei Moheen, all in the 
Friedrichs-Str., near the station, moderate and unpretending; Konig von 
Wurttemberg (PI. c; E, 4), Kronprinz-Str. 26; Hot. Ihle (PI. k; E, 3), 
Schelling-Str. ; Goldner Bar (PI. 1; F, 0) , Esslinger-Str. 19; Berteand, 
Calwer-Str. 7, R., L., & A. iy 2 -2, B. 1/2, D. 2 Jl; Hillee, Leder-Str. 6, 
unpretending ; Heezog Christoph (Evangelischer Verein), Christoph-Str. IB, 
R. 1 1 /a-2JI; Eueopaischer Hof (Katholischer Verein), Friedrichs-Str. 10. 

— Pensions. Sigle, Moser-Str. 28; Gobert, Schloss-Str. 57; Strich, Blnmen- 
Str. 27; Erpf, Neckar-Str. 48B; Bunzel, Olga-Str. 10; Ruthling, Olga-Str.31; 
Sliitz, Wera-Str. 6. 

Cafes-Restaurants. "Bechtel, Schloss-Str. 14; "Wiener Cafe" Konigsbau, 
in the Konigsbau (p. 3), with ladies' room; Bachner, Charlotten-Str. 26; 
Residenz-Cafi, Friedrichs-Str. 62; Wiener Cafi, Konigs-Str. 62; Konig Karl, 
Schul-Str. 20, overlooking the Konigs-Str. ; Krug, Charlotten-Str. 8 ; Murschel, 
Post-Sir. 1. — Restaurants. * Railway Restaurant; ''■' Dierlamm, *H6t. Royal, 
with garden (see above); "Kaiserhof, Marien-Str. 10; Weber (see above), 
near the station ; "Zach (see above), Friedrichs-Str. 54 ; Feil, Kronprinz- 
Str. la; Michoud, Linden-Str. 5; Rauh, Sophien-Str. 35; Adler, Marktplatz 18; 
Old German Beer-Room in the H6t. Hitler, Leder-Str. 6; Friedel (Munich 
beer), Linden-Str. 14. — Beer Gardens. "Sladt- Garten (p. 10), adm. 50 pf. ; 
Nilfs Thiergarten (p. 2); Englischer Garten, Ludwigsburgei'-Str. 16, above 
the horse-groups in the Anlagen, with fine view; Sc/iiitzenhans-Garten, 
Kanonenweg, with fine view; Dinkelacker, Tiibinger-Str. 46; Wulle, Neckar- 
Str. 60; Liederhalle-Garten (p. 10), free except on Sun. afternoon and Tues. 
evening; H6t. Royal, Dierlamm, Textor, see above. —Wine Rooms. "Weber £ 
Fromm (in the old-German styl? ), Kanzlei-Str. 3 ; Gutscher, Rothebuhl-Str. 1 ; 
King, Esslinger-Str. 10; Zur Schule, Sc'nul-Str. 11; Treiber, Calwer-Str. 2. 

Cabs. Per drive of 10 min. for 1-2 pers. 60 pf., 3-4 pers. 80 pf. ; 'A hr. 
80 pf. or 1 Jl; 20 min. 1 Jl or 1 Jl 20; 20-30 min. 1 Jl. 20 or 1 J? 60; 
30-40 min. 1 Jl 50 or 2 Jl ; 40-50 min. 1 Jl t'O or 2 Jl 40 ; 50-60 rain. 2 J? 10 
or 2 Jl 80; each additional 10 min. 30 or 40 pf. — In driving to the railway 
station, theatre, concerts, or at night, the driver may demand the fare in 
advance. For drives in the environs a bargain should be struck beforehand. 

Tramway. Chief station in the Schlostplatz, by the Kunigsbau. Thence 
every 6 min. through the Neckar-Strasse to Berg and the Konig-Karl-Briicke 
at Cannstatt; through the Konigs-Str., Tiibinger-Str., Marien-Platz (Muun- 
tain Railway Station, p. 11), Boblinger-Str., Esslinger-Str., Hauptstatter- 

Baedekeb's S. Germany. 8th Edti. 1 

2 Route- 1. STUTTGART. vouenwm. 

Str., and Tiibinger-Str. ; Charlotten-Str., Olga-Str., and Wilhelm-Str. j 
through the Olga-Str. to the Wilhelm-Str., Schloss-Str., Liederhalle, Mib- 
tar-Str., and Silberburg; Calwer-Str., Bothebiihl-Str., and Schwab-Str.; 
Friedrichs-Str., Bahnhof-Str., and Prag Cemetery. A branch-line, begin- 
ning at the Eugen-Str. (PI. G, 3), runs through the Neckar-Str., Haupt- 
statter-Str., Tiibinger-Str., Marien-Platz (see above), and Boblmger-Str. 
Fare in the town 10, beyond it 15-30 pf. 

Post Office (PI. E, 3), Fiirsten-Str. 2, adjoining the railway-station. 
Branch -offices: Paulinen - Str. 35, Wilhelms - Platz 13a, Neckar-Str. 121, 
Johannes-Str. 35, Olga-Str. 32, Bothebiihl-Str. 102 a. — Telegraph Offices 
at the Post Office, Fiirsten-Str. 2. 

Enquiry Office of the 'Verein fur Fremdenverkehr at B. Wtldt s book- 
shop, Konigs-Str. 38 (information of all kinds gratis). 

Baths. "Stuttgart Swimming Baths (PI. C, D, 3 ; p. 10), Biichsen-Str. 53>/2, 
with two large swimming basins (for summer and winter), and Turkish 
and other baths; Charlotten-Bad, Charlotten-Str. 15; Johannes-Bad, Rothe- 
biihl-Str. 55; Wilhelmsbad , Schlosser-Str. 9 (Turkish baths at all three). 

Theatres. Royal Theatre (PI. F, 3), daily (box-office open 11-1 and 3-4) ; 
closed in July and August. — Summer Theatre at Berg, see p. 12. — Theatre 
of Varieties in the Reichshallen, Karl-Str. 3 (PI. F, 4). 

Military Concerts at the Stadt-Garten (p. 10) daily in summer and on 
Wed. & Sat. in winter; at the Liederhalle Garden, Kaiterhof, and Bachner's 
Restaurant (see p. 1) ; also at Will's Thiergarten on Sun. <fc Wed. (see below). 
— A band plays every Sun. at noon in the Schlossplatz, except during 
the autumn manoeuvres. 

Sights and Collections : 
Antiquities, Collection of (p. 5), daily 11-1 & 2-4 (from Nov. to March 11-2 

& 2-3); closed on Monday. 
Art Union, Exhibition of the (p. 9), week-days 9-5, Sun. 11-4, holidays 11-1 ; 

adm. 50 pf. ; closed on Saturday. 
Engravings, Cabinet of, see Museum of Art. 
Industrial Museum (p. 10), week-days 10-12 & 2-6; Collection of Models also 

on Sun., 10.30-12.30. 
Kunstgewerbeverein, Exhibition of the (p. 3), week-days 9-6, Sun. ll-4t 

adm. 20 pf. 
Kunstverein, see Art Union. 
Landesgewerbe-Museum, see Industrial Museum. 
Lapidarium, see Museum of Art. 

Library (p. 5), week-days 10-12 & 2-5; closed on Saturday. 
"Museum of Art (p. 6), Tues., Wed., & Frid. 10-3 (Nov. to April, 11-3), 
Sun. 11-3; at other times, fee. Engravings, Tues., Wed., Thurs., & 
Frid. 2-4 Lapidarium (Roman Stone Monuments), Sun. 11-12. 
Natural History, Cabinet of (p. 5), week-days 11-12 & 2-4, Sun. 11-1 & 2-4 

(Nov. to March, daily 11-12 & 2-3) ; closed on the great festivals. 
NiWs Thiergarten (p. 10), open all day ; adm. 50 pf. 
Panorama (p. 10), open all day; adm. 1 JU- 

Royal Palace (Residenz; p. 4), week-days 9-6, Sun. & holidays 11-6; gratuity 
'/2-1 M. 

These three are shown in summer (15th April -15th 
Oct.) daily, 9-12 (Sun. and holidays 11-12) and 2-6. 
Tickets (1-6 pers. 25 pf.) in the Enquiry Office men- 
tioned above. Tickets for Villa Berg also at Olga- 
Str. 33, for Eosenstein and Wilhelma at the office 
of the Obersthofmeister in the Old Palace (p. 4). 
Fees forbidden. 

Principal Attractions (for a visit of two days). First Day. In the 
morning, "Schlossplatz (p. 3), StiftsMrche (p. 4), Industrial Museum (n. 10) 

Sttldt-C* «*>'«" fr\ 4lV\ . oftawwinnn Sf^Jt In.. . /3*.Mf ji*n I '»* fV\ T> ... . . «A".' '' 


Cabinet _ ..... .... .„ „„ w „„,. 

Station (p. 12), "Jagerhaus. — Any additional time may be devoteT^o "the 
Uhlandihohe (p. 11), Villa Berg (p. 12), and a trip by mountain-railway to 

Rosenslein (p. 13) 
Villa Berg (p. 12) 
"Wilhelma (p. 13) 

— iJrt A/ — rh — <»* .^ «* * y / - r--- /»-./ y > \ - 


Geo graph .jtoislalt tou 

Konigsbau. STUTTGART. 1. Route. 3 

Degerloch (p. 11), returning via the Schillerhbhe (p. 11) and the Neue Wein- 
steige. — Excursion to the Solitude, see p. 14; to Ludwigsburg, see p. 15. 

British Consul, A. v. Kaulla, Esq.., Schloss-Str. 47. — United States 
Consul, Alfred C. Johnson, Esq., Herdweg 11 B. 

English Church (PI. 13; F, 6) in the Olga-Strasse ; services on Sun. at 
8 a. m., 10.30 a. m., and 6p.m.; on Frid. and Saints' Days at 10.30. a. m. 
— Wesleyan Church, Sophien-Str. ; service at 10.45 a. m. — Methodist Chapel 
at Cannstatt (p. 11). 

Stuttgart (892 ft.), the capital of Wurtemberg , with 139,660 
inhab. (mainly Protestants, and including a garrison of 3200 men), 
a city of comparatively modern origin, is beautifully situated 2-2 J /2 M. 
from the Neckar, and surrounded by picturesque vine-clad and wooded 
heights. The name first occurs in a charter of 1229; from 1265 to 
1325 it was the favourite residence of the counts of Wurtemberg ; 
it became the capital of the country in 1482 ; and at length , in the 
reigns of Kings Frederick (1797-1816), William I. (1816-64), and 
Charles (1864-91), it attained its present dimensions and appear- 
ance. In the modern revival of Renaissance forms of art, Stuttgart 
has taken a prominent part through its numerous talented architects. 

The inner town is intersected from S.W. to N.E. by the hand- 
some Konigs-Strasse, 3 / 4 M. in length, formed in part by filling up 
the old moat. In this street, opposite the Schloss-Platz , rise the 
Kbnigin-Olga-Bau (PI. F, 3), erected in 1893-95, and the imposing 
Konigsbau (PI. E, 3), 440 ft. long and 135 ft. wide, erected by Leins 
in 1856-60. In front is an Ionic colonnade, broken by two projecting 
Corinthian porticoes. The lower story contains a cafe'-restaurant 
(p. 1) and the permanent exhibition of the Kunstgewerbeverein, with 
the latest achievements of the industrial arts (adm., see p. 2); on 
the first floor are large concert and ball rooms. — Adjoining the 
Konigsbau is the Palace of the Crown Prince (PL E, 4). On the 
right, farther on, are the Bazaar, the Kanzlei (government-offices), 
and the '•Ministerium of the Exterior, or Foreign Office (PI. E, 4). 

The extensive *Schloss-Platz (PI. E, F, 3, 4) is adorned with a 
Column, 93 ft. high, erected in 1841 to the memory of King William, 
and crowned with a Concordia in bronze, 15 ft. high, from a design 
by Hofer. At the corners of the pedestal are represented the 'Lehr- 
stand', 'Nahrstand', 'Wehrstand' (i.e. the teachers, the bread-win- 
ners, and the defenders of the country) , and Commerce , also by 
Hofer. The reliefs on the pedestal represent the confirmation of 
the constitution, the battles of La Fere-Champenoise and Brienne, 
and the storming of Sens , and are cast in bronze from designs by 
Wagner. The genii at the base of the two neighbouring fountains, 
representing the rivers of Wurtemberg, are by Kopp. Opposite 
rises the Monument of Duke Christopher of Wurtemberg (d. 1568), 
erected in 1889, adorned with reliefs from his life on the pedestal 
by Paul Milller. In the grounds to the right is a Marble Bust of 
Dannecker, by Kurf ess (1888), crowned by a genius in bronze. Band 
on Sunsee. ( p. 2). 

The new Palace (PL E, 3, 4), built in 1746-1807 and unoc- 


4 Route 1. STUTTGART. Palace. 

cupied since the death of the Queen Dowager Olga in 1892, consists 
of a central building, adorned with a gilded crown, and of two wings, 
and contains about 360 apartments. The hall, the staircase, and the 
'marble', the 'blue', the 'white', and the 'dining' rooms are best 
worth seeing (adm., see p. 2; entrance in the S.W. wing). 

The groundfloor and first floor contain a series of large frescoes by 
Oegenbaur, executed in 184345, chiefly from the history of Count Eberhard 
im Bart (see below). Among the numerous pictures may be mentioned : 
Pollak , Oriental woman with carrier-pigeon; E. Stockier, Lady of the 
18th cent, (water-colour). Sculptures: Dannecker, Bacchus, Venus. Few 
of the others are original works. Then china from the factories of Lud- 
wigsburg and Meissen, Sevres porcelain presented by Napoleon I., Pom- 
peian antiques, etc. A collection of upwards of 500 Majolica vases of the 
16th cent, (from Faenza and Urbino), purchased at Venice in the 18th cent, 
by Duke Charles Eugene, is not usually shown to visitors. 

The N. wing of the palace adjoins the Royal Theatre [Hoftheater ; 
PI. E, 3). On the E. side of the palace are the Private Royal Stables 
(PI. E, 4), and at the end of the Konigs-Strasse are the Royal Mews 
(PL F, 3). 

The Old Palace (PL E, F, 4), on the S. side of the Schloss- 
Platz, erected by Tretsch in 1553-70, forms an irregular quadrangle, 
with round towers at the corners and a court surrounded by arcades 
in the middle. On the S. side is the entrance to the tasteful Gothic 
Chapel (restored). In the court rises the equestrian Statue of 
Count Eberhard im Bart (d. 1496), a Count of Wurtemberg who 
was created a duke by the Emp. Max, by Hofer (1859). This palace 
contains the office of the Obersthofmeister, or chief intendant of 
the palace (see p. 2; open on week-days 8-9 a.m.). In the E. 
tower the second floor is reached by an inclined plane instead of a 

In the Schiller-Platz , which adjoins the Old Palace on the W., 
rises the *Statue of Schiller (PI. E, 4), designed by Thorwaldsen, 
and erected in 1839 by subscriptions from all parts of Germany. 

On the S. side of the Schiller-Platz is the *Stiftskirche (PL E, 4 ; 
bell at the S. Portal), Protestant since 1534, in the Gothic style, 
erected in 1436-95. Towers unfinished. Reliefs on the S. Portal: 
Christ bearing the Cross, Christ and the Apostles. 

The interior, restored by Heideloff in 1839-43, contains "Stained Glass 
of 1848-51, from drawings by Neher : in the choir the Nativity, Crucifixion, 
Resurrection, Pentecost, and the Last Judgment ; in the organ-choir King 
David. By the N. wall of the choir, eleven "Stone Figures of Counts of 
Wurtemberg, dating from the close of the 16th century. The chapels to the 
left and right of the choir contain many old monuments, including the 
painted stone monument of Count Albert von Hohenlohe (d. 1575) in the 
Urbankapelle (left). Adjacent, at the end of the N. aisle, is an old votive 
relief in stone, representing Christ as the Judge of the World (above), and 
the Wise and Foolish Virgins (below). Gothic pulpit in stone, of the 
beginning of the 16th cent., with reliefs, disfigured by bronzing. 

A few paces to the S. lies the Market Place (PI. E, 4), the 
centre of old Stuttgart, with a few patrician dwelling-houses of the 
16th cent, and the insignificant Town Hall. The latter is to be 
replaced by a new structure. — The Markt-Strasse leads to the S.E. 

Academy. STUTTGART. 1. Route. 5 

to the St. Leonhards-Platz, with the late-Gothic church of St. Leon- 
hard (PI. F, 5). By the choir is a 'Calvary' of 1501, recently restored 
by Donndorf. 

The Olga-Strasse, which runs hence to the E., and in which is 
the new English Church (PI. F, 5), built by Wagner, and the Neckar- 
Strasse, which begins at the Charlotten-Platz, are among the finest 
of the new streets. 

At the beginning of the Neckar-Strasse (through which runs 
the tramway to Berg and Cannstatt, p. 12), on the right, is the 
Palace of King William II. (PI. F, 4). In the Charlotten-Platz 
opposite are Marble Busts of Bismarck and Moltke, by Donndorf 
(1889). To the right, at the other corner of the Charlotten-Str., is 
the Kriegsministerium or war-office. 

No. 4, adjoining the palace , is occupied by the State Archives 
(PI. F, 4). On the middle and upper floors and in the N. wing 
(Neckar-Str. 6) of this building is the extensive and valuable 
"Cabinet of Natural History (adm., see p. 2). 

The collections are divided into two sections , the one general , the 
other relating to Wurtemberg only. On the groundfloor is the Mineralo- 
gical-Oeognostic-Palaeontological Collection relating to Wurtemberg: miner- 
als from the old Black Forest mines ; specimens of the geological formations 
from the earliest to the latest periods ; and prehistoric antiquities down 
to the lake - dwelling era. Observe the numerous saurians (labyrintho- 
don, etc.), the pentacrinites , the group with thirteen mammoth's teeth, 
and the twenty-four lizards from the white sandstone of Stuttgart. — The 
second floor contains the Zoological Museum: in the wing to the right are 
mammalia; in the chief hall to the left are birds (Elliot's collection of 
Himalaya pheasants), fishes, reptiles; also corals and insects, particularly 
from S. Africa. — The upper floor, in the wing to the right, contains 
the Zoological and Botanical Collections of Wurtemberg (admirably arranged, 
chronologically, topographically, etc.). The main hall on the left is devoted 
to the general Palaeonto logical, Mineralogical, and Geognostic Collections, an 
Osteological Collection, and the general Botanical Collection, with herbarium, 
fruits, woods, etc. 

The large building opposite , with four wings and three courts, 
is the Academy (PL F, 4), the seat in 1775-1794 of the Karls- 
Schule (p. 14), founded by Duke Charles, where Schiller received 
his education as a student of medicine, and where he surreptitiously 
wrote his 'Robbers'. The dining-hall contains the King's Private 
Library. On the groundfloor are guard-rooms. 

The royal Library (PL F, G, 4), Neckar-Str. 8, a massive build- 
ing by Landauer (1883), contains 500,000 vols., 3800 MSS., 7200 
Bibles in more than 100 different languages, and 2400 specimens of 
early printing (adm., see p. 2). 

The groundfloor of this building is occupied by the Collection 
of Wurtemberg Antiquities (adm., see p. 2). 

To the right of the entrance-hall are objects from Lake Dwellings and 
Pre-Roman Tumuli, chiefly found in Wurtemberg. The second compart- 
ment to the right contains articles of special interest in gold, bronze, and 
iron from the royal tombs at Hundersingen (on the Danube), Klein-Aspergle, 
and Belle-Remise (Ludwigsburg), proving a commercial intercourse with 
Italy in the 4th cent. B. C. — Roman Anticagliae. — Objects from Tumuli 
of the Pre-Carlovingian and the Carlovingian periods, including many gold 

6 Route 1. STUTTGART. Museum 

ornaments, curious silver damaskeened work, and weapons. — Stove-plates 
of the 16th cent., in cast and forged iron; objects in tin, bronze, and copper. 
— Gold and silver ornaments, weapons, and armour, including a curious 
jousting helmet. The 'Red Boom', in the S. wing, contains the Royal 
Cabinet of Art and Antiquities, founded by the Dukes of Wurtemberg 
and specially rich in vessels and weapons of the Renaissance. Italian 
bronzes of the 17th century. In one of the long cases is a pack of cards, 
painted in the 15th century. On both sides of this room are reproduc- 
tions of Renaissance apartments. 

To the left of the entrance-hall we first reach the Ceramic Collection, 
including numerous tile-stoves of various periods and styles (late-Gothic 
stove from Ravensburg). The Murschel Collection of Porcelain contains ob- 
jects chiefly of Ludwigsburg manufacture. The Rococo Room is adjoined 
by one fitted up in the style of the 17th cent., with guild -vessels and 
household gear. Opposite is the collection of Glass, Articles in Wood and 
Leather, Instruments, Textile Fabrics, and Costumes. The S. Room con- 
tains the collection of ecclesiastical art, including paintings by Zeitblom 
altar-piece from Hausen of 1488, another from the church of Heerberg of 
1497), Schaffner, B. Strigel, Amberger (portraits of Heinrich Marz and Afra 
Rehm), and other Swabian masters of the 15-16th centuries. Fine stained 
glass. Byzantine and Roman vessels. Carpets and embroideries. 

Beyond the library are the extensive Law Courts (PI. G, 4), 
built by Landauer in 1880, with a flue vestibule and jury court. The 
colossal groups of Law and Justice on the attic-story are by Kopp. 
Farther down the Neckar-Strasse (No. 32), opposite the Mint, 
s the *Museum of Art (PI. G, 3), including the Lapidarium (Roman 
stone monuments), a Cabinet of Engravings, and Collections of 
Paintings and Sculptures (adm., see p. 2). In the court-yard rises 
an Equestrian Statue of King William I. (d. 1864), by Hofer, erected 
in 1884. 

On the groundfloor are Casts, the rooms to the left containing those 
after ancient, the rooms to the right those after modern works. Among 
the latter are numerous models and casts of Thorwaldsen' s works, presented 
by himself (d. 1844). — Among the Original Works in the principal room 
to the right are Dannecker's celebrated bust of Schiller in marble (hair 
partially mutilated by the master himself in a fit of mental aberration; 
1st section to the right); marble busts of TJhland by Rau and King Charles 
by Federlein (1st section, left) ; Bathsheba by Kopf and Girl bathing (bronze) 
by Falconnet (2nd see., left); 'Venus by Bissen and Boy in danger by Rbsch 
(3rd sec, right); Rape of Proserpine by Hofer (4th sec., right). 

The Picture Gallery is on the upper floor (more than 800 pictures, 
each furnished with the name of its subject and painter; catalogue 80 pf.; 
director, Prof. Rustige). 

Room I. Italian Masters. To the right : 8. Tintoretto, Portrait of a 
Venetian Senator; 10. Bonifacio II., Adoration of the Shepherds; "16. Giov. 
Bellini, Pieta; 14. Lor. Lotto, Christ on the Cross; 23. Carlo Dohi , The 
Virgin; 33. Titian, Mary Magdalen; 34. Venetian School, Madonna with 
S3. Rosalie and Jerome (injured); 64. Franc. Torbido, Adoration of the 
Shepherds; 4. L. Giordano, Rinaldo and Armida; 1. Paolo Veronese, Lady 
in Venetian costume. 

Cabinets: I. (left) 68. School of Caravaggio , Soldiers playing dice; 
(right) 77. Ant. Canale (Canaletto), Venetian scene. — II. (left) 93. Giov. 
Bellini, Madonna enthroned with saints and worshipping donor; (right) 
109. Canaletto, Piazza of San Marco in Venice. — III. (right) 128, 131. 
P. Uignard, Madonnas. — IV. (left) 140. Fr. Vanni, Madonna and saints ; 
(right) 150. Tiepolo, Apollo (sketch). — V. (left) Tiepolo, Finding of Moses; 
163. C. J. Vernet, Sea-piece ; (right) 173. Canaletto, Piazza of San Marco. • — 
VI. (right) 197. Le Sueur, Entombment (in grisaille). 

Room II. (Right) 259. CI. Lorrain, Landscape; 267. LeBrun, Wild-boar 
hunt; 268, 272, Kupetiky (d. 1740), Portraits of himself and his wife; 271. 

of Art. STUTTGART. 1. Route. 7 

Canaletto, Canal Grande at Venice; 250. 0. F. Penni, Holy Family; 248. 
Quido Reni, Martyrdom of St. Sebastian; 245. Zurbaran, Holy Family; 
239. After Leonardo da Vinci, Portrait of Mona Lisa ; 238. Cesare da Sesto, 
Madonna and Child with St. Jerome; 233. Phil, de Champaigne, Christ on 
the Mt. of Olives; 230, 224, 215, 217, 209, 212. Canalelto, Views of Venice. 
— We now return to the corridor and proceed in a straight direction to — 

Room III. Netherlands School. To the left: 284. A. van der Werff, 
Mary Magdalen; 287. C. Netscher, Portrait of a man; 288. A. Brouwer, Old 
man counting money; 291. Jan van der Baen, Portrait of a man; 292 
C. Neischer, Portrait of a woman. — 298. Brouwer, Operation on a 
peasant's foot; 302. Ph. Womcernian, Two peasants bringing a horse to a 
gentleman; 305. Van Dyck, l)e Crayer, the painter; 307. Rubens (?), Repent- 
ant Magdalen ; 308. Rembrandt (V) , Old woman ; 309. Ph. Wouwerman, 
Peasants with horses; 310. /. van Ruysdael, Forest-scene; 314. Fr.Pourbus 
the Younger, Portrait of a man; 315. Hobbema, Landscape. — 321. Lievens, 
Portrait of an elderly man; 322. Weenix the Elder, Shepherd reposing; 
325. Hobbema, Landscape; 327. M. J. Mierevelt, Dutch Burgomaster; 328. 
Rembrandt, St. Paul in prison, an early work (1627); 329. Metsu, Portrait 
of a young lady; 331. Moucheron, Forest-scene; 332. A. van Everdingen, 
Northern landscape ; 333. Mierevelt. Portrait of a man; 336. Jordaens, Ver- 
tumnus and Pomona. — 338. O. Flinck, Portrait of a boy; 341. Ph. Wouwer- 
man, Wagoner; 344. Wybrandt van Geest, Dutch family; 346. Ph. Wouwerman, 
Horses by a village- tavern; 348. Teniers the Younger, Alchemist. — 356,364. 
M. d'Hondecoeter, Poultry; 359. Frans Hals, Man with falcon; 358. P. Brueg- 
hel, Christ entering Jerusalem ; 355. Unknown Master, Portrait of a woman. 

Corkidok. Chiefly small Dutch pictures: 393, 396, 406, 409. Jan 
Brueghel, Allegorical representations of the elements; 447. Roos, Evening- 
scene, with herd of cattle; 453. S. Koninck, A scholar; 454. A. Cuyp, Land- 
scape with cattle; 455. Bakhuysen, Rough sea, with vessels. 

Room to the Right (adjoining the Corridor). Continuation of small 
Dutch and German pictures. 574, 564. Rugendas, Battle, Encampment; 
566, 579. Frank, Adoration of the Magi; 581, 589. Rugendas, Battle-pieces; 
585. Frank the Elder, Adoration of the Magi. 

Room IV. Old German Masters, particularly of the Swabian School. 
Barlh. Zeitblom is well represented (465, 466, 471, 472. Wings of an altar- 
piece from Eschach, etc.). 464. Mabuse, Crucifixion; 526. School of Ulm, 
Portrait of a woman; 524. B. Strigel, Coronation of the Virgin; 522. 
Memling (?), Bathsheba ; 513. Barthel Beham, St. Benedict. — 494. Amberger, 
Portrait. — 488. Herlin, The Magi on the way to Bethlehem; 483, 481. 
C. Vos, Scenes from the life of St. George; 477. Herlin, Entombment; 
479, 475. B. Strigel, Entombment, Flight into Egypt. 

Room adjoining the 4th Saloon. Also old German pictures. (Right) 527. 
Old Flemish School, Madonna; 528. School of Holbein the Younger, Portrait; 
529, 532. Lucas Cranach, Judith, Portrait of a woman. 

Adjoining Room HI is the new South Wing, in the five rooms of 
which the 'Modern Pictures are arranged. 

Room V. Several works by the Stuttgart artists Schick (d. 1812) and 
Wuchter (d. 1852). 596. Leybold, Portrait of Dannecker; 595. Reinhardt, 
Landscape during a storm ; 598. /. A. Koch, Landscape after a thunder- 
storm (accessories by Heydeck); 617. Angelica Kaufmann, Portrait of a lady; 
647. /. A. Koch, Landscape. 

Room VI. To the left: "653. O. Achenbach, Posilipo; 735. Nahl, Wal- 
lenstein and Seni; 655. K. von Piloty, Nero (study of a head); 654. Laup- 
heimer, A bashful adorer; ! 656. Bleibtreu, Battle of Worth; 657. Barison, 
Venetian family; 784. Kauffmann, 'Dog Latin'; 788. Hooker, Twilight; 659. 
Bill, Canal Grande; "789. Chierici, A surprise; 696. Funk, The Kaiser- 
Gebirge; 713. Irmer, Scene in the Hartz Mts.; 652. //. Baisch, Curiosity; 
797. W. von Kaulbach, Battle of the Huns (sketch) ; 67S. Majer, Monk asleep ; 
662. Ziigel, Autumn; *733. Morgenttern, The Elbe by moonlight; 668 Haber- 
lin, Prince Alexander of Wurtemberg at the battle of Peterwardein ; 663. 
Adam, Hungarian market-scene; *672. Peters^ Flowers; 673. Friedr. Keller, 
Entombment; "676. Aiwasowiky, Sea-piece; "661. Lier, View on the Scottish 
coast; "674. Braith, Flock of sheep returning home. 

8 Route 1 . 5TTTTTW3TKT . Museum of Art. 

Room VII. To the left: 660. K. von Piloty, Three sketches for the 
frescoes on the Maximilianeum in Munich (p. 156); 711. Neher, The Widow's 
Son atNain; "'681. A. Zimmermann, The Obersee; 686. Neher, Descent from 
the Cross; 687. Kleyen, Madonna; 780. Preller, Tumulus; "690. Gude, Calm; 
691. Bauerle, Orphans; 697. Ebert, Amper-Thal ; no number, "0. Achenbach, 
Storm on the Roman Campagna; "792. Haug, The Prussians at Mockeru ; 
651. Ludwig, Landscape; 6t*5. Gudin, After the storm; 701. Lange, Chateau 
of Kolowrat; 702. Heck, Itinerant preacher; "703. Tiesenhausen, On the Baltic; 
705. Seek, In church; 707. Kurzbauer, The first picture-book; 709. Kappis, 
Black Forest village in winter; 710. Reiniger, Landscape; '796. Ekenaes, 
Preparing for the fishing; 791. Mali, Flock of sheep in winter; 712. A. von 
Werner, Luther at the Diet of Worms; 800. Bredt, Street letter- writer in 

Room VIII. To the left: 714. Rottmann, Epidaurus; 715. Closs, Ha- 
drian's Villa at Tivoli; "716. Dietz, Scene outside the gates of Leipsic in 
1S13; no number, Russ, Market-place at Friesach; 719. Schaumann, Popular 
fete at Cannstatt; "717. Biirkel, Tyrolese pass; 722. Rustige, Emp. Otho I. 
after the conquest of the Danes; "723. Schonleber, Evening at Dort; "725. 
Bokelmann, At the pawnbroker's; 727. Lessing, Franconian mountain-scene; 
730. Voltz, Alpine herd-girls; "729. R. Jordan, Shipwreck; 732. Braekeleer, 
Peasants drinking; no number, Van Hove, Dutch interior; no number, Eggel, 
Odin's Hunt ; 801. Lenbach, William I. ; no number, Bossuel, Mauresco-Spanish 
gate; 7i0. Funk, Scene in theEifel; C. von Mailer, 7-11. Judgment of Paris, 
745. Romeo and Juliet ; 742. Lbfftz, Erasmus ; 743. O. Baisch, Rendezvous ; 
•744. Ludwig, The St. Gotthard. 

Room IX. To the left: "746. Jos. Brandt, Cavalry -skirmish; 747. 
Mali, North Italian mountain-scene; "748. W. von Kaulbach, Battle of Sala- 
mis, a sketch in colours; 750. Schendel, Vegetable-seller; 749. Ed. Schleich, 
Landscape; "751. Defregger, The wounded huntsman; 753. Faber du Faur, 
Battle of Coeuilly, 1870; 754. Rethel, Finding of the body of Gustavus 
Adolphus at Liitzen; 755. Rottmann, The Hintersee; 753. Gri'menwald, 
Hail-storm in harvest; 757. Hummel, Mountain-scene; 758. O. Achenbach, 
The strangers' cemetery at Rome; "759. Feuerbach, Iphigeneia; "760. Makart, 
Cleopatra; 761. Lbffler, Jerusalem; 762. Bohn, Serenade; 763. Peters, Hunt- 
ing-seat in winter; 765. Riedel, Medea; "764. A. Achenbach, Dutch land- 
scape; 766. Brion, Marriage-procession in Alsace; 767. Ebert, Forest-scene; 
768. Schroder, Shakespeare brought before the justice for poaching; "769. 
Braith, Cattle in a thunder-storm; 770. Faber du Faur, Battle of Cham- 
pigny; 771. Haberlin, Suppression of the Wurtemberg monastery of Alpirs- 
bach in 1648; 772. Mali, The shepherd's morning-greeting; 773. Ed. Schleich, 
Landscape; 774. Gegenbaur, Hercules andOmphale; 775. Rustige, The Duke 
of Alva in the castle of Rudolstadt; 776. Schiitz , Midday-rest in harvest; 
777. Leu, The Hohe Goll near Berchtesgaden. 

The corridor of the new N. Wing contains seven cartoons for Gegen- 
baur's frescoes in the Palace (p. 4). Adjacent, in — 

Room I, is the continuation of the modern pictures (the most recent 
acquisitions). To the left, 790. Chierici, Portrait of himself; SOS. Fouace, 
At the buffet ; 807. Be Bock, Scene on the Dunes ; 805. Be Haas, Cattle on 
the Dunes ; no number, Courtens, Boats by morning light ; Buttersack, Village- 
pond; 802. Lenbach, Prince Bismarck (chalk drawing); 8J4. Josi Villegas, 
In church; no number, Ziigel, Cattle pasturing; Lautenschlager , Lost in 
thought; Igler, Knitting-school; Windmaier, Winter-scene. 

Room II contains the collection left to the Museum by Queen Olga 
(1893), consisting of water-colour copies of celebrated pictures l>y the old 
masters and also of a few original works. Among the latter are: to the 
left, Rizzoni, Polish Tavern; Spitzweg, The Alchemist; Bocklin, Castle on 
the sea; Giov. Bellini (?), Madonna; Perugino (?), Holy Family with angels- 
Franc. Francia, Madonna; Buchner, Portrait of Queen Olga; Gabriel Max 
Study of a head; Perugino, Madonna; Igler, Singing lesson; Domenichinol 
St. Sebastian; Vervloet, The Pope washing the feet of twelve poor men. 

On a height to the right of the museum is the Kunstschule (PI. 
G, 3), adorned externally with frescoes and with statues of Phidias 

Schloss-Garten. STUTTGART. 1. Route. 9 

Polygnotus, Michael Angelo, and Raphael on the eastern facade in 
the Urban-Str. — Near the Museum, in a niche on a house at the 
corner of the Eugen-Str. and the Moser-Str. (PI. 6,3,4), is a bronze 
bust of the jurist Joh. Jac. Moser (1701-85), by Kopp, erected in 
1885. A flight of steps ascends hence to the Eugen-Platz (PI. G, 
11, 4), -which is adorned with a handsome fountain (Galatea) by 
Rieth and affords a fine view of the town. Below is a bronze bust 
of Duke Eugene of Wurtemberg (d. 1857), by Pelargus. To the 
Uhlandshbhe, see p. 11. — About J /2 M. beyond the Museum the 
Neckar-Str. expands into the so-called Neckaithor, an open space 
embellished with a Water Nymph by Dannecker. To the right, above, 
is the Romanesque Friedenskirche (PI. H, 2), built by Dollinger 
in 1893. 

On the W. side of the Neckar-Strasse is the *Schloss-Garten or 
Anlayen (PI. F, G, 3-1), laid out in the English style in 1808. 
These charming pleasure-grounds, with their fine groups of trees, 
flower-beds, and sheets of water, 200 acres in area and extend- 
ing to a length of 2 M. (nearly to Cannstatt), are adorned with 
modern sculptures in marble (chiefly copies from the antique), 
especially in the so-called Botanic Garden to the E. of the upper 
pond. Above the conduit which feeds the pond, on the side next 
the palace, is a colossal group by Dannecker, representing water 
and meadow nymphs. In the 'Rondel' of the main avenue on the 
front : Count Eberhard and the Shepherd (from Uhland), a colossal 
group by Paul Miiller (1881). On an island at the end of this 
avenue is the Abduction of Hylas , by Hofer (1850) , and a little 
farther on , at the beginning of the chestnut avenue leading to 
(l l / 4 M.) Rosenstein (p. 13), are two Horse-tamers, also by Hofer 

We now enter the N.W. quarter of the town, and note the fine 
buildings of the Wiirttembergische Vereinsbank and the Reichsbank, 
both in the Friedrichs-Strasse (Nos. 48, 22). The Kriegsberg-Strasse 
and the Goethe - Strasse contain , perhaps , the handsomest new 
buildings in this quarter. 

In the Schelling-Str. (No. 5) is the building of the Wurtem- 
berg Art Union (Kunstverein ; PI. E, 3), with a permanent exhibition 
of modern works of art (adm., see p. 2). 

The Polytechnic School (PI. E, 3), in the Stadtgarten-Platz 
(Alleen-Platz), erected in the Italian Renaissance style by Egle in 
1860-65, and enlarged by Tritschter in 1879 , is adorned to the 
right and left of the door with statues of Diirerand Kepler. Between 
the Corinthian columns on the upper story are ten allegorical statues 
representing the professions for which a technical education pre- 
pares the student ; to the right and left of these are two admirable 
allegorical representations of Art and Science, by Th. Bechlar of 
Munich. The N. facade bears medallion-portraits of celebrated 
architects and mathematicians. The garden in front was adorned 

10 Route 1. STUTTGART. Stadt-Garten. 

in 1889 with marble busts of Friedrich Vischer (1807-87), the writer 
on aesthetics, by Donndorf, and of Rob. Mayer (1814-78) , the 
physicist, by Kopf. 

The *Stadt-Garten (PI. D, E, 3; adm. 50 pf. ; concerts, see 
p. 2) is a favourite pleasure-resort, with a restaurant. 

On the W. side, at the angle of the Kanzlei-Str. and Schelling- 
Str., is the handsome Architectural School (Bauyewerkschule ; PI. 
D, 3), with a Mansard roof and fine courts, by Egle (1870). In 
the Kriegsberg-Str. is the Oewerbehalle (PI. D, 3) , the building 
of the Industrial Exhibition of 1881, now containing the Exchange 
(business-hour 2-3 p. m.) and an exhibition of Export-Products. 

About V2 M- to the N.W., in the Herdweg (No. 10D), is Mil's Thier- 
garten (PI. C, 2), with a restaurant (beer) and a large concert-garden. 
Adm., see p. 2. 

In the Linden -Strasse (PI. D, 2) are the Panorama (p. 2; 
Crucifixion , with view of Jerusalem , by Frosch , Kriiger , and 
Leigh), the Gymnastic Hall, and the Garrison Church, a brick edi- 
fice in the Romanesque style by Dollinger, with a dome and cor- 
ner-towers. These three are on the right ; to the left are the hand- 
some Realgymnasium and the Chemical Laboratory, the latter a 
Renaissance edifice completed in 1894. 

Near this, in the Hoppenlau-Str., is the Hoppenlau Cemetery 
(PI. C, D, 3), with the graves of the sculptor Dannecker (d. 1841 ) 
and the authors Wilhelm Hauff (d. 1827) and Gustav Schwab (d. 
1850). — In the Biichsen-Str. are the large Stuttgart Swimming 
Baths (PI. D, 3), erected in the Moorish style in 1888-89 (adm., see 
p. 2). Adjacent is the Liederhalle (PI. C, D, 3), the property of 
a vocal society, with large concert-rooms. The new hall, built by 
Leins in 1875, is the largest in Germany, having an area of 1600 
sq. yds. In the garden-veranda are plaster models of the statues of 
Schiller at Marbach and Uhland at Tubingen. The garden (restau- 
rant and concerts, see pp. 1, 2) contains a colossal bust of TJhland 
in bronze, and marble busts of G. Schu-ab and *Franz Schubert. 

To the N.E., between the Linden-Str., Kanzlei-Str., and Schloss- 
Str., is the handsome new *Landesgewerbe-Museum (PI. D, E, 3), 
or Industrial Museum, erected by Neckelmann in an elaborate late- 
Renaissance style. The principal facade is turned towards the 
Schloss-Str. The lower story is of rustic masonry; the upper is 
articulated by six pairs of Corinthian columns. The attic is adorned 
with figures , and domed turrets rise at the angles. The whole of 
the building is embellished with medallions of famous Swabians 
and other plastic decoration. The chief features of the interior are 
the grand staircase and the King Charles Exhibition Gallery, the 
latter adorned with a painted frieze by Ferd. Keller and sculptures 
by Hundrieser and Eberlein. This museum (to be opened in Oct., 
1895) will contain the collections previously exhibited in the 
Legionskaserne (PI. D, E, 5), including Models, an Educational 
Exhibition, and an Art Library (adm., see p. 2). 

Marienkirche. STUTTGART. l. Route. 11 

In the late-Gothic Spitalkirche (PI. D, 4), erected in 1471-93, 
and restored in 1841, is a model of Dannecker's large marble statue 
of Christ (p. 123). The cloisters contain the tomb of Reuchlin 
(d.1522), the erudite friend of Melanchthon. — A few hundred 
paces distant (Hospital-Strasse 38) is the Synagogue (PI. D, 4), 
in the Moorish style, with two handsome domes, erected in 1861. 
Between the Schloss-Strasse, Kasernen-Strasse, and Lange-Strasse 
(PI. 0, 4) rise the imposing new Municipal School Buildings. Far- 
ther to the W., in the Lindensptir-Strasse, is the Ludwig Hospital 
('Charlottenhilfe'; PI. B, 3), founded and admirably fitted up by 
the late Staatsrath von Ludwig. 

On the Feuersee (PI. C, 5), in the S.W. quarter of the city, is the 
handsome Gothic *Churcb. of St. John, by Leins (1866-76), finely 
situated, with richly painted interior. — To the S.E. of this point 
is the Silberburg-Garten (PI. 0, D, 6), belonging to the Museum- 
Gesellschaft, the leading club of Stuttgart (tickets for strangers at 
Kanzlei-Str. 14). In the grounds below the garden , between the 
Marienthor and the Silberburgthor, is a marble bust of E. Mbrike, 
the poet (d. 1875) , by Rosch. — In the Tiibinger-Str. is the Ro- 
man Catholic *Marienkirche (PI. D, 6), early-Gothic, with two 
towers, by Egle (1872-70). — Among the handsome houses of the 
Reinsburg - Strasse , which connects these two churches , are the 
* Villa Siegle by Gnauth , and the houses of Hr. Bohnenberger by 
Beisbarth, and Prof. Rustige by Leins. — The suburb of Heslach 
has a Romanesque church by Wolff (1881). 

In the Fangelsbach Cemetery, to the S.E. of the town, stands the War 
Memorial, designed by Gnauth, representing Gerraania dispensing wreaths. 
— The Central Cemetery, to the N.W. , beyond the Eisenbahndbrfchen 
(cottages of railway employees) and the new Municipal Hospital, contains a 
Gothic burial-chapel and several handsome mausoleums; it commands a 
fine view. About 3 /i M. higher up, at the N.E. end of the Feuerbacher 
Heide, is the Weissenliof, a popular garden-restaurant (view). 

Charming walk on the E. side of Stuttgart, from the Xeckar-Str. 
through the Eugen-Str. to the Eugen-Platz (p. 9), and past the Schiess- 
liaus to the (>/•> hr.) "TJhlandshohe (PI. H, 3), with a series of charming 
views of Stuttgart and the valley of the Neckar, the finest points being 
the pavilion at the top and 'Uhland's Lime-tree'. A similar point is the 
Schillerhohe, on the Bopser, to the S.E., reached by the Neue Weinsteige 
(PI. E, F, 7), commanding varied views during its winding ascent from 
the Oiga-Str. We may return via, the Hohenheimer-Str. (PI. F, G, 6, 5; 
to the left, below, the Stitzenburg Restaurant , with a good view of the 
city) ; or we may continue the excursion through the Bvpseru-ald to Degerloch. 

The Mountain Eailway (Zahnradbahn, 'rack-and-pinion line') to Deger- 
loch (i'urhaus ; Schweizerhaiis, by the station; Wilhelmshbhe Inn, with gar- 
den) starts from the Filder-Str. (PI. D, 7). At least 6 or 8 trains daily 
each way (12-14 min.; up 30, down 20 pf.); views on the left. Splendid 
view from the tower (1585 ft.), 5 min. from the station at the top (20 pf). 
Tramway Irom the Schloss-Str. every 36 min.; see p. 1. — From Dcger- 
loch a steam-tramway runs in 3/ 4 hr. to Bohenheim (p. 14), via Muhriiiyen, 
Echlerdingen, and Oarbe (Plieningen). 

An 'Excursion to the West Station bt the Gau Railway will be 
found interesting (views to the left). On quitting the station, the line 
(for Boblingen, Freudenstadt, etc. ; see K. 10) describes a sharp curve 
round the brick-works on the Prag-Aecker, and then runs southward in 

12 Route 1. BERG. Stuttgart 

the direction of the vine-clad Kriegsberg, which juts far into the valley. 
On the top of the latter (to the right) is the Feuerbacher Eeide , with the 
Weissenhof (see p. 11). The gradient is very steep (1 : 52). Beyond a 
tunnel, 500 yds. long, we obtain to the left a striking "View of the town, 
with the dome of the new garrison-church in the foreground and the 
picturesque hills opposite. The train continues to ascend the slopes of 
the valley, through gardens and vineyards, and describes a wide circle 
round the town. The view increases in attraction. After 20 min. we cross 
the Vogelsang-Thai by a viaduct 130 ft. in height, and stop at the West 
Station (the former Basenberg Station ; 1210 ft. above the sea, 394 ft. above 
the station at Stuttgart), which lies at the corner of the wood. This 
point, which commands the whole town and the valley of the Neckar, 
may also be reached by the new and winding Rothebuhl-Strasse (PI. A, 7). 
Still finer views are obtained from the "Jagerhaus (Restaurant), near 
which a bust of the novelist Banff was erected in 1882, and from the 
Q/i hr.) stone "Belvedere Tower, 130 ft. in height, erected in 1879 (cross 
the rails and enter the wood) : the view extends as far as the Wartberg 
at Heilbronn and the Melibocus; to the S. the entire chain of the Swabian 
Alb, with the Hohenstaufen, Rechberg, Neuffen, Achalm, and Hohen- 
zollern. — From the Jagerhaus to the N.W. through the woods to the 
Gais-Eiche, l /t hr.; to the W. to the deer-park (p. 11), 1/2 hr. — The direct 
path from the Jagerhaus to Stuttgart descends abruptly in 20-25 min., 
passing on the right the reservoir of the new aqueduct and the Reins- 
burg, with the Karls-Linde (PI. C, 6), a hill affording a fine view, im- 
mediately to the S. of Stuttgart. Tramway from the Schwab -Strasse, 
see p. 1. 

From Stuttgart to Cannstatt, 2y 2 M. The Railway (R. 8; 
8-11 min.) penetrates the Rosenstein (see below) by a tunnel 450 
yds. long, crosses the Neckar, and reaches the station of Cannstatt, 
on the left bank. 

The Tramway (p. 1 ; 2'/-2 M. from the Palace at Stuttgart, in 
20 min.) traverses first the Neckar -Strasse (p. 5), and then the 
Vntere Neckar-Strasse (view of the Royal Villa, see below), which 
extends to Berg; from Berg it crosses the Kbnig- Karl- Briicke 
(p. 13) direct to Cannstatt (terminus near the rail, station). The 
old high-road runs from Berg along the E. slope of the Rosenstein, 
passes the lower entrance of the Wilhelma (p. 13), and sweeps round 
to Cannstatt on the right bank. 

Berg, the N.E. suburb of Stuttgart, sharing its rapid growth, 
lies on the left bank of the Neckar and, like Cannstatt, is fre- 
quented as a health-resort. Neuners Mineralbad, near the tramway 
office at the beginning of the town, possesses a swimming-bath 
(open in winter also), an aquarium , a garden-restaurant, and a 
favourite open-air theatre (p. 2). On a slight eminence above the 
town rises the Gothic church, built by Gaab in 1855, with open 
tower. — The Sprudel, which bursts from the earth like that of 
Carlsbad, and other mineral springs on the Neckar-lnsel, an island 
which extends from Berg almost to Cannstatt, has given rise to a 
number of bath-houses (*Lewze's Inselbad, with pension; band 
plays at 6 a.m. ; closed in winter). 

The Royal Villa, on the top of the hill to the S. of Berg, a 
modern Renaissance edifice, built by Leins in 1846-53 and »ur- 

and Environs. CANNSTATT. 1. Route. 13 

rounded with gardens and hot-houses, commands a charming view. 
In the interior are pictures by Nic. de Keyset , Kaminski , Bohn, 
Karl Miiller , etc., and sculptures by Tenerani and other masters. 
In the garden are statues of the four seasons by Kopf, and busts in 
bronze of Nicholas, Emperor of Russia, and his consort, by Rauch. 
The villa belongs to the Duchess Wera (adm., see p. 2). 

The Rosenstein , a villa in the Romanesque style on the hill 
to the N. of Berg, with colonnades, built by Salucci in 1823-29, 
contains numerous sculptures (by Wagner, Wolf, Hoyer, Tenerani, 
Hofer, etc.) and an extensive collection of pictures (catalogue from 
the steward). Admission, see p. 2 ; the main entrance is on the 
S.W. side of the park, opposite the chestnut avenue mentioned at 
p. 9. — From the back of the chateau walks descend through the 
grounds to the Wilhelma. 

The *Wilhelma, an edifice in the Moorish style, in the midst of 
well-kept grounds, was erected for King William I. in 1842-51 
(adm., see p. 2). 

The Festsaalbau contains a single saloon sumptuously fitted up. It 
is connected by means of circular colonnades with two Pavilions (that to 
the right contains a Picture Gallery, of Oriental subjects only) and with 
the Chdteau itself on the upper terrace. In the centre of the latter is the 
audience-chamber, on the right a drawing-room, on the left the king's 
study. There are also bedrooms, dressing-rooms , and a bath-room (with 
a fine stalactite ceiling). At the back of the chateau several other terraces 
rise to the plateau of the hill, on the summit of which is a Belvedere, also 
in the Moorish style, commanding a charming view. The lower terraces 
within the colonnades are embellished with flower-beds, fountains , and 
groups of animals in marble and bronze by Giildenstein. 

Cannstatt. — Hotels: Stadtisches Logierhaos, at the Cursaal, for 
patients; Viee Jahreszeiten, Sannwald's Bahnhof Hotel, Gasthof & 
Restaurant zum Bahnhof, at the station, second-class ; Bar, in the market- 
place. 'Pension Lieb, Konig-Str. 13. — Restaurants: Cursaal; Scmnwald; 
Krauss; Krone. 

Sanatory Establishments: Dr. VeieVs, for cutaneous diseases; Dr. Bil- 
finger's, for the 'Kneipp Cure'; Wilhelmsbad , the property of the town, 
open in winter also. Baths also in the Russischer Bof and the "Neues 
Cannstatter Mineralbad, Badgasse (also open in winter). 

Popular Festival, with exhibitions, races, etc., every alternate year, 
beginning on 28th Sept. and lasting 3-7 days. 

Cannstatt, a town with 20,267 inhab., is connected with Berg 
by the *Kbnig-Karl-Briicke, a railway-bridge with five arches, 
1000 ft. long, erected in 1891-93 by K. von Leibbrand. It possesses 
warm saline and chalybeate springs which attract a number of 
patients, but is rapidly becoming a manufacturing place. The Cur- 
saal, with the Wilhelmsbrunnen (62-66° Fahr.), the chief mineral 
spring, lies on the Sulzerain (view), on the N. side of the town. 
Adjacent are a whey-cure establishment, a restaurant, a reading- 
room , and a Trinkhalle. In front of the Cursaal is a bronze 
Equestrian Statue of King William I. (d. 1864), by Halbig, 
erected in 1875. — In the Uffkirchhof is the grave of Ferdinand 
Freiligrath, the poet (d. 1876), with a bronze bust by Donndorf. 

14 Route 2. BRUCHSAL. From Heidelberg 

The 'Burgholz (1175 ft.; view-tower), 4 M. from Stuttgart and 2 M. 
from Cannstatt (refreshments at the Burgholzhof) , affords a fine view of 
Stuttgart and up the valley of the Neckar. 

About 6 M. to the S. of Stuttgart (railway via Degerloch and 
Mbhringen in 55 min.)lies Hohenheim, a chateau built by Duke Char- 
les in 1768, now an agricultural school. Fine view from the top. — 
Klein-Hohenheim, Scharnhausen, and Weil, with their model-farms 
and the horse-breeding establishment at "Weil, may be visited on the 
same day as Hohenheim. Permission obtained at the offices of the 
Hofdomane, Friedrichs-Str. 26. Weil is l 1 ( ' 2 M. fromEsslingen(p.29). 

Unter- and Ober-Tiirkheim and the Rothenberg, see p. 29. 

The Solitude (1540 ft.), 6 M. to the W. of Stuttgart, built in 1763-67 by 
Duke Charles, was in 1770-75 the seat of the Karls-Schule, where Schiller 
received part of his education, before its transference to Stuttgart (p. 5). 
Schiller's father was inspector of the gardens here. The grounds and 
park command a fine view (best from the dome of the Schloss). A whey- 
cure establishment here attracts visitors in summer. A little to the S. is 
a well-stocked deer-park, with the 'Barenschlosschen' and the Baren-See. 
Deer fed at 11 a.m., wild boars at 6 p.m. (cards of adm. at the office of 
the royal chasse, in the Academy, p. 4). From the deer-park to the JtLger- 
haus, see p. 12. 

2. From Heidelberg to Stuttgart by Bruchsal. 

69 M. Railway in 2i/ 2 -4'/ 2 hrs. (fares 9 M 60, 6 Jl 30, 4 M 10 pf.; 
express 10 Jl 95, 7 M 65, 5 Jl 45 pf.). — Route via Heilbronn, see R. 4. 

The line traverses a fertile plain , within a short distance of the 
mountains. Stations Kirchheim, St. llgen, Wiesloch. Nearing(15M.) 
Langenbrilcken (Ochs ; Sonne), a small place with sulphur-baths, we 
notice Kislau, once a chateau of the prince-bishops of Speyer, now 
a penitentiary for women, on the right. 

20y 2 M. Bruchsal (*H6tel Keller, near the station; *Bailway 
Restaurant) is the junction of the Bale line (see Baedeker's Rhine). 
The town (11,900 inhab.) was formerly the residence of the Bishops 
of Speyer, whose Schloss, a fine rococo edifice , handsomely fitted 
up, and adorned with frescoes by Zick , is worthy of a visit. The 
castellated building on the left as the station is approached is a 
prison, erected in 1845. 

Beyond Bruchsal a short tunnel. 24Y2 M- Heidelsheim. 27 M. 
Gondelsheim, with the ruined castle and modern chateau of Count 

30 M. Bretten (540 ft.; *Krone, >/ 4 M. from the station; *Rail. 
Restaurant), a small town commanded by an ancient watch-tower. 
In the Bahnhof-Strasse is a block of granite with a bronze medallion 
of Grand-Duke Frederick of Baden, erected to commemorate the 
jubilee of his reign (1891). In the market-place, opposite the post- 
office, is a fountain, surmounted by the figure of a tailless dog. 
Adjacent is the house in which Philip Melanchthon (1497-1560), 
the 'Prseceptor Germanise' , was born; a monument was erected 
to him in 1864 in front of the school-house, at the end of the 

to Stuttgart. LUDWIGSBURG. 2. Route. 15 

town. Branch-lines to Durlach and Heilbronn, p. 18. — 36 M. 

Haulbronn (2 M. from the station; Post, high charges; Brewery, good 
beer, also beds; post-omnibus to the village thrice daily in 25 min.) pos- 
sesses a Protestant theological seminary, which was once a celebrated 
Cistercian abbey, and afterwards the seat of the 'monastery school' 
founded by Duke Christopher in 1556. The 'Abbey Church, consecrated 
in 1137, is a fine Romanesque basilica with aisles. The late -Gothic 
chapels on the S. side were subsequent additions. A Romanesque screen 
with two door3 separates the choir of the monks from the nave ; in 
front of the central niche are a richly-decorated throne and an altar 
with a colossal crucifix dating from 1473. The choir, adorned with two 
handsome Gothic windows, contains 92 well-carved stalls in the late-Gothic 
style. Each of the transepts, on the N. and S. side of the choir respectively, 
contains three rectangular chapels. At the W. end of the church is a 
"Vestibule ('Paradies') with elegant late-Romanesque arcade-windows and 
fine vaulting. The "Cloisters on the N. side of the church are interesting. 
The S. passage, in the transition style (1303), is the richest; the others, 
in the Gothic style, are simpler. In front of the N. wing of the cloisters 
is a tastefully-constructed well-house. Beyond it is the summer-refectory 
('RebenthaF), with fine vaulting. Other apartments (chamber of flagellation, 
chapter-house, audience saloon, residence of the superior) adjoin the E. 
side of the cloisters. On the W. side is the winter or lay-refectory, divided 
into two parts by seven double columns. The entire structure, one of the 
best preserved of the older monasteries of Germany, has been restored 
under the superintendence of Landauer. — A pleasant road, partly through 
wood, leads by (3 M. ; diligence twice daily in 3 /t hr.) the small town of 
Knittlingen (Kanne), the traditional birthplace of Dr. Faust, to Bretten (see 

The train now passes through a tunnel of 357 yds., under the 
watershed between the Neckar and the Rhine. 40 M. Muhlacher, 
junction for Pforzheim (p. 17); 44 M. Illingen; 47 M. Vaihingen 
with a large chateau, now an asylum; 50 M. Oross-Sachsenheim. 
On the left rise the Stromberg and the Heuchelberg, two low, wooded 
chains of hills. The train traverses the old Kraichgau and Salz- 
gau, a fertile, hilly district, and crosses the deep valley of the Enz 
by a *Viaduct, 115 ft. high, and 357 yds. long, supported by 21 
arches, in two series, one above the other (well seen from the Bie- 
tigheim station). At (54i/ 2 M.) Bietigheim the line to Heilbronn 
and Hall diverges to the N. (see R. 4). Beyond Bietigheim the 
line presents few attractions. 56^2 M. Thamm. Farther on , to 
the right, near(57y 2 M.) Asperg , rises a vine-clad hill (1165 ft.) 
crowned by the small fortress of Hohenasperg (still a prison), where 
Duke Charles confined the poet Schubart from 1777 to 1787 for 
having composed a satirical epigram on him ; fine 'View from the 
view-tower (10 pf.). 

60 M. Ludwigsburg (*Bailway Hotel, opposite the station, with 
a concert-hall; Kanne, Sonne, in the town), a town with 17,673 
inhab. , the military depot of Wurtemberg, contains an arsenal, 
cannon-foundry, barracks, military schools, &c. It was founded at 
the beginning of last century by Duke Bberhard Ludwig (d. 1733; 
whose statue adorns the market-place), as a rival of Stuttgart, and 
was extended by Duke Charles, who resided here in 1764-85. The 
streets are broad and regular. The Marble Statue of Schiller in the 

16 Route 2. TEINACH. 

Wilhelms-Platz, by Hofer, was erected in 1882 ; the poet lived in 
1793-94 in the house at the corner of the Post-Str. (now a wine- 
shop). Ludwigsburg was the birthplace of David Strauss (1808- 
74), the theologian, Justinus Kerner (1786-1862) and Edw. Mbrike 
(1804-75), the poets, and F. T. Vischer (1807-87), the philosopher. 

The Palace (uninhabited), a handsome rococo building, contain- 
ing 460 rooms and a gallery of the portraits of sovereigns of Wurtem- 
berg, was erected by Duke Eberhard Ludwig in 1710-20 and is 
surrounded by extensive, well-kept grounds. The balcony of the 
Emichshurg, an artificial ruin, commands a fine view. A sub- 
terranean vault contains a representation in wax of Count Emich, 
an ancestor of the royal House of Wurtemberg, carousing with a 
Capuchin. In the cellar is a Cask with a capacity of 20,000 gallons. 
— At the S.E. extremity of the Schloss-Garten is the Churchyard, 
containing Dannecker's monument to Count Zeppelin (d. 1801), the 
minister of King Frederick, erected by order of the latter. — The N. 
prolongation of the grounds is the Favoriten-Park, with the tasteful 
little Favorite Chateau, containing a splendid collection of antlers 
(tickets of admission at the office of the Royal Chasse, in Stuttgart). 
An avenue of poplars leads hence to (l'/2 ^0 Monrepos, a royal 
chateau with a model farm, pretty grounds, and a lake. We may 
now return to Ludwigsburg via Eglosheim and the Villa Maritn- 
wahl, the summer-residence of King William II. 

Among the chief boasts of Ludwigsburg are the magnificent 
avenues of limes and chestnuts leading from the palace to the 
Salonwald, a large park commanding admirable views. Adjacent is 
the Karlshbhe , a refuge and school for children. Near the begin- 
ning of the straight road to (12 M.) the Solitude (p. 14) are the 
Romerhugel and the Kaiserstein (views). 

Ludwigsburg is connected by a branch - railway with (3 M.) Beihingen 
(p. 25), on the railway from Backnang to Bietigheim. — Marbach (p. 25; 
railway in 25 min., carr. via Benningen in 1 hr.) and Bohenasperg (p. 15; 
railway in 6 min.) are best visited from Ludwigsburg. 

63 M. Kornwestheim. — 64Y2 M. Zuffenhausen. 

To Calw and Horb, 5'J'/ 2 M., railway in 3',V-1 hrs. — 2 M. Korn- 
thal ("Gemeinde-Gasthof, wine of Jerusalem) is the seat of a sect resem- 
bling the Moravians, with several good schools. — 4'/2 M. Dilzingen. — 9 M. 
Leonberg (Lamm or Post; Lowe), the birthplace of the philosopher Schel- 
ling (p. 152), possesses an early-Gothic church of the 15th cent., and is 
noted for a fine breed of large dogs resembling the now extinct St. Bernard 
race. — Then past (12'/2 SI.) Benningen to (16 31.) Weilderstadt (Krone ; Lowe), 
with the late-Gothic Church of St. Peter & St. Paul (end of 15th cent.), 
the birthplace of the astronomer Kepler (d. 1630), a bronze "Statue of 
whom, by Kreling, adorns the market-place. — 18'/2 31. Schafhausen; 24 M. 
Althengstett. — At (30 SI.) Calw (1095 ft.; Waldhorn; Badischer Hof), a town 
with 4700 inhab. and a considerable timber-trade , the line enters the 
picturesque Nagold-Thal. — Railway to Pforzheim in 1 /«- 3 /t hr., see p. IT. 

The line then leads through the Nagold-Thal (several tunnels) , past 
Kentheim, to (32 SI.) Teinach, at the union of the Teinach and Nagold. 
About I1/2 M. up the valley of the Teinach (omnibus in 25 min.) are the 
charmingly-situated baths of Teinach ("Bad-Bdtel zur Krone, with rooms 
for 300 visitors, D. 2 Jl 80, S. 1JI 20, B. 70 pf., pension 50-80 M per week; 
Hirsch; Zum Kuhlen Brunnen). On the hill above is Zavelstein ('Lamm), 

PFORZHEIM. 3. Route. 17 

a aummer-resort, with a ruined castle, the tower of which is a fine point 
of view. 

34 M. Thalmiihle (-Inn) ; in the woods near it is Burg Waldeck. 36'/2 M. 
Wildberg (Adler; Schwan), a small and ancient town, is prettily situated 
on a rock washed by theNagold. 42 M. Nagold(1290 ft.; Post; Hirsch), a busy 
place, commanded by the ruined castle of Hohennagold, which was destroyed 
during the Thirty Years' War. Handsome modern Gothic church. — The 
train quits the Nagold-Thal, which here turns to the W., ascends the 
Steinach- Thai to Qundringen, and passes through the Hochdorfer Tunnel, 
1360 yds. long, to (487 2 M.) Hochdorf (1650 ft.; *Inn, plain), the culminating 
point of the line , with a fine view of the distant chain of the Swabian 
Jura. — Beyond (51 M.) Eutingen, the junction for the Gaubahn and the 
line to Hausach (p. 39), the train descends the narrow valley of Miihlen 
to the Neckar-Thal and (56'/2 M.) Sorb (p. 39). 

66 M. Feuerbach, beyond which the train passes through a tun- 
nel of 1000 yds. under the Prag. 

69 M. Stuttgart, see p. 1. 

From Carlsruhe to Stuttgart by Pforzheim, see below. 

3. From Stuttgart to Wildbad. 

52 M. Railway via Pforzheim in 3-4 hrs.; fares 6 Jl 80, 4 Jt 50, 
2 J? 85 pf. (via Calw in 4'/2 hrs., see above). 

From Stuttgart to (29 M.) Muhlacker, see R. 2. Beyond (31 1/ 2 M.) 
Enzberg the line enters the Duchy of Baden, and crosses the Enz. 
33 M. Niefem; 35 M. Eutingen, near which is a Roman castrum. 

371/2 M. Pforzheim (810 ft. ; *Hotel Nusser or Post ; Schwarzer 
Adler ; Victoria, Zur Eisenbahn, both at the station ; wine at the 
Bappen, Karl-Friedrich-Str. ; Hydropathic, pens. 3-6 Jf), a busy, 
manufacturing town (30,000 inhab.), lies at the confluence of the 
Enz, the Wurm, and the Nagold. The staple commodities, gold and 
silver wares, employ 10,000 workmen. 

Near the station is the Romanesque and Gothic *Schlosskirche, 
erected in the 12-15th centuries. 

In the choir are the statues of the Margraves Ernest (d. 1604), James 
(d. 1590), and Charles II. (d. 1577). Charles II. was the first prince of 
this line who embraced the Reformed faith. Then the statue of his wife 
Kunigunde, Margravine of Brandenburg (d. 1558) ; Countess Palatine Anna 
(d. 1587) ; Albert Alcibiades of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, celebrated for his 
numerous campaigns, who died here (in 1557) under the imperial ban ; 
also Margr. Bernhard (d. 1553). On a large sarcophagus are the recumbent 
figures of Margr. Ernest (d. 1558) and his wife Ursula (d. 1538). Beneath 
a Gothic covering is the bust of the Grand-Duke Charles Frederick (d. 1811). 
A monument on the wall commemorates the supposed death of 400 citizens 
of Pforzheim in the battle of Wimpffen (1622), but this event lacks historical 

In the market-place rises a Warriors' Monument. In the Leopold- 
Platz is a fountain with a Statue of Margrave Ernest (d. 1558), 
founder of the extinct Baden-Durlach-Ernestine family. 

About 6 M. to the S.E. of Pforzheim , in the pleasant Wilrmthal, lies 
Tiefenbronn (LBwe), with an interesting Abbey Church. This contains a 
fine high-altar by Hans Schuhlein of Ulm (1409), and four other well-pre- 
served altars of the 15-16th cent., the best of which is the Magdalen Altar, 
with paintings by Lucas Moser (1432). 

Fkom Pfoezhkim to Calw, 17 M. (railway in I /2 _3 A hr.). The train di- 
verges to the left from the Wildbad line at Brotzingen (p. 18), crosses 

Baedekek's S. Germany. 8th Edit. 2 

18 Route 3. WILDBAD. 

the Enz, penetrates the watershed between the Enz; and the Nagold by 
means of a tunnel, 490 yds. long, and enters the beautiful wooded Nagold- 
Thal. Beyond another tunnel is @'/» M.) Weissenstein ('Sonne), with a 
picturesque ruined castle. Then the Zelgenberg Tunnel, 560 yds. in length. 
At (7 M.) Unter - Reichenbach we cross the Nagold. — 12 M. [Liebenzell 
(Unteres Bad; Oberes Bad; "Ochs), a watering-place with warm springs of 
old repute, pleasantly situated, and overlooked by a ruined castle. — 14'/ 2 M. 
Hirsau (Rotsle, Schwan, Kloster Hirsau, etc.), with a celebrated ruined mon- 
astery (Benedictine, founded in 830, destroyed by Melac in 1692). — 17 M. 
Calw. — From Calw to Stuttgart, see p. 16; to Horb, see p. 16. 

From Pforzheim to Durlach (Carlsruhe), 16 M., railway in 1 hr. The 
line skirts the N. slopes of the Black Forest Sits, and traverses the fertile 
valley of the Pflnz. Stations Ispringen, Ersingen, Konigtbach, Wilferdingen 
(Krone), Sbllingen, Berghausen, Qrblzingen (junction for Bretten and Heil- 
bronn, p. 20). At Durlach (Carlsburg), a town of 7474 inhab., the train 
reaches the Baden main line ; see Baedekers Rhine. 

The railway to Wildbad continues to follow the picturesque green 
valley of the Enz. 39 M. Brbtzingen; 40'/2M. Birkenfeld. 

43^2 M. Neuenburg (Post ; Bar) is a picturesquely situated 
town, overlooked by the Schloss, erected on a wooded eminence 
above the Enz by Duke Christopher in 1658 on the site of an older 
building (now government offices). Adjacent is the so-called Frucht- 
speicher, the ruins of a castle on Roman foundations. 

The train crosses the Enz, passes through a tunnel under the 
Schlossberg, and recrosses the river. 46 M. Rbthenbach; 48 M. Hbfen 
(*Ochse), a favourite summer-resort, with pretty villas; 49 M. Calm- 
bach (Sonne, poor), a thriving place, with a neat modern church, 
and also a summer-resort. 

52 M. Wildbad. — Hotels. "Royal Bad-Hotel, R. from 21/2, D. 
3 Jl; *Kldmpp, or Bar, R. from 3, B. Uh, D. at 1 p.m. 3V2, at 5 p.m. 
41/2 Jl; "Bellevue, R. from 3, B. H/4, D. 3>/2 Jl; 'Post, R. 2-5, B. 1, D. 
2 l /2, pens. 6 l /2-10 Jl; Hotel Garni Keim; Hotel de Rcssie, R. from 2, 
D. 2'/2 Jl; "Goldnes Lamm, Curplatz, R., L., & A. 2-21/2, D. 2, B. »/* Jl, 
good cuisine; Ross, Lowe, Sonne, Stern, Weil, Zor Eisenbahn (the last 
two by the station), etc. Also numerous H6tels Oarnis and lodging-houses, 
the best being those above the Anlagen. — Restaurants of Funk and 
Schmidt, moderate; Funlfs Brewery. — Cab (one horse) 1 Jl per 1/4 hr. — 
Visitors'' Tax for four days or more, 12 Jl. — English Church (Holy 
Trinity); service in summer. 

Wildbad (1426 ft.), a celebrated watering-place (3500 inhab.), 
situated in the narrow, pine-clad ravine of the Enz, possesses warm 
alkaline springs, used as a cure for gout and rheumatism. The 
greater part of the town lies on the right bank of the Enz , while 
the station is at the lower end of it on the left bank. In the Cur- 
platz, at the end of the Haupt-Strasse, are the handsome Curhaus 
or Bad-Hotel, with reading and ball rooms and a cafe - (music in the 
morning and afternoon) , and the large Badgebaude , with its ad- 
mirably equipped baths. The Springs (90-100° Fahr.) rise in the 
baths themselves , and their efficacy (for gout, rheumatism, etc.) 
is chiefly ascribed to their being thus used in a fresh and natural 
condition at the fountain-head. Most of the patients (about 6500 
annually) prefer the system of bathing in common , as at Leuk in 
Switzerland. There are three well-arranged public baths for each 

LAUFFEN. 4. Route. 19- 

sex (1 Jf), as well as a number of private baths (2 Jf), The sump- 
tuous Karlsbad, with paintings by Kolb, was opened in 1892. Be- 
tween the Enz and the Bellevue Hotel stands the Trinkhalle, a 
tasteful iron structure in the Renaissance style, with a band-pavilion 
in the centre. Higher up in the grounds is the Theatre. The 
Katharinenstift , a bath for the poor, is a building in the round- 
arch style. In the lower part of the town is Herrenhilf, a sana- 
torium for children. There are pleasant walks and grounds on both 
sides of the village, on the banks of the Enz : on the S. (upper) side 
past the new Roman Catholic church as far as the (1 M.) Wind- 
hof, a cafe; on the N. (lower) side to the (1 M.) garden i Zum kiihlen 
Brunnen', a favourite resort. 

Excursions. To the Waterfalls in a side-valley of the Enz, 3i/z M. 
— A road ascends the Enzthal to (7'/2 M.) Enzklosterle (Waldhorn) and 
(3 M.) Oompelscheuer (Lamm) ; thence to Freudenstadt (p. 39), 16'/2 11. — 
By the small Wildsee, which tradition has peopled with water-sprites, to 
the Kaltenbrunn shooting-lodge ("Inn), 16'/a M.; thence to the Hohloh-fhurm 
(3625 ft.), a fine point of view, 1/4 hr- — To (41/2 M.) Eyachmuhl, (2y 4 M.) 
Dobel, and (3 M.) Herrenalb (Hydropathic Establishment and several ho- 
tels), frequented as a summer-resort; see Baedeker's Rhine. 

The following is a very interesting excursion for a whole day (one- 
horse carr. 9, two-horse 14-15 dt), and is also recommended to pedestrians. 
Via Calmbach (see p. 18) to (2 M.) Beichenbach (Lowe). Thence, leaving 
the main road, by a by-road to the right to (6 M.) Rothenbach (view of 
Hohenzollern from the height as the village is approached; carriages 
should be sent on from this point to Teinach) and (2 M.) Zavelstein 
(Lamm), with a picturesque ruined castle. Descent to (I1/2 M.) Teinach 
(p. 16) ; thence down to the (1 M.) Nagold-Thal, and by Kentheim to (3 M.) 
Calw (p. 16; also railway from this point); then (4'/2M.) Hirsau, and(3 3 /4M.) 
Liebenzell (p. 18). Back to Wildbad by Schomberg and Calmbaeh. 

4. From Stuttgart to Hanan. 

118 M. Railway in 5-8V4 hrs. (fares 15 M 50, 11 Jt 30, 6 Jt 60 pf.; ex- 
press 17 Jt 70, 12 Jt 50 pf.)- This line forms the shortest route from 
Stuttgart to Berlin (16 hrs.; comp. R. 15). 

From Stuttgart to (14 M.) Bietigheim, see R. 2. The line follows 
the Enz for a short way, and crosses it just before its influx into 
the Neckar, near (18 M.) Beaigheim (*Waldhorn; Bahnhof ; Krone), 
an antiquated little town, probably of Roman origin, very pictur- 
esquely situated on a rock between the Enz and the Neckar, with 
two handsome towers of mediaeval castles. On the Michaelsberg 
(1280 ft.), 6 M. to the N.W., is a very ancient chapel, said to have 
been once a Roman temple of Luna. The line now follows the 
Neckar, passes through a tunnel (700 yds.) beyond (22 M.) Kirch- 
heim (to the right of which is Liebenstein , with an interesting 
church and a Renaissance chateau), and returns to the river at — 

25 M. Lauffen (564 ft.), the old castle and church of which stand 
picturesquely on two rocks, separated by the river. Beyond (28^2 M.) 
Nordheim, on a height to the left, is the Heuchelberger Warte 
(1036 ft.). Above Heilbronn rise the vine-clad Wartberg, on the N., 
and the wooded Schweinsberg (p. 21), on the S.E. 


20 Routed. HEILBRONN. From Stuttgart 

33 M. Heilbronn (comp. Plan, p. 13). - Hotels. 'Eisenbahn- 
Hotel (PI. a; B, 3), with salt-baths and good restaurant, on the Neckar, 
opposite the post-office, E. & B. 2'/2-3 Jl; "Bahhhof-Hotel, opposite the 
railway-station, E. & B. 2>/2, D. 2 jtt; Badischek Hof, Kkonpkisz (moderate), 
also at the station ; Falke (Pl.b; C, 3), in the Market; Krone, Lohthor-Str. 
(PI. C, 3), E,, L., & A. 11/2-2 Jl, B. 60 pf., D. lVa-2 Jl. 

Cafes-Bestadrants. Faesi zur Harmonie, in the Allee ; Deuttches Maui 
(see p. 21); "Hagele turn Kathchen, Kirchbrunnen-Str. ; Weyhing zur Sonne, 
Siilmer-Str. ; Frank'sche Brauerei, Fleimer-Str. — Wise Booms. 'Zehender, 
Kram-Str. ; Albrecht, in the Allee. 

Heilbronn (518 ft.), formerly a free city of the Empire, now an 
important industrial town with 29,940 inhab., is charmingly situated 
on both banks of the Neckar. The Allee, a pleasant avenue on the 
site of the old fortifications, encircles the old town, beyond which 
suburbs are springing up in every direction. 

On our left, as we leave the station, is the Custom House, with 
the Wilhelms-Canal ; farther on are the Winterhafen and Holzhafen. 
From the Bahnhof-Str. we enter the town by a broad iron bridge. 
On the right bank, to our right, is the handsome new Post Office 
(PI. B, 3). In the next side-street to the right is the Historical 
Museum (PI. 5; B, 3), comprising prehistoric and other antiqui- 
ties from the environs of Heilbronn. 

Going straight on, we come to the Market-Place. On the left 
rises the late-Gothic Rathhaus (PI. 13; B, C, 3), with its lofty 
flight of steps, containing a curious clock constructed by Habrecht 
in 1580. In the council-chamber Gotz von Berlichingen, immor- 
talised by Goethe, is said to have effectually cured 'headache, tooth- 
ache, and every other human malady', with blows from his 'iron 
hand'. Letters from him, from Franz von Sickingen, the Reformer, 
from Schiller, who solicits the protection of the town in 1793, and 
others are shown in the Archives. The old-fashioned house at the 
S.W. corner of the Market (PI. 6 ; B, 3) is pointed out as that in 
which 'Kathchen of Heilbronn' was born ; but her history is purely 

The *Church of St. Kilian (PI. 9; C, 3), originally an early- 
Gothic edifice founded in 1013, of which the nave, with pointed 
arcades, is the only remnant, was rebuilt in the late-Gothic style in 
the 15th cent., and the tower, 217 ft. in height, was completed in 
1529 in the Renaissance style. The whole building has just been 
thoroughly restored. The choir (1480), with richly articulated pillaTS 
and network-vaulting, contains an *Altar in carved wood, by Til- 
mann Riemenschneider (1498), and a fine ciborium. — The ad- 
joining Clara-Strasse contains handsome new buildings. 

We descend the Kirchbrunnen-Str. to the right, and enter the 
Deutschhof-Str. to the left, with the Deutsches Haus (PI. 2; B, 4), 
originally an imperial palace, afterwards occupied by the Teutonic 
Order, and now by the courts of law. The Treaty of Heilbronn was 
concluded here in 1633. The oldest part of the building is the 
lowest story, in the Romanesque style, of the tower of the adjacent 

9eographi£che Anstalt van 

.1 Debt* s . l,.M"D7,i£- 

to Hanau. HEILBRONN. 4. Route. 21 

Roman Catholic church. The court on the N. side is picturesque. 
Opposite is the old Schonthaler Hof (now Restaurant zum Deut- 
schen Hause, see p. 20), where, as a quaint inscription on the gate- 
way (right side) records, Charles V. once spent four weeks and was 
cured of an illness by the Heilbronn waters. 

Nearly opposite the Deutsches Haus is the Allerheiligen-Str. , 
leading to the square red Diebsthurm or Ootzens Thurm (PI. 3 ; 
B, 4), in which Goethe, contrary to the fact, represents Gotz von 
Berlichingen as having died (whereas he was only imprisoned here 
for one night in 1519 ; comp. pp. 20, 22). To the E. of the tower 
we ascend the Rosenberger-Str. to the Allee (p. 20), in which, on 
the right, rises the Synagogue (PL 14 ; C, 4), in the Moorish-By- 
zantine style. Farther on is the Harmonie-Qebaude (PI. C, D, 3), 
containing the exhibition of the Kunstverein. Near it are the large 
Prison (PI. D, 5) and the New Gymnasium (PI. D, 5). 

From the N. end of the Allee the Thurm-Str. leads W. to the 
Siilmer-Str. Here, on the left, rises the simple Gothic Church of St. 
Nicholas (PI. 10), where the first Protestant divine service was held 
in 1525. The Schiller-Haus opposite was occupied by the poet in 
1793-94. Farther on, in the Hafenmarkt, are remains of the Fran- 
ciscan Church (PI. 7), destroyed by the French in 1688. The tower 
and the cloisters of the old monastery (now a school) are well pre- 

The pretty Cemetery contains several interesting tombstones. 
The Water Works, with steam-pump and reservoir, at the base of 
the "Wartberg, should be seen by engineers. 

On the Wartberg (1010 ft., or 492 ft. above the Neckar ; an ascent 
of 3 /4hr.) are an old watch-tower and an inn. Charming view of the 
Neckar-Thal. Another fine point is the (1 hr. ) Jagerhaus (*Tavern). 
From the Jagerhaus we may walk past the Kopferquelle and through 
wood to the tower on the Schweinsberg (1205 ft. ; l*/ 2 hr. to the S.E. 
of Heilbronn), which affords a fine *Panorama, embracing the Alb 
chain to the S., the Black Forest and Vosges to the S.W., the Haardt 
Mts. and Donnersberg to theW., theOdenwald and Spessart to the 
N., and the Lowenstein Mts. to the E. The Cacilien - Wiese (IY2M.) 
presents a lively and picturesque scene at the vintage season. An- 
other favourite point is the Trappensee (*Restaurant), l^M. to the 
E. of the town. 

From Heilbronn to Bretteu and Carlsruhe, see p. 18; to Schwdbisch- 
Hall, see p. 23. 

The train now crosses the Wilhelms-Canal and the Neckar. To 
the right is the line to Weinsberg (R. 5); on the hill are the tower 
and inn on the Wartberg (see above). Near (37 M.) Neckarsulm, 
a pleasant little town with an old chateau of the Teutonic Order, 
the train returns to the Neckar, and beyond (39 M.) Kochendorf 
(village and chateau V2 M. to the E.) it crosses the Kocher. — 
40 M. Jagstfeld (*Brduninger's Bad-Hotel, with terrace on the 

22 Route 4. EBERBACH. 

Neckar), a saline bath at the mouth of the Jagst, with a sanatory 
institute for children (Bethesda). Near the station are the salt- 
springs of Friedrichshall. 

From Jagstfeld to Osteebceken, 24 M., railway in 3 /4-l'/2 hr. The 
line runs via Neudenau and Mbckmiihl. — 24 M. Oslerburken, on the Heidel- 
berg and Wiirzburg railway, see p. 71. 

From Jagstfeld to Heidelbeeg, 35 M. (railway in 2 hrs.). The train 
crosses the Neckar. 2 M. Wimpfen, Wimp/en l im Thar and above it 
' Wimpfen am Berg\ both 'enclaves' of Hessen, with the salt-works and 
saline baths of Ludwig shall ("Bad-H6tel Ritter ; Mathilderibad ; Sonne; wine 
at Phil. Schmidd). The fine Gothic abbey-church in the valley was erected 
in 1262-78. Wimpfen am Berg, with its picturesque old houses, towers, 
and walls, affords fine views of the valley of the Neckar, with the Wart- 
berg to the S.E. The remains of the Hohenstaufen residence and chapel 
(now a stable) are interesting. The parish-church has a Gothic choir of 
the 13th cent.; the Dominican church was rebuilt at the beginning of the 
18th cent, in the Baroque style. 

The line now traverses a hilly and partly wooded district. 51/2 M. 
Rappenau ('Gasthof zur Saline) also has salt-springs. Several unimportant 
stations. Then (14 M.) Sinzheim, where Turenne defeated the Imperial army 
in 1674. The line traverses the Elsenz-Thal. At (221/2 M.) Meckesheim (Zur 
Eisenbahn ; Rail. Restaurant), on the Elsenz, it joins the railway to Neckar- 
elz (p. 71). 241/2 M. Matter; 26 M. Bammenthal; 28V2 M. Neckargemilnd, the 
junction of the Wiirzburg line (R. 15); thence to (35 M.) Heidelberg, see p. 72. 

The train crosses the Jagst and at (4272 M.) Offenau, with 
the salt -springs of Clemenshall, enters the charming vine -clad 
Neckar-Thal, with its numerous castles. The village and chateau of 
Heinsheim and the ruined castle of Ehrenberg are passed on the 
left hank. — 45 M. Qundelsheim (Prinz Karl), a small town with 
walls, towers, and a picturesque chateau on an ivy-clad rock. Op- 
posite, on a hill on the left bank, is the ruin of Guttenberg. The 
train then passes through the Michelsberg by a tunnel 950 yds. long 
to (4672 M.) Hassmersheim (Anker). To the right, above (47 ^2 M.) 
Neckarzimmern, rises the picturesque castle of Hornberg, where 
Gotz von Berlichingen died in 1562 (comp. p. 21). —Then through 
the charming valley to (left) Hochhausen, where we cross the Elz to 
(5072 M.) Neckarelz (436 ft.; Rail. Restaurant; Kling ; Hirsch), the 
junction of the Wiirzburg -Heidelberg and Meckesheim railways 
(p. 71). 

The train follows the right bank of the pretty, wooded Neckar- 
Thal. Beyond (5272 M.) Binau a tunnel 850 yds. long penetrates 
the Rothenberg. — 5572 Neckargerach (Krone), with large quarries; 
on the hill is the ruined Minneburg, destroyed in the Thirty Years' 
War. 5772 M. Zwingenberg (Schiff), with a picturesque castle, now 
restored, property of the Grand-Duke of Baden. 

64 M. Eberbach(440ft.; *Leininger Hof ',- *Krone), an old town 
with a brisk trade in timber (4940 inhab.). The Katzenbuckel 
(2053 ft.), the highest of the Odenwald Mts., commanding an ex- 
tensive view, may be ascended hence in 2 hrs. — To Heidelberg 
through the Neckar-Thal, see p. 71. 

Our train quits the Neckar-Thal and turns to the right into the 
grassy and wooded valley of the Itterbach, which it crosses several 

WEINSBERG. 5. Route. 23 

times. Beyond (671/2 M.) Oaimuhle a lofty -viaduct. — 71l/ 2 M - 
Kailbach; 75M. Schbllenbach. The train penetrates the Krahenberg 
by a tunnel nearly 2 M. long, descends the Milmling- Thai to (78 M.) 
Hetzbach-Beerfelden, and crosses the Himbdchel Viaduct, 145 ft. 
high. — 83 M. Erbach (*Zum Odenwald; Adler), a town with 
2800 inhab. , is the principal place on the estates of Count Erbach. 
The Schloss contains several interesting *Collections (armour, fire- 
arms, antiquities). In the chapel is shown the stone sarcophagus 
of Eginhard and his wife Emma (early-Gothic, and therefore not 
genuine), brought from the church of Seligenstadt (see below) 
in 1810. 

84V2 M. Michelstadt (*L'6we; Schu-an; Dr. Scharfenberg's Hy- 
dropathic), a prettily-situated little town, with a late-Gothic church 
(15th cent.) and a quaint Rathhaus. Opposite, to the left, is Stein- 
bach, with Eginhard's basilica, one of the most important relics of 
the Carlovingian epoch and earlier than the church at Seligenstadt 
(see below). — We pass Schloss Fiirstenau (left) and the stations of 
Zell, Konig, Miimling- Grumbach, and Hochst-Neustadt. Tunnel. — 
97 M. Wiebelsbaeh-Htubach , junction of the Darmstadt line (see 
Baedeker's Rhine'). — 99 M. Gross- Umstadt (*Lamm) ; lOO 1 ^ M. 
Klein- Vmstadt; 104 M. Langstadt; 105!/2 M. Babenhausen , the 
junction for Darmstadt and Aschaffenburg (see p. 61). 

112 M. Seligenstadt, with 3700 inhab., is famous for the abbey 
founded here about 827 by Eginhard (or Einhard), the biographer 
of Charlemagne. — H4Y2M. Hainstadt ; II6Y2M. Klein- Auheim.- — 
The train then crosses the Main and reaches (118 M.) Hanau(jp. 59). 

5. From Heilbronn to Schwabisch-Hall (Nuremberg ) . 

34 M. Railway in 1-2 hrs. (fares 4 M 40, 2 Jl 90, 1 Jl 90 pf. ; express 
5 Jl, 3 Jl 5 pf.) ; express to Nuremberg by this route in 41/4 hrs. (14 Jl 50, 
9 Jl 60, 6 Jl 20 pf.). This is the shortest route between Nuremberg and 
Carlsruhe (via Bretten, p. 14). 

Heilbronn, see p. 20. The train crosses the Wilhelms-Canal and 
the Neckar. To the left diverges the line to Eberbach and Hanau 
(R. 4). Tunnel (1111 yds.). 

472 M. Weinsberg (600 ft. ; *Traube), an ancient and historically 
memorable town. The ruined castle of Weibertreu ('women's faith- 
fulness'), on the height, was the scene of the events on which 
Chamisso founded one of his ballads. Justinus Kerner, the poet 
(d. 1862), occupied a house at the foot of the hill. Near it is a 
monument to him. The handsome Romanesque Church , a basilica 
with pointed arcades, contains a small picture of 1659, represent- 
ing the women quitting the castle. During the War of the Peasants 
in 1525 the most savage atrocities were committed here. 

We next traverse the fertile and populous Weinsberg er-Thal. 
On a hill to the right , near (8 M.) Willsbach , is the small town 
of Lowenstein (1260 ft.), commanded by the ruined castle of the 

24 Route 5. HALL. 

Lowenstein-Wertheim family. In a narrow valley at the N.W. foot 
of the hill lies the Thausser Bad, -with springs containing Epsom 
salts and sulphate of lime ; at the E. base is Lichtenstem, a Prot- 
estant reformatory for children, formerly a nunnery. Beyond (10 M.) 
Eschenau the train descends into the valley of the Brettach, which 
it crosses near (13 M.) Bretzfeld. 

I61/2 M. Oehringen (748 ft. ; Wurttemberger Hof; pop. 3700) 
is a pleasant town on the Ohm, with a chateau of Prince Hohenlohe- 
Oehringen, below which are vast cellars. The Gothic Stiftskirche, 
containing monuments of the Hohenlohe family and good stained 
glass, is interesting. — 21 M. Neuenstein; 24^2 M. Waldenburg, 
both with chateaux of the Hohenlohe family. Beyond (27 M.) 
Kwpfer the train reaches the highest point (1243 ft.) of the line, 
and then descends rapidly to (30 M.) Oailenkirchen and the valley 
of the Kocher, passing through two tunnels. 

34 M. Hall, or Schwabisch-Hall (885 ft; *Lamm; *Adler), on 
the Kocher (pop. 9100), once a city of the empire, has a picturesque 
appearance from the station. The Gothic Church of St. Michael 
(1427-1525) contains as an altar-piece an Entombment, ascribed 
to Lohkorn (about 1480). On the left bank of the Kocher is the 
Church of St. Catharine (14th cent.), containing a fine high-altar. 
Large salt-works with saline baths. 

The salt-water is conveyed in pipes from the "Wilhelmsgrtick mine 
(7 M.), which is more interesting than those in the Salzkammergut. 
Descent by a flight of steps (G80), or by a slide. The long galleries and 
spacious halls, glittering with crystals of salt, are imposing. Pure rock- 
salt is excavated here. Where the salt is less pure, it is obtained by 
filling portions of the mine with water, which in a few weeks becomes 
saturated with salt, and is then drawn off and evaporated. 

The interesting church (12th cent.) of the old Benedictine abbey of 
Komburg, at Steinbach (Traube), l'/z SI. to the S. of Hall, now a home 
for invalid soldiers, possesses an embossed altar-covering (antependium) 
in gilded copper, of 1130, and a huge candelabrum of the same period. 
Immediately below it is Klein- Kombtirg, with the early-Eomanesque church 
of St. JLgidius. In the choir are frescoes of the 12th cent., discovered in 
1877, now restored. Komburg and Steinbach are l'/4 M. from Hessenthal 
(see below). 

Beyond Hall the train passes through two tunnels and goes on 
to (38 M.) Hessenthal, junction of the following line (p. 25). 

6. From Stuttgart to Nuremberg via Sacknang. 

120 M. Railway in 4-7»/« hrs. (fares 15 M 40, 10 M 20, 6 M 60 pf.; 
express 17 M 60, 12 Jl 40, 8 Jt 80 pf.). This railway forms the shortest 
line of communication between Stuttgart and Nuremberg (comp. RE. 5, 7). 

To (8 M.) Waiblingen, see p. 27. The Mtjkrthal Railway 
here diverges to the left from the Bemsthal Line (R. 7), and crosses 
the deep Remsthal by a viaduct and an iron bridge. lO^M. Neu- 
stadt, with the favourite watering-place of Neustadtle. Tunnel of 
390 yds. 12 M. Schwaikheim ; 14 M. Winnenden, a busy little 
town, with the chateau of Winnenthal, now a lunatic asylum of 
high repute. In the background, to the right, rise the spurs of the 

MURRHARDT. 6. Route. 25 

Welzheimer Wald (Wartturm of Burg, Buocher Hohe). Pleasant 
walk via Buoch (p. 27) to the Remsthal. — 16 M. Nellmersbach; 
17 M. Maubach. We now enter the Murrthal and reach — 

19 M. Backnang ( Post), a manufacturing town (6763 inhab.) 
with extensive tanneries. Interesting Gothic-Romanesque church 
of a canonry founded heTe about 1116. To the right, in the back- 
ground, is the Murrhardter Wald (with Schloss Ebersberg) ; to the 
left are the Lo wenstein Mts. — The small watering-place of Rietenau 
(Curhaus) lies 3^2 M. to the N. of Backnang. 

Fkom Backnang to Bietigheim, 16 M. (railway in '/i-i'A hr.). The line 
follows the Murrthal, passing Burgslall and Eirchberg, to (8>/2 M.) Marbach 
(Post), a small town on a height on the right bank of the Neckar, the 
birthplace of Schiller (b. 10th Nov., 1759; d. 9th May, 1805). The house in 
which he was born, purchased by subscription in 1859, and restored to its 
original condition, contains reminiscences of the illustrious poet. Close to 
the town is the Schillerhbhe , a park with a beautiful view, containing a co- 
lossal bronze "Statue of Schiller, by Rau, erected in 1876. — The line crosses 
the Neckar by a viaduct 103 ft. high (fine view). — 12'/2 M. Beihingen 
(junction for Ludwigsburg, p. 16). Then (16 M.) Bietigheim (p. 15). 

The train crosses the Weissach and descends into the peaceful 
wooded Murrthal. 22 M. Steinbach ; 23 M. Oppenweiler , with the 
chateau of Hr. von Sturmfeder, and the hoary Reichenberg. 25 1 / 2 M. 
Sulzbach, where the mediaeval Schloss Lautereck is now a tannery. 
The train crosses the Murr. 

29 M. Murrhardt (930 ft.; Sonne or Post; *Stern), an ancient 
little town (4200 inhab.), once a Benedictine abbey. The Walderichs- 
kirche, on the hill, perhaps occupies the site of a Roman fort. The 
Stadtkirche, formerly the abbey-church, will repay a visit. The 
*Walderichs-Kapelle, adjoining the N. tower of the Stadtkirche, is in 
the late-Romanesque style. The Roman castrum lay to the S.E. of 
the town. The Roman 'limes' (p. 27) from Welzheim to Mainhardt, 
crossing the Murrthal, passes about 3 / 4 M. to the E. of Murrhardt. 

32 M. Fornsbach. 

A pleasant excursion (road) may be made to the S. to the (6 M.) 
Ebnisee (1555 ft.), a pretty forest-lake. About 1 M. to the S.E., hy the 
Roman 'limes' (p. 27), is Oausmanmweiler (Inn Zum Ebnisee). 

The train passes through the 'Schanze', or E. wall of the Murr- 
thal, by a tunnel 578 yds. long , and reaches the Roththal near 
(35 M.) Fichtenberg. Another tunnel, 590 yds. long, leads to the 
Kocher-Tkal and (38V2 M.) Gaildorf. The Kocher is crossed by a 
lofty bridge. 40 M. Ottendorf; 43^2 M. Wilhelmsgluck, station for 
the salt-mines of that name (p. 24). Then (45y 2 M.) Hessenthal, 
junction of the line to Ball (p. 24). The station lies at the foot of 
the Einkom (1555 ft. ; view), a favourite resort from Hall (3^2 M.), 
with a ruined church and pleasure-grounds. 

Next stations Sulzdorf, where the Buhlerbach is crossed, Oross- 
altdorf, Eckartshausen, and Maulach, with a chalybeate spring. 

From Maulach an excursion may be made to (2'/< M.) Burgberg (1755'), 
a gamekeeper's house (rfmts.) on a hill-top enclosed by an ancient earthen 
rampart; extensive view. 

62 M. Crailsheim (*Lamm; Botel Faber; Deutscher Kaiser), on 

26 Route 6. HEILSBRONN. 

the Jagst, a town of 5000 inhab., with a handsome Rathhaus and 
an old chateau of the Hohenlohe family (now public offices). The 
Gothic Church of St. John (15th cent.) contains a winged altar with 
paintings by Wohlgemut, and a ciborium of 1498. 

From Crailsheim to Mergentheim, 36'/z M. (railway in 172-2 hrs.). 
Stations Satteldorf, Wallhausen, Moth am See (p. 130), Blaufelden, Schrozberg 
(p. 130). 23'/2 M. Mederstelten, an old town with walls and gates, the resi- 
dence of Prince Hohenlohe-Jagstberg ; 28 M. Laudenbach; 30 M. Weikers- 
heim ("Hirsch, Lamm), on the Tauber, with the interesting chateau of Prince 
Hohenlohe- Langenburg. (Thence to Creglingen and Rothenburg ob der 
Tauber, see p. 130.) Then Markelsheim (a wine-growing place), Igersheim, 
and Mergentheim (p. 70). 

From Crailsheim to Nordlingen, 40 M. (railway in 2-3 hrs.); to 
Ulm, 68 M. (by Aalen and Heidenheim, in 3V2-6 hrs.). The line ascends the 
Jagstthal towards the S. ; stations Jagstheim, Stimpfach, and Jagstzell, where 
the Jagst is crossed. Then (13 M.) Ellwangen (1410 ft. ; Adler; Post), an old 
town (pop. 4700) with a castle on a hill, a small ecclesiastical principality 
down to 1803. The Sliflskirche, founded in 770, rebuilt in 1124, in the 
Romanesque style, with a crypt under the choir, is in admirable preser- 
vation. The interior was tastefully embellished with stucco-ornamentation 
in the 17th century. On the walls are two epitaphs in bronze by Peter 
Vischer of Nuremberg. On the Schbnenberg (1710 ft.), to the N.E., is the 
handsome Church of Loretto, a resort of pilgrims. — Near Ellwangen P/4 31 
to the 8.W.) are the favourite mineral baths of Schrezheim, At (18'/a M.n 
Ooldshbfe the train reaches the Remsthal Railway (p. 28). 

Beyond (67 M.) Ellrichshausen, with a ruined castle, the train 
crosses the Bavarian frontier. — 69'/2 M. Schnelldorf; 72^2 M. 
Zumhaus ; 76 M. Dombiihl (Rail. Restaurant , with rooms) , the 
junction for Dinkelsbiihl and Nordlingen (p. 111). — 82i/a M. 
Bilchelberg; 85 M. Leutershausen. — 91'/2 M. Ansbach (p. 130), 
the junction of the Frankfort and Munich line (R. 25). 

The line runs for a short distance through the Rezat-Thal, and 
then turns to the N.E. by stations Sachsen and Wicklesgreuth to 
(lOO 1 ^ M Heilsbronn(1345 ft. ; Post), a small town, with remains 
of a famous Cistercian Abbey, partly in good preservation. The 
church, a Romanesque basilica with timber roof, begun in 1150, with 
a Gothic choir (1263-80 and later) and a Gothic aisle (1430-35, after- 
wards enlarged), and the refectory (now a Roman Catholic church), 
with fine vaulting and Gothic turrets, are still standing; but the 
cloisters and other parts of the monastery were destroyed in 1770. 

The abbey-church was the burial-place of the Franconian line of the 
Hohenzollerns from 1297 to 1625 and contains the ashes of the first three 
Brandenburg Electors of that house, Frederick I., Frederick II., and Albert 
Achilles. Among the finest monuments are those of the Electress Anna of 
Brandenburg (d. 1512) ; of Margrave George Frederick of Ansbach (d. 1603), 
with eight statuettes of Counts of Zollern ; and of the Margrave Joachim 
Ernest (d. 1625). Observe also three winged altar-pieces with carvings and 
paintings by Grunewald (altar of St. Ursula) and of Wohlgemuth school 
(about 1500), and a late-Gothic ciborium (1515). Both the church and its 
works of art have suffered from the restoration in 1856-60. The spring 
which gave the abbey its name rises within the church. 

105Y2 M. Raitersaich ; 109 M. Rossstall, with an old church; 
114 M. Stein, with Faber's celebrated lead-pencil factory (shown 
by special permission only). The train then crosses the Rednitz, 
and reaches Schweinau and (120 M.) Nuremberg (p. 95). 

7. From Stuttgart to Nordlingen and Nuremberg. 

Railwat (Remsthal Line) to (71 M.) Nordlingen in 2 3 U-b hrs. (fares 
9 Jl 40, 6 Jl 30, 4 Jl 10 pf.; express 10 Jl 80, 7 Jt 70 pf .); thence to 
(62 M.) Nuremberg (Bavarian Railway) in 2'/4-4 hrs. (fares 8 Jl, 5 Jl 30, 
3 J* 40 pf. ; express 9 Jl 20, 6 Jl 50 j>f.). Express from Stuttgart to Nurem- 
berg via, Nordlingen in 5'/a hrs. (via Crailsheim in 4 hrs.; comp. R. 6). 

The Remsthal Railway diverges to the left from the Stuttgart 
and Ulm line beyond (2^2 M.) Cannstatt (p. 13), and winds up the 
hill which separates the valleys of the Neckar and the Rems. From 
the top a fine view of Stuttgart, the Neckar-Thal, and the Rothen- 
berg (p. 29). — 6 M. Fellbach (Traube). The line now descends to — 

8 M. Waiblingen (Post; Lowe), a town of great antiquity 
(4786 inhab.), whence the imperialSalic line and the succeeding 
House of Hohenstaufen derived theirname of Waiblinger, corrupted 
by the Italians into Ghibellini, once so celebrated as the name of a 
faction. The late-Gothic Aussere Kirche, outside the town, erected 
1459-88, restored 1866, has a fine tower. (To Murrhardt, see R. 6.) 

The populous, fertile, and picturesque Remsthal, enclosed by 
the Schurwald on the right and the spurs of the Welzheimer Wald 
on the left, begins here. Beyond (11 M.) Endersbach is a handsome 
viaduct. To the right, in a lateral valley, are Beutelsbach (Lowe) 
and Schnaith, wine-growing places, the former with a very ancient 
abbey-church. To the left lies Oross-Heppach (Lamm). On the 
height to the left of (14 M.) Orunbach isthe village oiBuoch, afford- 
ing a fine view of the Swabian Alb (see p. 25) ; to the right is the 
Schbnbiihl, with a reformatory for boys. 17 M. Winterbach. 

18^2 M. Schorndorf (Krone), an old town once fortified (4500 in- 
hab.), has an interesting Gothic church, with very fine portal and 
choir of 1477. — Near (21 M.) Vrbach the train crosses the Rems. 
2272 M. Pluderhausen (Stern). Above (241/2 M.) Waldhausen, to 
the N., is the Elisabethenburg, where Emp. Frederick Barbarossa is 
said to have been born (p. 42). The vine-culture ceases. — To the 
N.E. of (27 M.)Lorch (*Harmonia; Sonne; Krone) rises the Bene- 
dictine monastery of that name, founded by the Hohenstaufen in 
1102, partly destroyed in the War of the Peasants, and recently 
restored. It contains several tombs and monuments of the Hohen- 
staufen, but none of the more distinguished members of the family. 
In the centre of the nave is a late-Gothic cenotaph, erected in 1475 
to Duke Frederick of Swabia (d. 1105), the founder of the mon- 
astery. The unimportant mural paintings are of the 15th century. 

Lorch was the site of a Roman castrum, and there was, perhaps, 
another on the monastery-hill. Here begins the Rhine Limes (boundary) of 
the Romans, which took the Hohenstaufen as its objective point ; while at 
Pfahlbronn, 3 M. to the N., is the end of the Danube Limet, stretching to- 
wards the E. (comp. p. 127). — From Lorch a road leads to the S. to (3 M.) 
WUschenbeuern (Hirsch) and (IV2 M .) Hohenstaufen, (p. 42). 

The Wascher Schlossle, s/< M. to the N.E. of Waschenbeuern, was the 
seat of Frederick of Biiren (11th cent.), progenitor of the Hohenstaufen. 

We obtain a glimpse of the Hohenstaufen to the right as the 
train emerges from a short cutting just beyond Lorch, and after- 

28 Route 7. AALEN. 

wards a glimpse of the double-peaked Bechberg (p. 42). In the valley 
lies Schierenhof, a Roman castrum. 

3^/2 M. Gmiind, or Schwabisch-Gmund (*Bad; Drei Mohren), 
formerly a free city of the Empire (pop. 16,804), possesses three 
very old churches, many manufactories of jewellery, and a laTge 
industrial museum. The Arlers or Parlers were once celebrated 
architects here. The Gothic Kreuzkirche was erected by Heinrich 
Arlerin 1351-77 (completed in 1410; towers 1492); the sculptures 
of the portal date from 1380, and the carved altar from the 15th 
century. The Romanesque Church of St. John contains an old picture 
in which the castle of Hohenstaufen is represented. Outside the 
town is the pilgrimage - church of St. Salvator, with two chapels 
hewn in the rock. The monastery of Gottes-Zell is now a prison. 

Omnibus from Gmiind to Siissen (p. 31) twice daily in 3 hrs. (fare 
1 Jt 40 pf.). Ascent of the Bechberg, see p. 42. 

38 M. Unter-Bobingen, with a Roman castrum ; 40*/2 M. Mbgg- 
lingen. From either of these stations an excursion may be made 
via Heubach to the (4^2 M.) Bosenstein (2398 ft.), with some 
interesting ruins and a superb view of the Alb. — At (43^2 M.) 
Essingen we cross the watershed (1719 ft.) between the Rems and 
Kocher, and descend into the Kocher-Thal. 

47 M. Aalen (Krone), once a free imperial town (pop. 7150), 
was the birthplace of the poet C. D. F. Schubart (d. 1791) and 
contains a monument to him. The Cemetery Church is adjoined 
by a Roman camp. 

From Aalen to Ulm, 45 M. (railway in 2 hrs.). 2'/2 M. Unterkochen; 
5 M. Oberkochen (IV2 M. above which is the picturesque source of the 
Kocher) ; 9 M. Konigsbronn, with large iron-works, at the point where the 
Brenz takes its rise in the picturesque Brenztopf or KSnigsbrunnen. Then 
through the smiling Brenzlhal. 12 M. Schnaitheim. — 14 M. Heidenheim 
COchs), a thriving industrial town with 8000 inhab. , commanded by the 
picturesque half-ruined Schloss Hellenstein (view-tower). A road leads to the 
W. via Steinheim into the (6 M.) picturesque Wendthal (p. 32). — ib l lv M. 
Mergehtetten ; 17'/2 M. Herbrechtingen (road to Hiirben, see below, 2>/2 M.); 
21 M. Oiengen (Post), once an imperial town, with mineral baths. — From 
(24 M.) Hermaringen a visit may be paid to the recently discovered "Char- 
lotten-Hohle near Hiirben, 3 M to the W. The road leads via Burgberg, 
with the picturesquely situated chateau of Count Carl von Linden, and 
the ruin of Kaltenburg. The cave (715 yds. long) lies in the Hiirbethal, a 
characteristic Jura valley, Y2 M. to the S. of the village of Hiirben. It 
consists of several chambers of different sizes and is specially interesting 
on account of the beautiful stalactites pendant from the roof (electric lights ; 
admission-fees various). J\ear the mouth of the cave is a restaurant. — 
The train follows the Brenzthal to (28 M.) Sontheim, and then turns to the 
S.W. to Nieder-Stotzingen. Stations Ramming en; Langenau, a thriving little 
town with 3650 inhab. ; Unter-Elchingen, the scene of the battle (14th Oct., 
1805) from which Ney acquired his ducal title; and Thalftngen. The train 
then crosses the Danube to (45 M.) Ulm (p. 32). 

At (4872 M.) Wasseralfingen (*Zum Schlegel, opposite the 
foundry) are extensive iron-works, with an interesting little rack- 
and-pinion railway ascending to the shaft on the hillside. Above 
rises the Braunenberg (view). The train quits the Kocher-Thal and 
ascends rapidly to bl 1 ^ M. Goldshdie (junction for the Ellwangen 

ESSLINGEN. 8, Route. 29 

and Crailsheim line, p. 26), where it turns to tlie E. On a hill to 
the right, between (54 M.) Westhausen and (57 M.) Lauchheim, is 
Schloss Kapfenburg . Beyond Lauchheim the line is carried through 
the watershed (1905 ft.) between the Rhine and the Danube by means 
of deep cuttings and a tunnel (710 yds.), and enters the narrow and 
picturesque Eger-Thal. About 4i/ 2 M. to the N. lies the chateau 
of Hohen-Baldem (2060 ft.), belonging to the Prince of Oettingen- 
Wallerstein , with a new and lofty tower. Above Bopfingen the 
FLochberg, with a ruined castle, is seen on the right ; to the left is 
the bare cone of the ^^(2237 ft. ; view), on which prehistoric stone 
implements have been found. 

64 M. Bopfingen (1535 ft. ; Kbnig von Wiirttemberg), once an im- 
perial town. The Gothic Church of St. Blasius contains a winged altar- 
piece by F. Herlen (1477) and a ciborium by H. Boblinger (1510). 

The line quits theE. part of the Alb district and enters the Ries 
(p. 112). 76 M. Trochtelfingen ; 68 M. Pflaumloch. 

71 M. Ndrdlingen, p. 111. Thence to Nuremberg, see R. 22. 

8. From Stuttgart to Friedrichshafen. 

Comp. Map, p. 42. 

123 M. Railway to Ulm in 2y«-33/ 4 hrs. (fares 7 Jl 60, 5 Jl, 3 Jl 20 pf. ; 
express 8 Jl 20, 5 Jl 80 pf.); to Friedrichshafen in fr/i-l hrs. (fares 15 Jl 
80, 10 Jl 50, 6 Jt 80 pf. ; express 18 Jl, 12 Ji 60 pf.). 

To (2^2 M.) Cannstatt, see p. 13. Looking back, we obtain a 
fine view of the Royal Villa, the Rosenstein, and the Wilhelma with 
its gilded dome. The train ascends on the bank of the Neckar, tra- 
versing one of the most beautiful and fertile districts in Swabia. 

5 M. Vnter-Turkheirn (Krone), a village with 3200 inhab., lies at 
the foot of the Bothenberg (1350 ft.; *H6tel-Restaurant Luz), where 
King "William (d. 1864) erected a Greek chapel, on the site of the 
old ancestral castle of the princes of Wurtemberg , as a mausoleum 
for his consort Queen Catharine (d. 1819), a Russian princess, and 
himself. In the interior the four Evangelists by Dannecker. Service 
of the Greek church on Sundays. 

Instead of the steep, stony, and shadeless ascent from Unter-Turkheim, 
we may choose the pleasanter but rather longer route from Ober-Tiirkheim 
(see below), either by Vhlbach or direct. A still more extensive prospect is 
obtained from the Katharinen-Linde, to the S.E., >/z hr. higher. Charming 
walk hence to (3 M.) Esslingen (see below). 

Barely '/2 M. to the S.W. of Unter-Turkheim, and on the left bank of 
the Neckar, lies Wangen (Krone), a favourite point for excursions from 
Stuttgart. A path leads from Stuttgart through the woods and over the 
hill direct to Wangen in l'/2 hr.; beautiful views of the city in ascending, 
and of the Neckar-Thal in descending. 

6 M. Ober- Tiirkheim (*Ochse), another favourite resort. 

9 M. Esslingen (757 ft. ; *Hdtel Pfahler zur Krone, R. IV2- 2 , B. 
3 U, D.2jf; Laich zur Post, R. 1-1 1/ 2 , D. I-II/2 -Mi KuyeVs Beer 
Saloon), prettily situated on the Neckar, with 22,156 inhab., once a 
free imperial city and still partly surrounded by walls, which were 
built by Emperor Frederick II. in 1216. Sparkling Neckar-wine is 

30 Route 8. GOPPINGEN. From Stuttgart 

largely manufactured here. The engineering works founded here by 
Kessler are the largest in Wurtemberg. Other branches of industry 
also flourish. 

In the market-place is the church of St. Dionysius, a basilica 
in the transition style, founded in the 11th cent., and partly 
altered in the 14th and 15th, which possesses a fine screen and 
ciborium of 1486. St. Paul's Church, also in the market, in the 
early-Gothic style , completed in 1268 , is now used by the Roman 
Catholics. Opposite the present Rathhaus , which was once the 
palace of Count Alexander of "Wurtemberg , the poet , is the Old 
Rathhaus, erected in 1430, and formerly known as the 'Steinerne 
Haus'. It is surmounted by the imperial eagle under a gilded 
canopy, and another eagle forms the vane on the turret. — Farther 
on in the same direction is the Wolfsthor, on which are still seen 
the lions of the Hohenstaufen, hewn in stone. 

The conspicuous late-Gothic *Liebfrauenkirche, erected in 1406- 
1522, was restored in 1862 and again quite recently. Admirable 
reliefs on the three portals, especially that of the Last Judgment on 
the S. Portal. The interior, with its slender pillars, contains fine 
stained-glass windows. Adjoining the organ-loft are the tombstones 
of Hans andMatthseusBoblinger, two of the architects of the church. 
Fine perforated tower, 247 ft. in height, completed in 1526 ; beautiful 
view from the top. — The once imperial castle of Per fried, above 
the town, commands another superb view (Restaurant). — The 
Maille, an island in the Neckar laid out as a promenade, is em- 
bellished with bronze busts of Karl Pfaff, the historian, and Theodore 
Oeorgii, the gymnastic teacher. 

Quitting Esslingen, the train recrosses the Neckar. 12!/2 M. Alt- 
bach. — 14 M. Plochingen (Waldhorn) lies near the confluence of 
the Fils and Neckar. Upper Neckar Railway to Tubingen, see R. 9. 
On the hill (y 9 hr.) is a tower, affording an extensive panorama 
of the Alb. 

The line now follows the Fils (comp. Map, p. 42). 17 M. 
Reichenbach ; 20 M. Ebersbach. On a wooded height to the right, 
near (23 M.) Uhingen, rises the chateau of Filseck; on the river lies 
Faurndau, formerly a Benedictine monastery, with an old Roman- 
esque church. 

26 M. Goppingen (1082 ft. ; *Apostel; *Sand'}, a flourishing town 
with 14,350 inhab., re-erected after a fire in 1782, contains several 
weaving mills, factories of metal-wares, machine-shops, and tan- 
neries. Large lunatic asylum of Dr. Landerer. The government- 
buildings were formerly a ducal castle, erected by Duke Christopher 
in 1562 with the stones of the castle of Hohenstaufen. At the S.W. 
corner of the court an artistically-hewn spiral stone staircase ('Trau- 
benstieg', vine-stair) ascends to the tower. 

Goppingen ia a favourite centre for excursions in the E. Alb. To the 
N. lies Adelsberg, a former convent, with a fine view. The conical Hohen- 
staufen (p. 42), the loftiest and most conspicuous spur of the Alb, is 

to Friedrichshafen. GEISLINGEN. 8. Route. 31 

ascended in 20 min. from Staufen, which ia reached from Gbppingen (5 M.) 
by carr. and pair in 1 hr. (7 j(). — To the S. we may proceed via. (7 M.) 
the sulphur-baths of Boll to the (IV2 hr.) Bosler or (I1/2 hr.) Bertaburg- 
Kornberg (2655 ft.) ; via (1 1/2 hr.) Eschenbach to the (1 hr.) Fuchseck (1920 ft.); 
or via, (H/2 hr.) Schlalh to the top of the (1 hr.) Wasserberg (2428 ft.). 

28'/2 M. Eislingen. — 31 M. Siissen (pp. 28, 42), opposite which 
(to the N.) rises the round tower of the ruined Staufeneck. In the 
old cemetery of Gross-Siissen is a curious Mont de Oalvaire by 
Meister Christof of Drach (ca. 1520?). 

A pleasant excursion may be made to the E., via, (t hr.) Donzdorf, 
to the top of the Messelstein (2455 ft. ; extensive view). — Proceeding to the 
S. from the rail. stat. of Siissen through the village to (1 hr.) the farm of 
Qriineriburg, we may thence ascend the (1 hr.) Burren ('Glufenkissen , ; 
2273 ft.), walk along the slope (sign-posts) to the (V2 hr.) Spitzenberg, ascend 
to the interesting plateau of the Michelsberg (2463 ft.), and traverse the 
( 3 /4 hr.) village of Ober-Bohringen, founded in 1793, to the (20 min.) Hautener 
Felsen, which affords a fine view of the 'Geissen-ThaV. The return may be 
made via the reservoir (distant view of the Alps) to (1 hr.) Ueberkingen and 
(1^4 hr.) Geislingen (see below). 

3372 M. Gingen. To the right appear the long ranges of the 
Alb ; to the left, on an eminence, are the rugged ruins of Scharfen- 
berg. Farther to the S.E. is the Kuehalb (see below). 

From Gingen two routes lead to the (1 hr.) Kuehalb, a hamlet with 
an inn. Thence we may ascend to the (10 min.) Mairhalde (view) and 
to the 0/4 hr.) "Hohenstein (2303 ft.), which commands a splendid view to the 
W. and of the valley. We descend either by a new path to O/2 hr.) 
Kuchen (hence to Geislingen 1 hr.) or to P/2 hr.) Gingen, or via, the Kueh- 
alb to (I1/2 hr.) Geislingen. The Kuehalb may also be reached from Gingen 
in I1/2 hr. past Scharfenberg (see above) by a good path leading partly 
through wood. 

Near Geislingen, to the left, opens the Eybach-Thal with the 
village of Eybach and a chateau of Count Degenfeld ; to the right 
is the Upper Filsthal. 

38M. Geislingen (1522 ft. ; *Sonne; Post, nearest the rail, station, 
with a good restaurant), a busy town (5722 inhab.) in a narrow 
ravine at the base of the Alb, where bone and ivory are carved and 
turned. There are also factories of metal goods and machines. The 
late-Gothic Marierikirche , founded in 1424, contains choir-stalls 
carved by Jorg Syrlin the Younger (1512). On a rock above the town 
rises the Oede Thurm. Opposite, beyond the Pavilion, are the remains 
of the chateau of Helfenstein, destroyed in 1552. 

Geislingen is a good starting-point for the central part of the SwabiaN 
Alb (p. 42). We ascend the Filsthal on foot or by diligence (thrice daily, 
in 23/4 hrs.) to (31/2 M.) Bad Ueberkingen, (3>/2 M.) Deggingen, and (5 M.) 
Wiesensteig (Post). About 3 /4 M. beyond Deggingen we pass on the left 
the chalybeate baths of Ditzenbach. From Wiesensteig we ascend on 
foot to the (l'/4 hr.) "Reussenstein (2500 ft.), a picturesque ruined castle on a 
precipitous rock, commanding the charming Neidlinger-Thal. We then 
follow the top of the hill to the C/2 hr.) Seimenstein, a dark, rocky cavity, 
a few paces below which we obtain a fine view of the Reussenstein and 
the valley. Then by Randeck ( 3 A M. to the S.W. the Randecker Maar, 
with peat-diggings) and Ochsenwang (Inn, rustic) to the (1 hr.) "Breiten- 
slein (2660 ft.), a lofty spur of the Alb Mts., descending precipitously to the 
plain. Next by the Rauberhof and the ruins of the Rauberburg (Diepolds- 
burg) to the top of the (1 hr.) Teck, whence we descend to Owen (p. 43). 
If we omit the Breitenstein, we may proceed from the Reussenstein by 
Schopfloch to (2V2 hrs.) Gutenberg (p. 43), and thence in 2 hrs. more to Owen. 

32 Route 8. ULM. From Stuttgart 

Other excursions may be made from Geislingen to the N. via. Eybach 
(p. 31) and through the romantic Roggen-Thal to (3 hrs.) Weissenstein ; to 
the (2'/2 hrs.) Messelstein (p. 31) ; to the E. via Sohnsletlen to the Wendthal 
(to Bibersohl, 31/2 hrs.). 

The line quits the Filsthal and ascends the Oeislinger Steige, a 
wooded limestone hill, rich in fossils, to the table-land of the Swa- 
bian Alb (R. 11), the watershed between the Neckar and the Da- 
nube. The ascent is very considerable (350 ft. in 3 M. ; 1 : 44); 
and a second engine is added to the train at Geislingen. The train 
crosses the Rauhe Alb, as this lofty plain is called (stations Amstetten, 
Lonsee, Westerstetten, Beimerstetten), and then descends to the valley 
of the Danube. The fortifications of Ulm soon become visible. The 
train passes close to the (r.) Wilhelmsburg, the lofty citadel of Ulm, 
where 30,000 Austrians under General Mack surrendered to the 
French after the battle of Elchingen (p. 28). 

58^2 M. Ulm. — Hotels : Russischee Hof (PI. a ; A, 2), at the station, 
R. & A. 21/2-3, B. 1, D. 2'/2 M; Hotel de l'Europe (PI. b; A, 2), to the 
left of the station, R. IV2 Ji ; Bahnhof-Hotel, R. l : /2 M. In the town : 
•Keonpeinz (PI. c; D, 3), R. from l'/i, D. 2>/4 M ; »Baumstabk (PI. d; 
B, 3), R., L., & A. IV2-21/2, B. 3/4, D. 2i/ 4 M; "Goldenee Lowe (PI. e; 
B, 2), moderate; Obeepollingee, Hirsch-Str. ; "Goldenee Hiesch. — Beer 
at the Wiirltemberger Hof , Platzgasse; at the Kronprinz, Goldner Hirsch, 
and Bahnhof-Hotel (see above); Rother Ochse (with rooms); Strauss, Ober- 
pollinger, Hirsch-Str. ; Beer Saloon near the guard-house. — Wilhelmshbhe 
Restaurant, a fine point of view. 

Military Bands play almost every day in summer on the Wilhelmshbhe 
and other public gardens. Organ Concert daily in summer, 11-12 (see below). 

Vim (1568 ft.), with 36,200 inhab., formerly an important free 
imperial city, as its appearance still indicates, and from 1842 to 
1866 a fortress of the Germanic Confederation, has belonged to 
Wurtemberg since 1810. It lies on the left bank of the Danube, 
which is here joined by the Blau, is augmented by the Iller above 
the town, and from this point downwards is navigable. The Danube 
is the boundary between Wurtemberg and Bavaria , to which Neu- 
Vlm on the opposite bank belongs (7800 inhab. ; garrison 5000). 

The *Munster (Prot. ; PI. 4), founded in 1377, built at inter- 
vals down to the beginning of the i6th cent., and restored and com- 
pleted in 1843-90 , is the largest Gothic church in Germany next 
to the cathedral of Cologne. The massive and beautifully decorated 
*Tower in the centre of the W. facade , with the magnificent triple 
vestibule, was designed and begun by Vlrich Ensinger (1392-95), 
the third of the cathedral architects , erected by his successors as 
far as the top of the square portion by the end of the 15th cent., 
and completed in 1877-90 by Prof. Aug. Beyer by the addition of 
the octagon and pyramid from a sketch left by Matihaus Bbblinger, 
the last of the original architects. Being 528 ft. in height, it is one 
of the loftiest stone towers in the world (Cologne 512 ft., Strassburg 
466 ft.; Washington Monument 555 ft.; Eiffel Tower, in iron, 985 ft.). 

The church is open free, daily 11-12, on Sun. and holidays after divine 
service, incl. 'Performance on the organ in summer (entrance by the 'Braut- 
thtir 1 , on the S. side, near the choir). At other times visitors require 

to Friedrichshafen. ULM. 8. Route. 33 

tickets and enter through the dwelling of the sacristan, adjoining the 
large W. entrance: for the nave and aisle3 20 pf. ; choir, chapels, and 
sacristy, with gnide, 1-4 pers. 1 Jl ; extra organ-performance 10 Jl. The 
main tower may he ascended from 7 to 6 in summer, 9-3 in winter, and 
8-5 in spring and autumn (to the top of the square portion 50 pf., to 
the octagon 1 Jl, children half-price). 

The Interior originally consisted of a nave with two aisles, all of equal 
breadth, but in 1507 the latter were divided by slender round pillars and 
covered with star-vaulting, so as to form four aisles. Length 139 yds., width 
55 yds.; nave 141 ft., aisles 72 ft. in height. The sculpturing on the 
portals is worthy of inspection. On the principal W. portal are the 
Creation, the Fall, Apostles, etc.; on the S.E. side -portal the Last 
Judgment; on the S.W. side -portal the history of Mary. The magnifi- 
cent Organ, the largest in Germany, built in 1856 (100 stops), has lately 
been restored. By the second pillar of the nave is the * Pulpit, executed 
by Burkhard Engelberger about 1500, the "Cover beautifully carved in 
wood by J. Syrlin in 1510. Farther on, to the left of the entrance, to the 
choir, is the * Ciborium, 93 ft. in height, beautifully sculptured in stone by 
the 'Master of Weingarten' (1469). Above the choir-arch is a large fresco 
of the Last Judgment, attributed to Herlin (1470), and till lately concealed 
by whitewash. The * Choir Stalls , by Jorg Syrlin the Elder, 1469-1474, 
whose bust adjoins the shrine of the saint, are boldly carved in oak. The 
busts on the N. side below embody paganism, the relief-busts Judaism, 
above which is Christianity in the pointed arches. On the S. side are Si- 
byls below, women of the Old Testament in the middle, and women of 
the New Testament above. High-altar by M. Schaffner (1521). Fine old 
stained glass of 1480 in the choir. The S. aisle contains the octagonal 
Font, with busts of prophets , mottoes , and armorial bearings , by Syrlin 
the Elder (1470). On the walls and pillars are numerous escutcheons of 
Swabian families. The octagonal Holy Water Basin round the E. pillar is 
in the late-Gothic style, by Burkhard Engelberger (1507). The S. (Besse- 
rer's) Chapel contains a beautiful portrait of Eitel Besserer by Martin 
Schaffner (1516). The Sacristy contains an elegant little "Altar o f 1484, 
attributed to M. Schon. In a side-chapel is preserved an old design for 
the tower on parchment (1377). 

In the market rises the handsome Rathhaus (PI. 11), erected at 
the beginning of the 16th cent, in the transition style from late- 
Gothic to Renaissance , with remains of old frescoes. The Fisch- 
kasten, a fine fountain at the S.E. corner, is by Syrlin the Elder (1482). 

A little to the W. is the Neue Bau (PI. 8), erected in 1591 on the 
site of an ancient imperial palace, now containing government-offices. 
The quadrangle contains a fountain with a figure of St. Elizabeth. ■ — 
An old patrician dwelling in the Taubengasse contains an *ln- 
dustrial Museum, with fine wood panelling, ancient sculptures in 
stone and wood, works in iron, Renaissance furniture, early Ger- 
man and other paintings, etc. — The Stone Bridge at the beginning 
of the Hirsch-Strasse affords a picturesque survey of the Blau, en- 
closed by medieval timber-built houses. Charming walk on the 
Danube from the Wilhelmshohe (p. 32) onwards. The Friedrkhsau, 
or public park, also repays a visit. 

From Ulm to Kempten, 54'/2 M. (railway in 3 hrs.). Stations Hm-Ulm, 
Senden (junction for Weissenhorn). To the right, on the opposite bank of 
the Iller, lies Sber- Kirchberg , with a chateau of Prince Fugger. The line 
now follows the Iller. Stat. Voehringen ; Bellenberg. At (15 M.) Jllertissen 
(Hirsch) is a well-preserved castle, said to be of Roman origin. Near 
stat. Altenstadt the extensive chateau of Illereichen. Stations Kellmilnz, 
Fellheim, Heimerlingen. Then (33 M.) Jffemmingen ("Bairischer Bof; 'Falke; 
Adler and Kreuz, plain) , junction of the line to Herbertingen (p. 54), an 

Baedeker's S. Germany. 8th Edit. 3 

34 Route 8. BIBERACH. 

old town with 9000 inhab., a free city of the Empire down to 1802, and 
still partly surrounded by walla. Hops are largely cultivated here. The 
principal church contains 67 "Choir-stalls, carved in the richest late-Gothic 
style (end of 15th cent.), probably by Jorg Syrlin the Elder. Among the 
mediseval houses is the Fuggerhaus , in which Wallenstein received the 
news of his dismissal in 1629. Amidst beautiful woods, 2 M. from Mem- 
mingen, lies Dikenreis. (Branch -line to Buchloe, p. 198.) — To the S.E. 
is the pilgrimage-shrine of Ottobeuren (diligence twice daily in l'/2 hr.), 
once a Benedictine Abbey ranking as a principality, founded in 764. The 
church, restored in the 18th cent., contains fine choir-stalls, a large organ, 
and a rich treasury. — Next stations Gronenbach, Dietmannsried, Heising, 
Kempten (p. 199). 

From Ulm to Aalen, see p. 28 ; to Sigmaringen and Radolfzell, see E. 13. 

Our line at first ascends the left bank of the Danube, and 
passes the influx of the Iller. 63 M. Einsingen; 65 M. Erbach, 
with a chateau of Baron Ulm. The as yet insignificant Danube is 
now crossed, and a flat district traversed. Stations Bisstissen (with 
chateau and park of Baron Staufenberg), Laupheim, Schemmerberg, 
Langenschemmern, Warthausen (with chateau of Herr von Konig). 

81 1/ 2 M. Biberach ( Wiirttemberg. Hof, at the station ; Post ; Bad), 
with 8264 inhab., once a free town of the Empire, is still partly 
surrounded by walls and towers. Wieland, who was born in 1733 in 
the neighbouring village of Ober-Holzheim, held a civil appointment 
here in 1760-69, and is said to have collected materials for his 
'Abderiten' from among the townspeople. A marble bust was 
erected to him in 1881. 

About 2 M. to the S.E. of Biberach station (diligence and omnibus 
several times daily) is the frequented hydropathic of Jordanhad (pens. 
41/2-6 »#)) pleasantly situated in the Rissthal, on the margin of the wood, 
with a chalybeate spring ('Kneipp Cure'). 

The country becomes more attractive, and woods begin to appear 
on both sides. 84y 2 M. Vmmendorf; 86 M. Schweinhausen ; 89 M. 
Essendorf ; 93 1 /o M. Schussenried, with the district lunatic asylum. 
At (97 M.) Aulendorf (*L6we) , junction of the Herbertingen and 
Memmingen line (p. 54), is the chateau of Count Konigsegg, with 
a garden commanding a fine view of the distant Alps. 

The line now follows the small river Schussen to Friedrichs- 
hafen. The churches in Upper Swabia are frequently roofed with 
zinc. The population is Roman Catholic. 101 M. Durlesbach; 104M. 
Mochenwangen. To the left beyond (107 M.) Niederliegen rises the 
old Benedictine abbey of Weingarten, with its three towers, founded 
in 1053 by the Guelphs , now used as barracks. Pilgrimages are 
still made to the church. Towards the S. the mountains of Appen- 
zell come in view. 

IIOV2 M. Ravensburg (1456 ft.; Post; Kronprinz), an ancient 
town with 12,265 inhab., surrounded by vine-clad heights once 
subject to the Guelphs, then to the Hohenstaufen, and lastly'a free 
town of the empire, still preserves its mediaeval exterior, and is sur- 
rounded by pinnacled walls and towers of every variety. The slen- 
derest of the latter is called the Mehlsack ('sack of flour'). The 
Protestant Church, restored in 1862, is a good Gothic structure with 


fine modern stained-glass windows. — Steam Tramway to Wein- 
garten (p. 34). 

The Veitsburg (1719 ft. ; Restaurant), '/< hr. from the town, commands 
an extensive view of the Lake of Constance, the Alps of Appenzell, and the 
Vorarlberg. A still finer point is the 'Waldburg (2520ft.), 2hrs. to theE., 
the well-preserved ancestral castle of the family of that name ('Truchsess 
von Waldburg'). 

Beyond Ravensburg another glimpse of the Alps is obtained. 
The line traverses parts of the Seewald. 11372 M. Oberzell; 116 M. 
Meckenbeuem. Tettnang , with the large chateau of the extinct 
Counts of Montfort, lies to the left. The Lake of Constance at 
length becomes visible. 

123 M. Friedrichshafen. — Hotels. 'Deutsches Haus, oh the lake, 
by the station, with garden, R. 2-3, B. 3/ 4 -l, D. 21/2 Jl; "Konig von W6rt- 
tembeeg , 1/4 M. from the station , recommended for a prolonged stay ; 
"Krone, with garden, on the lake, R. 2-2 1 /2, B. 3 /«-l, D. 2 J /2 Jl ; Sonne; 
'Drei Konige, R. l'/4-2, D. 2 Jl, B. 80pf. ; Seehof, with garden. Hotel & 
Bestadrant Muller, on the harbour, with a large terrace. 

Friedrichshafen (1320 ft.) lies on the Bodensee or Lake of Con- 
stance. The train goes on from the station to the quay, whence 
steamers ply 4-5 times daily to the chief places on the lake. The 
busy little town, with 3000 inhab., and a harbour, as its name in- 
dicates, was founded by King Frederick of Wurtemberg, who con- 
nected Buchhom, the smallest of 'imperial cities', with the monastery 
of Hofen, now the palace, and gave the place its modern name. 
The Schloss contains a few pictures by modern "Wurtemberg masters 
(Gegenbaur, Pflug, etc.). A pavilion in the Riedle Park commands 
a charming prospect of the lake and the Alps. The historical, 
prehistorical, and natural history collections of the Bodensee Verein, 
in the old Hotel Bellevue, deserve a visit. The lake-baths attract 
many visitors in summer. Curhaus, with terrace on the lake. 

Lake of Constance and steamboats upon it, see pp. 57, 201. — At Langen- 
argen, 6 M. to the S.E. (steamer in 35 min.), is the handsome chateau c>. 
Montfort, belonging to Princess Louisa of Prussia (charming view). 

9. From Stuttgart to Tubingen and Horb. 

Comp. Map, p. 42. 

64 M. Railway in 3V«4V4 hrs. (fares 8 Jl 40, 5 Jl 60, 3 M 60 pf.). Best 
views to the left. 

To (14 M.) Plochingen, see R. 8. I8V2 M. Vnter-Boihingen. To 
the right in the valley, near Kongen, the Neckar is crossed by an 
ancient stone bridge, from which Duke Ulrich is said to have leaped 
in 1519 in order to escape capture by the troops of the Swabian 
League. Branch-line to Kirchheim unter Teck (p. 43). To the left 
rise the Teck, Hohenneuffen, and other Alb Mts. — 221/2 M. JVi'ir- 
tingen (Krone), a manufacturing town (pop. 5400) on the right 
bank of the Neckar (ascent of the Hohenneuffen, 2 hrs., see p. 44). 
25 M. Neckarthailfingen. The line now quits the Neckar for a time. 
Near (28 M.) Bempflingen, fine views of the Alb, in which the Teck 


36 Route 9. REUTLINGEN. From Stuttgart 

and Hohenneuffen (pp. 43, 44) are conspicuous, are obtained to 
the left. 

From (30y 2 M.) Metzingen (1108'; *Sprandel, at the station; 
Linde) a branch -line diverges to Dettingen and Urach (!/ 2 hr. ; 
p. 44). The Erms is crossed here. 

Fine view from the "Floriansberg (1598 ft.), 8 A hr. to the N.E., em- 
bracing the whole of the Alb Bits.; above it rises the Jusiberg (2175 ft.). 
From this point a pleasant walk may be taken along the ridge via the 
Homle (2320 ft.) and the Karhlinde to the plateau of Hiilben and Hohen- 
neuffen (p. 44). 

a i li M. Sondelfingen. The line skirts the Achalm (p. 46). ?! 

36 M. Reutlingen (1246ft; *Ochs, in the market-place, R. 1 1/4, 
D. 2 Jl ; * Kronprinz , at the station; Lamm, in the Karlsplatz, 
near the station ; Falke, near the Marktplatz), once a free city of 
the empire, is now an industrial town with 18,500 inhab., on the 
Echaz, the water of which is conducted through the streets. Some 
of the old houses are picturesque. The ancient ramparts and fosses 
have been converted into well-built streets. In front of the station 
is a monument to Frederick List (d. 1846), the political economist, 
who was born in a house in the "Wilhelms-Strasse (indicated by 
a tablet). In the market-place, in front of the Spitalkirche, rises an 
old Gothic fountain (1570). The Gothic (Prot.) *Church of St. Mary 
was erected 1247-1343 and restored in 1844, when some very early 
frescoes were discovered in the sacristy. The beautiful tower is 
240 ft. high. A thorough restoration is now in progress. The octa- 
gonal stone *Font of 1499 is admirably and richly sculptured ; the 
reliefs in the niches represent the Baptism of Christ and the Seven 
Sacraments. The *Holy Sepulchre in the nave (about 1480) is also 
very interesting. The handsome modern altar was designed by Beis- 
barth and executed by Lauer (1878). The sacristan's house is op- 
posite the S. side of the church. — * Lucas's Pomological Institution, 
the Weaving School, the School of Women's Work, and the Refuge 
of Pastor Werner ('Bruderhaus') merit a visit. The Cemetery con- 
tains a tasteful modern chapel in the Gothic style. The little sulphur- 
bath of Eeilbrunnen is s / i M. from the station. 

From Reutlingen to Muxsingen, 21 M., railway in P/t hr., via Bonau 
and Lichtenstein, see p. 46. 

SSM.Betzingen is noted for its picturesque costumes, which at- 
tract many artists in summer. At ^O^M.) Kirchentellinsfurt the line 
re-enters theNeckar-Thal. To the right Lustnau, with a fine church. 

45 M. Tubingen. — Hotels. -Tkatjbe, r. 1-11/2 Jl, d. 1 Jl 20, B. 
75 pf. ; Lamm, in the market-place, R. tf/i-Vfe, B. 3/ 4 Jl ; p EINZ Carl, R. 
iy<-2, B. 3/4, D. 2 Jl; Goldnek Ochse, near the railway-station, R. l'/ 2 Jl. 
— Beer at "KommereWs, near the Stiftskirche ; Miiller't , by the ISTeckar 
bridge ; Museum, Wilhelms-Str. ; Schlossbraverei, Markt, etc. — Wine at 
Seeger's, Herrenberger-Str. ; Mess's, Neckar-Str. ; Trautweiris, Kronengasse. 

Tubingen (1036 ft.), a town with 13,275 inhab., finely situated 
on a ridge on the Neckar, possesses a university, founded by Count 
Eberhard in 1477, of which the theological and medical faculties 
especially enjoy a high reputation (over 1400 students). Melanch- 

to Horb. TUBINGEN. 9. Route. 37 

thon was a lecturer here before he was summoned to Wittenberg. 
Near the station, in the beautiful shady promenades of the 'Wohrd', 
is a bronze *Statue of Uhland, by Kietz, erected in 1873. In the 
plantation at the end of the avenue of planes is a monument to the 
authoress Ottilie Wildermuth (d. 1877). The house looking down 
on the Neckar bridge (in the Garten-Strasse) was the residence of 
the poet Uhland, who died here in 18G2. His grave in the cemetery 
is marked by a monument of granite. 

The streets of the old town are narrow and its houses insigni- 
ficant. The late-Gothic Stiftskirche of St. George (1470-1529) con- 
tains fine old stained glass in the *Choir ; twelve monuments with 
recumbent stone figures, chiefly of Wurtemberg princes, including 
Duke Eberhard im Bart (d. 1496), founder of the university, and 
Duke Ulrich (d. 1550) ; and an old German winged picture by a 
master of Ulm (1520). The organ-loft is adorned with a bust of 
Luther by Donndorf. — Adjoining the Stiftskirche is the old Aula, 
containing the Natural History Collections of the University , in- 
cluding a fossil ichthyosaurus 24!/ 2 ft. long. — The Town Hall, a 
richly coloured timber-built edifice, erected in 1435, was restored 
in 1877. The Stift, a Protestant seminary with 180 pupils, founded 
in 1536 by Duke Ulrich, is established in an old Augustinian mon- 
astery. The Roman Catholic Wilhelmsstift, with about 150 students, 
occupies the old Collegium Illustre, founded in 1588 for sons of 
the nobility. Beyond the Wilhelmsstift is the handsome new Roman 
Catholic Church, in the early-Gothic style. 

In the new E. quarter of the town, in the handsome Wilhelm- 
Strasse and to the W. of it, are a number of imposing buildings, 
such as the University, the Women's and the Surgical Clinical Hos- 
pitals, the Museum, and the Insane Hospital. The university pos- 
sesses a picture-gallery (a Correggio, a Murillo, etc., and 125 por- 
traits of professors) and other collections, chief among which is that 
of Fossils , in the old building next to the Stiftskirche (a fine 
ichthyosaurus, 24 ft. in length, etc.). At the back of the university 
rises an obelisk in memory of Silcher, the composer (d. 1860). — 
The Botanical Garden of the university contains a monument to 
the poet Holderlin (d. 1843), presented by the sculptor Andresen 
in 1881. 

By the Town Hall (see above) a path ascends to the left to the 
spacious Schloss Hohen-Tubingen, situated on a hill commanding the 
town, erected by Duke Ulrich in the Renaissance style in 1535, 
with a richly decorated outer portal of 1606 and an inner portal of 
1538 (lately restored). It contains the admirably arranged University 
Library and the Observatory. The cellars, which contain an im- 
mense cask (18,700 gallons), a deep well formerly descending to 
the level of the Neckar, and torture-chambers, are shown to visitors. 

Fine "View from the Schanzle, at the back of the Schlcss (reached 
from the court of the Schloss through the low passage beyond the well; 
then to the left), and from the Lichtenberger Hiihe. Another good point of 

38 Route 9. ROTTENBURG. 

view is the Oesterberg (1436 ft.), opposite the Schloss (Cate Sennhiitte ; Wie- 
landhohe). On the top of this hill, 20 min. from the town, ia the Kaiter- 
WilhelmsThurm, erected in 1893, with portraits of Emp. William I., Emp. 
Frederick III., and King Charles of Wurtemberg, and a memorial stone to 
Prince Bismarck. The view extends from the Hohenstaufen to the Pletten- 
berg and the Hornisgrinde. — More distant points of view are the Wald- 
hdnser Eohe, Eberhards-Hohe, Steinenberg (these to the N.), Spitzberg oiOedm- 
burg, and Buss-Thurm (these two to the W., beyond the richloss). 

To the N. of Tiibingen, 3 M. on the old Stuttgart road, lies the well- 
preserved old Cistercian monastery of "Bebenhausen, founded in 1185, one 
of the finest Gothic structures in Swabia. The building was restored in 
1873-75, and is now a royal hunting- residence. The summer -refectory 
with a collection of ancient arms and armour, the winter - refectory 
with its Gobelins, and the present dining-hall with its collection of majolica 
(over 300 pieces) are worthy of inspection. The fine cloisters date from 
1471-1496. Adjacent are the Hirsch and Waldhorn Inns. 

On a height (1558 ft.), IV4 hr. to the N.W., rises the Wurmlinger 
Kapelle, commanding an extensive view. Its praises have been sung by 
Uhland and other poets. (The chapel may be reached by a pleasant 
path through the wood from the Schloss at Tubingen, following the top 
of the hill, via, the Schanzle, Lichtenberg, and Buss ; see above.) 

From Tubingen to Hohenzollem and Sigmaringen, see R. 12. 

48M. Kilchberg. — 5iy 2 M. Rottenburg (1115ft. ;Bar; Kaiser), 
an old town (7027 inhab.) picturesquely situated on theNeckar, con- 
nected by two bridges with trie suburb of Ehingen, is an episcopal 
see. The late-Gothic Church of St. Martin, with its perforated spire, 
is interesting. The Bischofshof, formerly a Jesuit convent, con- 
tains a collection of Roman antiquities found here in the old Roman 
station of Sumelocenna. The inmates of the new Prison are em- 
ployed in agriculture. Hops abound. 

At the Altstadt (1394 ft.), 1/4 hr. to the S.E., is a Roman camp; i/thr. 
farther on, beyond the village of Weiler, is the Weilerburg (1820 ft. ; belve- 
dere). — The Siilchenkirche, 20 min. to the N.E. of Rottenburg, once the 
centre of the Siilich-Gau, is the burial-church of the Roman Catholic 
bishops of Wurtemberg. 

The train crosses theNeckar and follows the left bank. Vineyards 
gradually give way to pine-forest. 53!/2 M. Niedernau. The chaly- 
beate and sulphur baths of that name lie in a valley on the opposite 
bank. The line crosses the Neckar, and near (55 M.) Bieringen the 
Starzel. To the right, beyond a long tunnel, rises Schloss Weitenburg, 
with its fine pinnacled tower, commanding a fine view. On a pine- 
clad hill to the left of (59 '/ 2 M-) Eyach is the ruin of Frondeck. 

Prettily situated in the Eyach-Thal, 21/2 M. to the S. (omnibus from the 
station in 20min.) are the chalybeate baths of Imnau ("Badhaus, R. 1-2 Jl, 
board 2 Jl 10 pf. to 2 Jl 80 pf.), chiefly visited by ladies. Good baths 
(mineral, pine-cone, saline, Turkish, and vapour). Pretty walks and ex- 
cursions. — In the Eyach-Thal, 4 31. to theS., lies the little Prussian town 
of Haigerloch, picturesquely situated in a deep valley, and commanded 
by an old Schloss. 

62 M. Miihlen; 64 M. Horb. From Horb to Stuttgart via, £66- 
lingen, and to Schaffhausen via, Immendingen, see R. 10; to Calw 
and Pforzheim, see p. 16 ; to Hausach, see p. 39. 

10. From Stuttgart to Boblingen and Schaffhausen. 

123 M. Railway in 5-8 hrs. (fares 15 M 90, 10 Jl 60, 6 Jl 80 pf. ; ex- 
press 17 Jl 95, 12 Jl 65 pf.). This is the direct route from Stuttgart to 
Central Switzerland (express from Stuttgart to Zurich in 6 3 /4hrs.; through- 
carriages) and to the Baden Oberland (see below). 

From Stuttgart (Central Station) to the (5 M.) West Station, see 
p. 11. Just beyond the station the train penetrates a spur of the Hasen- 
berg, and then ascends (1:100), high above the suburb of Heslach a.n& 
the gradually contracting valley. Pretty views to the left. The line 
runs through wood on the Heslacher Wand, and is carried across three 
deep gorges by lofty embankments. At (9 M.) Vaihingen the train 
reaches the Filder, the fertile upland plain to the S. of Stuttgart. 
The Schbnbuchwald is now traversed to (15^2 M.) Boblingen (1415 ft.; 
Waldhorn; Bar), an old town (4300 inhab.), with a castle, prettily 
situated on two large ponds. The* Waldburg, 10 min. to theN.E. of 
the town, -with a wooded park and extensive view, is a favourite resort. 

19 M. Ehningen, where the Wiirm is crossed; 21 M. Gdrtringen; 
23 M. Nufringen. — 'ib 1 /^ M. Herrenberg (Post), an old town in the 
fertile Oau ; to the left the hills of the Schonbuch and the Rauhe 
Alb. — 28 M. Nebringen; 31 M. Bondorf; 33'^ M. Ergenzingen. 
— 35 M. Eutingen (1550 ft.), junction for Pforzheim (p. 17). 

From Edtingen to Hausaoh, 42'/2 M., railway in l 3 /4-4V4 hrs. (from 
Stuttgart in 3 1 /4-6 hrs.). The line turns to the right, and as far as (2 l /s M.) 
Hochdorf (1653 ft.) coincides with the Nagold railway (p. 17). It then 
ascends and enters the Black Forest. Stations: Altheim,Biitelbronn,Schopf- 
loch, Dornstetten. Three lofty viaducts. 

18'/ 2 M. Freudenstadt (2362 ft.; 'Schwarzwald-Hdtel, at the station, 
with fine view; "Waldeck, near the wood, in the Strassburger-Str. ; Post ; 
Linde), a loftily-situated Wurtemberg town (6270 inhab.), was founded in 
1599 by Protestant refugees from Styria, Carinthia, and Moravia, and is 
now a summer-resort. At the N.E. corner of the extensive Platz, with 
its arcaded houses, rises the Ealhhaus, and at the S.W. corner is the 
curious Protestant Church, built in 1601-8. It consists of two naves forming 
an angle, one set apart for male, the other for female worshippers, while 
pulpit and altar are placed at the apex of the angle. Observe the carved 
choir-stalls and the Romanesque font brought from the monastery of Alpirs- 
bach. Near the Roman Catholic church, V2 M. from the town, we obtain 
a "View of the Swabian Alb, Hohenzollern, etc. — Good roads lead from 
Freudenstadt to the W. over the Kniebis to Oppenau, and to the N. through 
the Murgthal to Gernsbach and Wildbad (p. 18). 

The train turns to the S. and enters the smiling Kinzig-Thal below (22'/-' M.) 
lossburg (2148 ft.). — 28 M. Alpirsbach (1432 ft. ; 'Lowe, Schwan), with a 
Romanesque church of the 11th cent., has a brisk trade in timber and 
straw-hats. Near it is the Krahenbad. — 31'/z M. Schenkenzell ; 33'/2 M. 
Schiltach (Krone), at the confluence of the Schiltach and theKinzig; 39V2M. 
Wol/ach; 42V2 M. Hausach, see Baedeker's Rhine. 

The train descends the narrow valley of Miihlen, with the ruined 
Staufenberg on the left , and crosses the Neckar. — 42 M. Horb 
(1262 ft. ; Zum Kaiser; Krone ; Bar ; Zum Bahnhof), with 2200 in- 
hab., has a large church in the transition style. On the hill an an- 
cient watch-tower and a pilgrimage-chapel. — Railway by Tubingen 
and Plochingen to Stuttgart, see R. 9. 

The train for a short way traverses Prussian territory. 46 M. 

40 Route 10. ROTTWEIL. From Stuttgart 

Neckarhausen. The Danube is crossed. To the E. above Fischingen 
rises the extensive ruin of Wehrstein. — 50 M. Sulz amNeckar(y?&l&- 
horn), a little town with a Gothic church. Then a tunnel. To the 
left beyond it rises the ruin of Albeck. Near (56 M.) Aistaig pleasant 
glimpses of the valley are enjoyed. — 58 M. Oberndorf (Post), a 
thriving village to the right. The old Augustinian monastery is now 
a gun-factory (director, Herr Mauser). 61 M. Epfendorf; 64 M. Thal- 
hausen. The line is carried over four bridges, through four tunnels, 
with various ruins to the right and left, and lastly by a long tunnel 
through the hill on which Eottweil lies. The station, with the exten- 
sive railway engine-factory, is '/ 2 M. from the town. To the left of 
the station is the site of a large Roman camp, while the Altstadt, 
l l± hr. to the S., covers the remains of a Roman civil colony. The 
saline springs and baths of Wilhelmshall lie i /^ M. farther to the S. 

68 M. Eottweil (* Wilder Mann or Post, It. 1 Ji 40, B. 70 pf., 
D. 1 M 70, pens. 4 M 50 pf. ; *Lamm; Rail. Restaurant, D. with 
wine 1M 80 pf.), an ancient town (6912inhab.) with well-preserved 
walls and towers, was a free city of the Empire down to 1802. The 
*Heiligen-Kreuz-Kirche, a fine Gothic structure (1374-1473), has 
been restored by Heideloff. The Kapellenkirche , with its hand- 
some Gothic tower of 1364, was entirely remodelled at the begin- 
ning of last century. Some good carvings on the S. side and on 
the panels of the doors are the sole relics of the original structure. 
The interesting Collection of Antiquities contains chiefly Roman relics. 
The Chapel of St. Lawrence in the old cemetery contains a collection 
of mediaeval carvings , chiefly of the Upper Swabian school. In the 
centre is a mosaic from a Roman bath (Orpheus). The massive 
Hochthurm (148 ft.), in the highest part of the town on theW. side, 
commands an extensive view. 

To Villingen, 17 M., railway in l l /t hr. Stations Deisslingen, Trossin- 
gen, Schwenningen (the source of the Neckar is V2 31. to the S.). The line 
traverses a lofty plain, the watershed between the Rhine and Danube, and 
bej'ond stat. Marbach descends the Brigach-Thal to Villingen (see Baedeker's 

The line crosses the Neckar and enters the broad Primthal. To 
the left, several picturesque glimpses of the Hohenberg, Lemberg, and 
other spurs of the Alb. 72!/ 2 M. Neufra. The line ascends, and then 
traverses a high-lying, well-cultivated plain, forming part of the 
Baar. 75 M. Aldingen. To the left rises the long Heuberg, with 
the Dreifaltigkeitskirche on the nearest peak (3225 ft.), adjacent to 
which is a belvedere tower (ascended from Spaichingen in 1 hr. ; 
splendid *Panorama). To the right in the distance are the flattened 
cone of the Hohenkarpfen and the coffin-shaped Lupfen. 77 l /i M. 
Spaichingen (2210 ft. ; *Alte Post; Neue Post; Krone), a straggling 
village ; 80 Y2 M. Rietheim; 82 J /2 M. Wurmlingen (Bellevue), a vil- 
' lage ; on the Faulenbach; l j<i M. from the railway. The line describes 
a long curve, and crosses the Danube (to Sigmaringen and Vim, 
see p. 52). 

to Schaffhausen. TUTTLINGEN. 10. Route. 41 

85i/ 2 M. Tuttlingen (2130 ft.; '"Post; *Hecht; Bartenbach, at 
the station, well spoken of), an industrial town (10,092 inhab.), lies 
on the right bank of the Danube. Above it rise the ruins of the 
Honburg, destroyed during the Thirty Years' War. A monument, 
with a medallion-portrait and a figure of *Germania, designed by 
Jahn, was erected here in 1892 to Max Schneckenburger, author of 
the 'Wacht amRhein' (b. atThalheim near Tuttlingen 1819, d. 1849). 
The Witthoh (2887 ft.), II/4 hr. to the S., is a good point of view. 

The line traverses the broad valley of the Danube, and crosses 
the river near (IIO^M-) Mohringen. 92 M. Immendingen (Falke; 
Deutscher Kaiser), junction for Donaueschingen and Waldshut (see 
Baedeker's Rhine). 

The train recrosses the Danube, gradually ascends its S. bank, 
penetrates the watershed between Danube and Rhine by deep cut- 
tings and a tunnel, and descends beyond (95 M.) Hattingen (Hauser). 
After a long tunnel and several lofty viaducts, the line runs on a 
high level along the E. slope of the hills. 99 M. Thalrnuhle. We 
now descend the wooded Engener-Thal to (102 M.) Engen (*Post), 
an ancient little town, where the mountains are quitted. 

The train now skirts the volcanic peaks of the Hegau, the highest 
of which, the Hohenhowen (2854 ft.), rises to the W. of (103 1/2 M.) 
Welschingen; beyond it is the Hohenstoffeln. 106 M. Miihlhausen, 
with the ruin of Magdeberg. 107 M. Hohenkrcihen lies at the foot 
of a bold rock (2116 ft.), crowned with fragments of an old castle. 

HO 1 ^ M. Singen (*Krone, 72 M- from the station; Adler, at the 
station, well spoken of; Ekkehard) lies at the base of the Hohentwiel. 

The fortress of "Hohentwiel (2273 ft.) , a small 'enclave' of Wurtem- 
berg, rises on a lofty isolated rock 3 /4 M. to the N.W. of Singen (3'/2 M. 
from the station). It was successfully defended during the Thirty Years' 
War by the Wurtemberg commandant Widerholt, to whom a monument 
has been erected. In 1800 it was destroyed by the French. The imposing 
ruins command a superb view of the Lake of Constance and the Alps. 
Indicator and telescope at the top. A guide, the key, and a ticket for the 
tower (20 pf.) are procured at the "Inn halfway up. 

114M. Gottmadingen ; 1171/oM. Thayingen ; 120 M. Herblin gen. 

123 M. Schaffhausen (*H6tel Miiller, R., L., & A. from 2% 
B. l!/ 4 , D. 3 Jl ; Rheinischer Hof, similar charges; Riese, R., L., & 
A. 2-2!/2, D. 2 l /- 2 JJ, these three at the station; Post; Schwanen ; 
Tanne, plain ; Railway Restaurant) is a picturesque old Swiss town 
(12,402 inhab.) on the right bank of the Rhine, formerly a free 
town of the Empire, and now the capital of the Canton of that 
name. The Miinster, an early-Romanesque basilica of 1052-1101, 
has recently been restored. The massive tower of Munot dates from 
the 16th century. Thelmthurneum contains a theatre, music-school, 
and music-rooms. Opposite is the Museum with natural history spec- 
imens, antiquities, and the town-library. The Fasenstaub, a pleas- 
ant promenade, commands a fine view of the Rhine and the Alps. 

The *Fai.i.s of the Rhine are most conveniently visited by rail from 
Schaffhausen to stat. Neuhausen 2>/ 2 M. distant. See Baedeker's Switzerland, 


11. The Swabian Alb. 

This district, the central part of Swabia, is a wooded range of lime- 
stone mountains, intersected by picturesque valleys, bounded on the W. by 
the Black Forest, on the N. by the valley of the Neckar, and on the S. 
by the Danube. The hills on the side towards the Neckar are pictur- 
esquely grouped, affording numerous views; the valleys are luxuriantly 
fertile and partly clothed with fine beech-forest; many of the towns are 
antiquated and interesting. Pedestrians in particular will find many attrac- 
tions. Inns generally good and inexpensive. 

Between Hohenstaufen, Ipf, and L'lm stretches the E. part of the Alb, 
consisting mainly of the Hartfeld, Brenzthal, Jits, of Aalen and Heu- 
bach, and the Albuch. The central Alb lies between Hohenstaufen and 
Hohenzollern on one side, and Ulm and Sigmaringen on the other. The 
S.W. wing of the Alb is formed of the beautiful range of hills between 
Hohenzollern and Lupfen, the plateau of the Heuberg, and the valley of the 
Danube between Tuttlingen and Sigmaringen. — The finest points in the 
E. Alb are the neighbourhood of Bopfingm with the Ipf, Hohenbaldern, and 
Kapfenburg (p. 29); the neighbourhood of Aalen, with the Brauneberg, and 
the Source of the Kocher near Unterkochen (p. 28); the neighbourhood of Ben- 
bach, with the Rosenstein (p. 28), Lau'.erberg, and Bernhardm; the Albuch, 
with the Wendthal (p. 32); the Brenzthal from Konigsbronn to Brenz- 
Sontheim, the finest part of which, the Buige near Anhausen, is also not 
far from the Charlotlen-Hohle (p. 23) ; and finally the remarkable Lone-Hiirbe- 
Thal (p. 28). — The S.W. Alb is described in ER. 10, 12, 13. 

Of the Central Alb, the district about Oeislingen is described at 
pp. 31, 32. The present route embraces the side next the Neckar, the 
most interesting points, which may be visited in five days, being the Rech- 
berg and Hohenstaufen, the Geislinger-Thal and Upper Filsthal, the Lenninger 
Thai and the Teck, Hohenneuffen, the Uracher- Thai, Reutlingen with the Achalm, 
the Honauer-Thal and Lichtenstein, Tubingen and Rossberg, Hohenzollern. 

First Day. By the first train from Stuttgart to Gmiind (p. 28). 
Thence by a good road (on which the omnibus to Siissen runs, see 
p. 28) to the (4M.) upper *RecbJberg (2316 ft.), on the broad 
summit of which stands a much frequented pilgrimage-chapel (re- 
freshments at the parsonage, but no quarters for the night). The 
view embraces a fertile and undulating landscape , sprinkled with 
towns and villages, stretching to the N. as far as the Welzheimer 
Wald and the Waldenburg andLimpurg hills, from the old-fashioned 
town of Gmiind in the foreground to the distant Ellwangen. To the 
W. rise the Hohenstaufen and the Black Forest Mts.; towards the 
S.W. extend the ranges of the Swabian Alb; and in clear weather 
the Tyrolese and Swiss Alps may be descried towards the S.E. andS. 

We next visit the ruined castle of Hohenrechberg (burned down 
in 1865), on the lower peak of the hill. Thence by a distinct path 
on the crest of the hill in 1^2 nr - t0 tne village of Hohenstaufen 
(Ochs, Lamm, both moderate), on the slope of the ^Hohenstaufen 
(2237 ft.), to which a path ascends from the village in 20 minutes. 
Near this path is a small Church, partly restored in 1860 and re- 
cently adorned with the armorial bearings of the countries over which 
the Hohenstaufen once held sway. 

On the N. wall is an old fresco, almost obliterated, of Frederick 
Barbarossa (1152-1190), with inscription, of the 16th cent., recording that 
the emperor, '■amor bonorum, terror malormn', was in the habit of entering 
the church by this door (now walled up). 

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LENNINGER-THAL. 11. Route. 43 

The hill commands a beautiful prospect. From 1080 until the 
Peasants' War in 1525 it was crowned with the ancestral castle of 
the illustrious family of Staufen or Hohenstaufen, which occupied 
the German imperial throne from 1138 to 1254 and became extinct 
in 1268 by the premature death of the ill-fated Conradin in Italy. 
A small fragment of wall on the extreme S. verge of the bare plateau 
is all that is now left of their abode. 

A pleasant road, traversing woods for a long way, leads from'the 
village of Hohenstaufen to (o*/4 M.) Qbppingen (rail, stat., p. 30). 
Thence by evening-train via. Plochingen in l 1 /2 n r. to Unter-Boihingen 
(p. 35), and in 14min. more by Oethlingen to Kirchheim unter Teck 
(*Post ; Lowe ; Deutsches Haus) , a small town with a handsome 
chateau, prettily situated in view of the Alb. 

Or we may walk from the village of Hohenstaufen to (I74 hr.) Eis- 
lingen (p. 31), take the train to ( 3 /4 hr.) Oeislingen, and walk thence next 
day by Wiesensteig to Owen (comp. p. 31). 

Second Dat. Excursion to the * Lerminger-Thal , one of the 
finest in the Alb, extending 10 M. to Outenberg, a charming drive. 
From (4!/2 M.) the little town of Owen (ow pron. as in cow ; Post 
or Krone, moderate), with a handsome restored Gothic church, buri- 
al-place of the Dukes of Teck, we ascend (in 1 hr. ; following the 
telegraph-posts and then turning to the right) to the ruined castle 
of *Teck (2542 ft.), the ancestral seat of the Dukes of Teck (belve- 
dere-tower ; refreshments ; the Sibyllenloeh is a lofty grotto on the 
W. brink of the rock). 

From the Teck we reach the Gelbe Felsen in 10 min. and proceed over 
the Battel (2010 ft.) to the (»/» hr.) ruined Diepoldsburg (p. 31). Thence we 
may either cross the plateau to the N. to P/2 hr.) Ochsenwang, etc. (p. 31), 
or ascend the ( 3 /4 hr.) Wielandstein to the S., via the Engelhof, and descend 
to Ober-Zenningen. 

At Unter-Lenningen the ruin of Salzburg lies to the right and the 
ruined Diepoldsburg or Rauberburg (p. 31) rises high above us on 
the left. On a steep rock at (1 hr.) Ober-Lenningen (Sonne, Ochs, 
poor) are the remains of the Wielandstein. At the E. end of the 
valley lies (1 hr.) Gutenberg (1744ft.; Lowe, Hirsch, both well 
spoken of) , a little to the S. of which is the ruin of Sperberseck, 
while to the N. is Kreb$3tein (see below). 

Above Gutenberg, to the left, in the upper slope of the valley, is the 
(25 min.) "Gutenberg Stalactite Grotto ('Tropfsteinhbhle'), discovered in 
Dec, 1889, and well worth seeing. (Guide necessary.) We pass through 
the Heppenloch, two chambers discovered earlier, where numerous fossil 
bones, flint implements, etc., were found, to the 'Gothic Hair, with its 
splendid ice-like stalactites and stalagmites. Then through a long passage 
to the 'Sloorish Hall' with the 'Waterfall' , and past the 'Dwarf's Palace', 
the 'Spindles', etc., to the 'Klamin', a deep gully to which a flight of stone 
steps gives access. — About 5 min. from this cavern is the * Gussmanns-Hohle, 
with the 'Organ Hall' and the 'Tower' (electric light), made accessible in 1891. 

A footpath leads to the N. from Gutenberg via. the ruin of Hohen- 
gutenberg to 0/2 hr.) the farm of Krebsstein. — Another (preferable) leads 
to the W. via Schlatttiall and the SchrScke to (2 hrs.) Urach (p. 44). 

From Gutenberg we may walk by Schlattstall and Orabenstetten 
(with an ancient 'pagan' moat) to the Beuren Rock and Hohen- 

44 Route 11. TJRACH. Swabian Alb. 

neuffen (in 3 hrs.), without descending into the valley. Carriages 
drive by Owen and Beuren (Schlegel) to Neuffen. 

The *Beurener Fels ('Rock of Beuren', 2365 ft. ; ascended by a 
good path from Owen or from Beuren in l!/ 4 hr.), a bold projecting 
rock," commands a beautiful view (Rechberg, Hohenstaufen, Black 
Forest, Donnersberg, Vosges). Hence across the plateau by Erken- 
brechtsweiler and past the Wilhelmsfelsen in 1 hr. to the — 

* Hohenneuffen (2436 ft.), a conical and conspicuous height, 
projecting far into the valley, and crowned by the imposing ruins 
of an ancient stronghold, demolished as unsafe in 1802. Fine view 
with charming foreground. (Refreshments when the flag is hoisted.) 

From the Hohenneuffen to stat. Niirtingen, I1/2 ar - (see p. 35). 
Or Urach may be reached hence in 2 hrs. by crossing the table-land 
and passing the Bilrrenhof (with another old moat, comp. p. 43) and 
the village of Hiilben, whence we descend into the valley. But it is 
pleasanter to descend by a good path through the wood to the (!/ 2 hr-) 
pretty little town of Neuffen (Ochs ; Hirsch). At the lower end of 
the place (finger-post) we ascend to the left , take the broad track 
to the left where the route divides, and follow it across the Sattel- 
bogen, between the view-points of Hbrnle and Karlslinde (p. 36), 
to (IV2 nr Dettingen (Lowe ; Krone) ; thence by train to Vrach 
in 1 / i hr. 

Third Day. Urach (1515 ft.; *Post, *Haas 'Zur Krone', both 
in the market-place ; beer at Heinzelmann's and Wenz's ; rooms at 
the latter), an old-fashioned little town, charmingly situated in the 
Ermsthal, is frequented as a summer -resort (medical boarding- 
houses of Dr. Camerer and Dr. Klupfel). The Church of St. Aman- 
dus was built in 1472 , and the Canonry (now a Prot. school) in 
1477 by Count Eberhard im Bart, whose confessional in the church 
is adorned with good carving (1472). The church also contains an 
interesting font, executed in 1518 by Christoph of Urach; pulpit 
probably by the same master. In the Schloss , erected in 1443, 
partly of timber, is the 'Goldner Saal', containing reminiscences of 
the Counts, afterwards Dukes of Wurtemberg. Fine Gothic Foun- 
tain in the market-place (end of 15th cent.). Railway to Metzingen 
in 1 /2 hr., see p. 36. 

The * Uracher-Thal from Dettingen to Seeburg, 6 M. above 
Urach, surpasses that of Lenningen ; the slopes are richly clad with 
beech-forest. Several quarries of tufa. Near Dettingen rises the 
conspicuous Rossberg (2572 ft.) ; farther up , beyond the Vracher 
Bleiche, the Runderberg , in a side-valley on the right ; then Hohen- 
Vrach and the Thiergartenberg ; on the opposite side the Hochberg. 

Beyond Urach the road ascends by the course of the Erms, which 
drives numerous mills and a large cotton-factory, into the *See- 
burger-Thal, a picturesque, rocky, and wooded valley. Above the 
Oeorgenau rises the ruined Hohenwittlingen , under which is the 
fine stalactite-cavern of Schilling sloch (now called 'Schiller-Hbhle'). 

Swabian Alb. HOHEN-URACH. 11. Route. 45 

In the upper and wildest part of the valley, between lofty rocks at 
the mouth of the romantic Fischburg-Thal, lies the hamlet oiSeeburg 
(Lowe, plain). On a rock high above it is the little chateau of Uhen- 
fels. The infant Erms , though only 50 yds. from its source, most 
creditably drives a mill here. The excursion from Urach to Seeburg 
is best made in an open carriage (with one horse, there and back 
about 3y 2 -5 Jf). From Seeburg to the S. through the Seeihal to 
Miinsingen (p. 47), road in about l'/ 2 hr. 

The most attractive excursion from Urach is to Hohen-Urach and 
to the waterfall. The hill of Hohen-Urach (2300 ft. ; 3/ 4 hr. ; easy 
path ; on entering the wood avoid the first path diverging to the 
right by the large beech) is crowned with extensive ruins and 
affords a good view, but is inferior in interest to the Hohenneuffen. 
Below the second gateway of the castle, to the left, is the chamber 
in which the ill-fated poet Frischlin was imprisoned ; in attempting 
to escape he was dashed to pieces on the rocks below (1590). A path 
through beautiful beech-wood leads hence to (!/ 2 hr.) a sequestered 
grassy terrace, from which the * Waterfall of Urach takes a leap of 
80 ft. (To reach it from the ruined castle, we retrace our steps for 
10 min., as far as the last finger-post 'auf die Festung', turn to the 
right, reach another finger-post, and either go straight on to the top 
of the waterfall or take the path to the right leading to its foot.) 
The best point of view is the 'Olga-Ruhe', so named since a visit 
of the late Queen of Wurtemberg. The up-trains stop if desired at 
the entrance to this valley. Back to Urach, Y2 hr. 

A direct footpath (marked) jeads from Urach to Lichtenstein in 4-5 hrs. 

From Urach we may go by railway in 3 / 4 hr. via, Metzingen (to the 
E. of which is the Floriansberg, p. 36) to Reutlingen (p. 36) ; but it 
is far preferable to cross the hills on foot (4 hrs., guide notindispens- 
able). On our return from the waterfall, we turn at the foot of the 
Runderberg into the other branch of the side-valley, to Outerstein; 
then a steep ascent by the 'Wasserweg' to a well-house beside the 
remains of a Carthusian monastery and past the Vordere Fuhlenhof 
to St. Johann (Schmid's Inn, fair) ; or direct thither from the water- 
fall by the zigzag path to the right. On leaving the wood at the 
(!/2 hr.) top of the hill, the path leads straight on past a stone hut 
called the Rutschenhof. But we first follow the slope to the right 
as far as the boundary-stone , to obtain a charming view of the 
peaceful valley, with Hohen-Urach, Hohenneuffen, and Teck, one 
of the finest prospects in the Swabian Alb. From the Rutschen- 
hof we either continue our route straight on, or we follow the track 
to the left and then , by the corner of the wood , the road to the 
right, to the (i/ a hr.) Fohlenhof above mentioned. Here a path 
diverges to the right (finger-post) from the path to St. Johann, 
and leads in 25 min. to the *Griine Felsen ('green rock' ; 2640 ft.), 
a delightful point of view. We then retrace our steps and take 
the good road to the right leading to (20 min.) St. Johann. From 

46 Route 11. ACHALM. Swabian Alb, 

St. Johann a good road (-with short-cuts) descends to (1 hr.) Eningen 
(*Bazlen), a busy market-town at the foot of the Achalm (ascent 
3 /4 hr.), -whence the railway runs in 6-8 min. to (i 3 ji M.) Reut- 
lingen (p. 36). 

Fourth Day. From Reutlingen to the summit of the * Achalm 
(2312 ft.) , an isolated mountain , with vineyards and orchards at 
its base. About halfway up is a royal dairy (rfmts.). The carriage- 
road to the Achalm, diverging from the Metzingen and Urach road, 
is much longer than the footpath , by which the summit is easily 
attained in l 1 /^ hr. : from the railway-station we ascend the Garten- 
Strasse and at the end of it turn to the left; in 10 min. we reach 
the foot of the Achalm and the path passes under a bridge ; after 
3 min. we ascend to the left towards the dairy ; after 7 min. we go 
straight on, avoiding the path to the left, and reach the dairy in '^hr. 
more ; thence by a winding path to the summit in ifahi. On the sum- 
mit is a lofty tower with a huge vane (key at the dairy; 40 pf.). 
Admirable *View: Tubingen Castle, Schloss Lichtenstein, the Hohen- 
neuffen, Rechberg, Hohenstaufen, and other peaks of the Alb ; pictur- 
esque foreground; below us lies Reutlingen, to the S. Eningen. 

The most attractive excursion in the neighbourhood of Reut- 
lingen is that to Schloss Lichtenstein. Railway (p. 36) to (6>/2 M.) 
Honau in 38 min., to (8 M.) Lichtenstrin station in 56 minutes. — 
l 3 / 4 M. Eningen, li/ 4 M. from the village at the foot of the Achalm 
(see above). — 3 M. Pfullingen (Hirsch ; Lamm), a town of 5000 
inhab., with Dr. Flamm's lunatic asylum. A number of pleasant 
excursions may be made hence on the right bank of the Echaz 
(good paths with numerous guide-posts) : to the Vrsulaberg (2260 ft. ) 
above Pfullingen ; to the Madchenfels (2540 ft.) and Greifenstein 
(2083 ft.) near Holzelfingen ; and to the rocky ridge extending from 
the Burgstein (2400 ft.) to the Traifelberg (2607 ft.), above Honau. 
— i l / 2 M. Pfullingen Paper Mill; b l / 2 M. Vnterkausen Cotton Mill; 
6 M. Unterhausen (Adler); 6i/ 2 M. Honau (1722 ft; Rossle). Hence 
a rack-and-pinion railway (gradient 1 : 10; length 2300 yds.) ascends 
the Honauer Steige to (8 M.) Lichtenstein (2310 ft.). Continuation 
of the railway to Milnsingen, see p. 47. 

To reach Schloss Lichtenstein from Honau we retrace our steps for 
60 paces, diverge to the left between houses, and ascend a meadow; after 
5 min. we enter a beech-wood and then follow a new zigzag path to 
O/2 hr.) the castle. — The direct route from Unterhaesen (see above) 
leads via, (5 min.) Oberhausen (Hirsch; Krone) and ascends to the right 
by a good road on the wooded W. slope ; at the first bifurcation we keep 
to the left ; after >/2 hr. we leave the road at a cutting in the rock, 
ascend a few steps to the left, and after 8 min. in a straight direction 
reach the forester's house (refreshments), adjoining the entrance to tht 
castle. — From Lichtenstein Station (see above) the route leads past the 
'Schanze' (beautiful view) and through the Dobel Tunnel; a footpath to the 
right at the upper end of the Dobel ravine then leads via the Old Lichten- 
stein to ( 3 /t hr.) the chateau and forester's house. 

*Schloss Lichtenstein (2985 ft.), or the 'Schlosschen' , a chateau 
erected in 1842 by Count Wilhelm of Wurtemberg on an isolated 

SwabianAlb. LICHTENSTEIN. 11. Route. 47 

rock , 850 ft. above the Honau valley, is one of the most attractive 
points in Swabia. (Cards of admission obtained at the Duke of Urach's 
Palace, Neckar-Str. 68, in Stuttgart; the chateau is closed on Whit- 
sunday and Whitmonday.) 

The castle is approached by a draw -bridge , by which a cleft in the 
rock is crossed. The interior is tastefully fitted up in the mediaeval style, 
and adorned with a number of fine old German pictures of the Swabian 
school, by Wohlgemut, Holbein, Schon, etc. There are also numerous anti- 
quities, weapons, and suits of armour, but the principal attraction is the 
"View obtained from the lofty tower (129 ft.). In fine weather, to the S. 
beyond the plateau of the Alb, the Swiss and Tyrolese Alps are visible, the 
Gliirnisch, Churfirsten, Sentis, Vorarlberg Mts., and Zugspitze; to the N., far 
below, the picturesque green Honauer-Thal, through which the Echaz and 
the railway wind; beyond it the Achalm and the extensive plain. Even 
the Konigsstuhl at Heidelberg is said to be visible. On a projecting rock 
outside the chateau the duke has erected a monument to the novelist Hauff 
(d. 1827), by whose romance the old castle of Lichtenstein has been immor- 
talised. — About iO min. to the S. is the ruin of Old Lichtenstein. 

The Nebelhbhle, a stalactite grotto, 200 yds. long and 75 ft. high, 3 M. 
to the W. of Lichtenstein, is frequently visited, but the brilliancy of the 
stalactites has been sullied by the smoke of the torches. Adm. 40 pf. 
each person, guide 1 Jl, each torch 40 pf., Bengal fire 50 pf.; key and 
guides at the Hirsch at Oberhausen (p. 46). A national festival is held here 
on Whitmonday, when the cavern is illuminated. The cavern is 2'/4 M. from 
Oberhausen, and about as far from Lichtenstein. The path to the latter 
runs as follows : on the plateau, 5 min. from the cave, bear to the left, due 
S. ; bear to the left again at the cross-roads after 5 min. more ; 5 min. 
farther on, a field, where we skirt the wood to the right; 5 min. more, turn 
to the left, and cross the moor to a group of trees where the tower comes 
into view. Descent from Lichtenstein to Honau 20 minutes. 

The Olgahohle at Honau is smaller than the Nebelhohle, but cleaner 
and more easily accessible. It is seen to advantage by electric light (40 pf . 
each person). — About 10 min. distant is the Source of the Echaz, with the 
figure of a nymph. 

The Railway to Munsingen proceeds from (8 M.) Lichtenstein (see p. 46) 
across the plateau of the Alb. — 9 : /2 M. Klein-Engstingen is the starting- 
point for a visit to the Karlshohle, near Erpfingen, 3 3 /4 M. to the S.W., 
another and more interesting grotto, the stalactites being still uninjured. 
Visitors can drive to the entrance. Some of the stalactites here bear a strik- 
ing resemblance to Gothic architecture, others to human figures, etc. — ii l li M. 
Kohlstetten. Near (1372 M.) Offenhauien, where there is a stud-farm, is the 
source of the Grosse Lauter. The railway descends the pretty valley of the 
Lauter to (15 M.) Gomadingen and (I6V2 M.) Marbach, with another stud- 
farm. Pleasant walk hence through the Grosse Lauterthal to (8 hrs.) Un- 
termarchthal, see p. 53. — The line now ascends to the N.E. through the 
Dolderthal and Baumthal, passing Schlots Grafeneck, to (21 M.) Munsingen 
(2296 ft. ; Inns), a town with 3000 inhab., on the plateau of the Alb, li/ 2 hr. 
to the S. of Seeburg (p. 45). Hence to the Schmiechthal, see p. 53. 

A pleasant walk may be taken to the W. from the Nebelhohle via. 
Gmkingen to the (H/2 hr.) top of the 'Kossberg (2864 ft. ; view-tower), 
commanding a beautiful view of the Alb, the Black Forest, and the Alps. 
We may descend on the N. side to Gonningen, at the foot of the Stbffelberg 
(2400 ft.), whence a road runs to the N. via Bronnweiler and past the Kugel- 
berg (1950 ft. ; view) and AHeburghof to (2V2 hrs.) Reutlingen; another to 
the W. to (2 hrs.) Mbssingen or Dusslingen (see p. 48). 

Evening train from Eeutlingen to Tubingen (p. 36), ^2 hr; 

Fifth Day. Visit to the Hohenzollem, etc., see p. 48. 


12. From Tubingen to Heehingen and Sigmaringen, 

54 M. Railway in 3'A hrs. (farea 7 M 10, 4 M TO pf., 3 Jl). — Comp. 
Map, p. 42. 

Tubingen, see p. 36. The Hohenzollern Railway diverges to 
the left at the station, describes a wide curve, and enters the Stein- 
lach-Thal, noted for its thriving villages. To the left are the small 
Blasibad and the round Blasiberg, with an old chapel of St. Blasius. 
The Steinlach is crossed near (5 M.) Dusslingen. The picturesque 
Mils of the Swabian Alb on the left are now approached : the 
Rossberg (p. 47), the broad -backed Farrenberg, and the pre- 
cipitous Dreifiirstenstein ; in the background the Salmendinger 
Chapel. Near (10 M.) Mossingen the Steinlach is again crossed. On 
a hill to the left stands the ancient Belsener Chapel ; to the right 
are the sulphur-baths of Sebastiansweiler. 

Mossingen is the starting-point for visits to the upper Steinlach-Thal, 
the Dreifiirstenstein (2800 ft.; l'/4 hr.), the Salmendinger Kapelle (2 hrs.). the 
Eiedemberg (2-00 ft.), and the Bolberg (2890 ft. ; 2y 2 hrs.). 

Beyond(13 M.)Bodelshausen the train crosses the Prussian fron- 
tier. We then descend to — 

I0I/2 M. Heehingen (1640 ft. ; *Linde or Post, R. 1-1 1/ 2 Jl, B. 
60 pf., D. 1 Jl 70 pf., pens. 3-3'/2 <M, omn. 40 pf. ; omnibus at 
the station ; carr. and pair to Hohenzollern Castle 6 jl and gratu- 
ity; Rad; Lowe, nearest the station, R. I-IV4 Jl, B. 60 pf. ; beer 
at the Museum), formerly the residence of the Princes of Hohenzol- 
lern-Hechingen, but acquired by Prussia in 1850. It is an old town 
with 3700 inhab., situated on the abrupt slope of the valley of the 
Starzel. The Parish Church, erected in 1783, contains a relief by 
Peter Vischer , representing Count Eitel Friedrich II. of Zollern 
(d. 1512) and his wife Magdalena of Brandenburg (d.1495). A foot- 
path to the left at this church leads to (1 hr.) Hohenzollern. The 
small Protestant Church on the S. side of the town (1 M. from the 
station) is a tasteful modern structure in the pointed style. Oppo- 
site is the Villa Eugenia, with gardens, the property of the Prince. 
About 1 M. farther on is the Brielhof Inn (see below). 

A road passing the Martinsthurm leads to the W. from Heehingen to 
(3 M.) the little chateau of Lindich, with a park. — Pleasant walks to 
(2 hrs.) the Zeller Bom, Steigberg, and Hangende Stein. 

The train crosses the Starzel, passes Stetten in the Gnaden-Thal, 
the ancestral burial-place of the Zollern family, and beyond several 
cuttings reaches (19 M.) Zollern (1798 ft.; *Brielhof, V 2 M. from 
the station ; one-horse carr. to the castle 5, two-horse 7 Jf). A 
good road (the windings of which are avoided by short-cuts following 
the telegraph-posts) leads hence to the (2!/ 2 M.) magnificent castle 
of *Hohenzollern (2887 ft. ; adm. 25 pf.), grandly situated on an 
isolated wooded eminence of the Alb. It was erected by Frederick 
"William IV. in 1850-55 as a royal chateau, and completed in 1867. 
The bold and skilful construction is as remarkable as the situation. 

The old castle which occupied this site was destroyed in 1423 and repeat- 
edly restored (the last time in 1554), hut at the beginning of the present cen- 


12. Route. 49 

J" r y, }„"* °f *' remained except the chapel. An inscription over the 'Adler- 
thor (PI. 1) alludes to the history of the edifice -, above it is the Prussian eagle ; 
below it an equestrian figure representing the Elector Frederick I. Passing 
through the Adlerthor, the visitor enters the ' Rampenthurm\ within the nar- 
row limits of which three bold and ingeniously contrived curve's and a wind- 
ing tunnel lead to the gate-tower situated 75 ft. higher. The balustrade above 
the entrance to the tunnel is adorned with two men-at-arms in stone. The 
summit of the precipitous rock is enclosed, in accordance with the ancient 
plan of the castle, by walls 45-65 ft. in height, in the form of a heptagon, 
and provided with bastions and corner- turrets. Within this enclosure stands 
the modern castle, a winged edifice with five towers, two of which rise 
to a height of 120 ft. above the external walls. The two lowest of the 
five stories of the building are vaulted and designed for purposes of de- 
fence. The towers are adorned with the arms of the Zollern family. On 
the tower of St. Michael, above the balcony of the apartments of the Em- 

press, is a representation of St. Michael and the Dragon in bronze. The 
style of the entire structure is that of the latter part of the 14th cent., 
which has been strictly adhered to, notwithstanding the serious difficulties 
encountered in constructing the approaoh to the castle and providing it 
with fortifications. The garrison consists of a company of infantry. 

To the left in the upper Burghof is the Burggarten, adorned with a 
bronze statue of Fred. William IV. beneath a Gothic canopy (PI. 4). Op- 
posite, to the right, is the Wehrhaus, or barrack, containing a restaurant. 
Adjoining it is the Protestant Chapel (PI. 3), in the Gothic style. To the 
left (S.) rises the Michaelsthurm with the relief- portraits and armorial 
bearings of the different lords of the castle. To the E. of it, in the di- 
rection of the garden, is the Roman Catholic Chapel of St. Michael (PI. 14). 
In the centre of the quadrangle rises the noble Konigslinde. 

A lofty flight of steps (PI. 5) by the Wehrhaus, adorned with a statue 
of the Count Zollern who rebuilt the castle in 1454, leads to the apart- 
ments of the interior. The Starnmbaum- Halle (PI. 6), containing genealogical 
trees, coats-of-arms, etc., is first entered. Then the sumptuous "Grafen- 
saal (PI. 7), in the Gothic style, borne by eight columns of red marble, and 
overladen with gilding and painting. On the right of this saloon is the 
Kaiserhalle (PI. 8), borne by a central pillar, embellished with eight 
painted statues of German emperors by the windows ; opposite it, on 
the W. side of the hall, is the Bischofshalle (PI. 9), with two statues and 
28 medaillon-portraite of prelates of the house of Zollern. Adjoining the 

Baedekek's S. Germany. 8th Edit. 4 

50 Route 12. EBINGEN. From Tubingen 

Grafensaal on the W. is the Library (PI. 10), a low apartment with carved 
bookcases and "Frescoes by Peters illustrative of the history of the castle. 
From the library we proceed to the right to the Markgrafenthurm (PI. 11), 
which contains the sitting-room and bedroom of the emperor, while to the 
left are the apartments of the empress (PI. 12) in the Michaeltihurm. The 
Roman Catholic Church of St. Michael is the only part of the earlier structure 
now in existence. It contains some interesting stained glass from the 
monastery of Stetten. 

Another attraction is the very extensive view from the balcony out- 
side the Bischofshalle. It embraces the green hills of Swabia ; W. the 
towns of Balingen and Rottweil ; beyond them the Black Forest, with the 
Feldberg, its chief mountain ; S.W. the Jura; S. and E., in the immediate 
vicinity, the wooded slopes of the Alb. 

A little farther to the E. rises the Zellerhomle , a spur of the Alb 
plateau, 210 ft. higher than the Hohenzollern. A pleasant path leads to 
the E. along the Trauf, as the crest of the wooded hill is called, in 2'/2 hrs. 
to Jungingen ("Post) or Starzeln (*Hofle), on the high-road to Gamertingen 
and (22 M.) Sigmaringen. — Another attractive route leads from the Zeller- 
homle to (6 hrs.) Lavfen on the Eyach (see below), via, the Zoller Steighof, 
Blasenberg, Slich, Hundsruck, Zillhausm, the Bbllatfeli (3018 ft.), Burgfelden 
(with an old Romanesque church and mural paintings of the 11th cent), 
and Schalksburg (see below). 

The Zollem long remains in sight. — 21 ^2 M. Bisingen ; 24 M. 
Engstlatt (interesting painting of the Ulm school in the church), 
■whence the Hundsruck (3054 ft. ; sub-alpine flora) may he ascended . 
— 26 M. Balingen (Schwan ; Roller), a manufacturing town on the 
Eyach, with sulphur-baths. 

An attractive excursion may be made hence to the (2 hrs.) Lochenstein 
(3153 ft. ; splendid view), an ancient pagan place of sacrifice ; and thence 
via the Schqfberg (with the ruin of Wenzelstein ; rock-chasms, etc.) down 
to the Waldhaushof for the (l'/2 hr.) ascent of the Pleltenberg (3293 ft.). 

The line nowturns to the S.E. and enters the highestpart of the 
Swabian Alb. To the right rise the Plettenberg, the Schafberg, and 
the bold Lochenstein (see above). At (29 M.) Frommern begins the 
hilly part of the railway, the gradients varying from 1 : 60 to 1 : 45. 
To the right of (31 M.) Laufen an der Eyach are the Eyachhbrnle 
(3132 ft.; attractive ascent in li/ 4 hr.), Orat, and Grdblensberg, to 
the left the rock of Schalksburg (with a ruined castle of the Zollern 
family). The train passes through a cutting in the rock, with the 
Thierberg on the right and the Heersberg on the left. Beyond 
(33^2 M.) Lautlingen the line enters another amphitheatre of hills 
and soon reaches its hiehestpoint (2420ft.), the watershed between 
the Rhine and the Danube. It then descends gradually to — 

37 M. Ebingen (2395 ft. ; Schiff; Post; Adler; Stern), an ancient 
industrial town, prettily situated among hills. The tower on the 
Schlossfelsen (3122 ft. ; good path, 3 /4hr.) commands a superb survey 
of the Alps from the Zugspitze to the Bernese Oberland. The train 
descends the winding Schmeien-Thal and crosses the Prussian fron- 
tier. 41 M. Strassberg ; on a bold rock to the left is the chateau of 
that name. Below Strassberg the valley is wild and impracticable, 
and presented great engineering difficulties (19 bridges and count- 
less cuttings). 43 M. Kaiseringen; 45 M. Storzingen. The train 
passes through several defiles (the 'Drei Burgen', 'Hexen-Kuche', 

to Sigmaringen. SIGMARINGEN. 12. Route. 51 

'Bettel-Kiiche'). Beyond (481/2 M.) Oberschmeien (1945 ft. ; 3/ 4 M. 
to the E. is the Fiirstenhbhe, with fine view) the line is carried 
through another defile and two tunnels, and beyond the ruins of 
Gebrochen-Gutenstein enters the valley of the Danube. 

50 M. Inzigkofen (Kreuz ; Erbprinz), with a beautiful park on 
the steep and wooded S. bank of the Danube, rendered accessible 
by flights of steps, and containing several natural grottoes. The 
Danube flows so slowly here as to resemble a small lake. The walk 
by Laiz (Inn) to (8/4 hr.) Sigmaringen (see below) is also inter- 

Sigmaringen now comes in sight. The train runs direct towards 
the Muhlberg (p. 52), passes through a cutting, crosses the Danube, 
and reaches — 

54 M. Sigmaringen (1860 ft.; *Deutsches Haus, R. VfaJl, B. 
60pf. ; *L'6we, R. 1-1 V2, D- ^hJi, B. 60 pf. ; *Kronprinz; Traube, 
R. 1-2, B. 1/2, pens. 2Vss-3«^; Adler, moderate), a handsome little 
town with 4200 inhab., the residence of Prince Hohenzollern, and 
seat of the Prussian administrative authorities, recently embellished 
with new streets and promenades. 

The handsome Schloss, on a rock rising abruptly from the Da- 
nube, contains a *Museum , chiefly formed by Prince Karl Anton 
(d. 1885), and surpassing most collections of the kind both in ex- 
tent and choiceness. It is admirably arranged in the Kunsthalle, 
a fine Gothic hall, with frescoes by Muller of Diisseldorf, and in 
two cabinets. Excellent catalogues by Hofrath Lehner. The Mu- 
seum is open daily (festivals excepted) from 10 to 12 and 2 to 4 ; 
admission 40 pf. 

The Collection of Pictures (230 works) chiefly illustrates the early 
German school, the Swabian masters being particularly well represented. 
Nos. "81-86. Wings of a large altar-piece : Annunciation, Nativity, Circum- 
cision of Christ , Adoration of the Magi, and the Procession to Calvary, 
by M. Sehaffner; "132-139. Scenes from the life of the Virgin, by Barth. 
Zeilblom; 158-164. Seven scenes from the history of the Virgin, by Hans 
Schiilein (three masters of TJlm, 15-16th cent.) ; 3. Altdor/er, Adoration of the 
Magi; *Amberger[1), Portraits of a man and woman. The Lower Rhenish 
School, especially that of Cologne, is also numerously represented (e.g. "91. 
B. Bruyn, Crucifixion, in an appropriate landscape). The best of the early- 
Flemish works are : "2 and 4. Annunciation, by Gerard David ; 5. Herri 
met de Bles, Adoration of the Magi ; 29. Virgin Mary, with a background 
of tapestry, and *38. Virgin Mary, in a landscape, by Rogier van der Wey- 
den(1); 61. Oerritt van Haarlem, Crucifixion; 129. Lucas van Leyden, Ador- 
ation of the Magi. — The other sections of the museum contain specimens 
of mediseval and Renaissance carved work (statuettes, reliefs, furniture), 
metal-work, jewelry, textile works, including Gobelins of the 14th and 15th 
cent., glasses, enamels, and a rich collection of Italian majolica, French 
porcelain, and Dutch, Rhenish, and Swiss pottery. — In the upper rooms 
is an extensive Palaeonlological Collection (2000 objects). 

The Library, with its valuable books, incunabula, and MSS., 
the Armoury, and the other richly furnished rooms of the palace 
are also worth seeing. 

In front of the Schloss is &*Statue of 'Prince Karl Anton (d. 1885), 
by Donndorf. In the Karls-Platz is the Prinzenbau (now the resi- 


52 Route 12. BEURON. 

dence of the Prince), in front of which is a colossal bronze bust of 
Prince Karl (d. 1853), erected in 1869. 

On the Brenzkofer Berg ('/2 hr.) , on the opposite (N.) bank of the 
Danube, is the War Monument, in memory of the Hohenzollerns who fell in 
the campaigns of 1866 and 1870-71. It represents Germania, on a lofty 
pedestal, holding an oak-wreath. The platform commands a charming view 
of the town and environs, with the distant Alps. At the foot of the hill, 
V« M. to the W., is the Zollerhof, a favourite restaurant, with a garden; 
and near it stands the pretty Villa Leibbrand with beautiful grounds (open 
to visitors). — The Muhlberg (easy path to the summit) is another fine 
point of view. 

Feom Sigmaringen to Tuttlingen, 26 J /2 M., railway via the pictur- 
esque winding 'Valley of the Danube, which will even repay pedestrians 
(to Beuron 6 hrs., thence to Tuttlingen 4 hrs.). — 3'/2 M. Inzigkofen (p. 51). 
The line crosses the Schmeie and the Danube, passes the ruin of Dietfurt, 
situated on a rock, and beyond a short tunnel reaches (6 M.) Gutenslein 
(Sonne), a picturesque village with a half-ruined chateau. Above the 
Danube tower the rocks of Rabenfels and Heidenfels. Traversing another 
tunnel (300 yds. long) the train halts at (101/2 M.) Thiergarten (Hammer), with 
disused iron-works ; and then, beyond the ruin of Falkenstein (on the right) 
and the village of Neidingen, at (HV2 M.) Hansen im Thai ("Steinhaus; 
beer at the Adler), with a lofty ruin near it. In front rises the conspicuous 
old chateau of Werenwag, the property of Prince Fiirstenberg, a splendid 
point of view (fine echo-, *Inn at the top). At the foot of the castle-rock 
lies the hamlet of Langenbrunn. The railway leads through a narrow and 
romantic part of the valley and pierces the Kapfle Tunnel (200 yds.), beyond 
which, on the left, is seen the handsome castle of Wildenstein (now used 
as a forester's house), with interesting defensive works, partly hewn in 
the rock. The line follows the windings of the Danube. To the right, 
on the high-road, is the pretty Chapel of SI. Maurus, erected in 1868-71; 
and close to it, on the left, lies the dairy-farm of St. Maurus im Fels. 

I5V2 M. Beuron (2050 ft. ; Pelikan; Stern; Sonne), a charmingly situated 
village, contains an old Benedictine monastery, founded in the 11th cent., 
suppressed in 1876, and now a school of art. The handsome church 
(restored 1874-75) contains fine ceiling-paintings by Wegscheider. A foot- 
path to the left in the neighbouring wood leads to the (20 min.) Petershbhle, 
a spacious grotto entered by wooden steps. 

Beyond Beuron the railway ascends the left bank of the Danube, 
then diverges to the right through a tunnel (750 yds.) to (18 ST.) Fridingen, 
1 M. to the N. of the little town of that name (Sonne ; Bar ; Lowe). Round- 
ing a mountain-ridge, whence the ruined pilgrimage-church of Mariahilf 
looks down, we reach (21 M.) Miihlheim. The town (Krone ; Hirsch , etc.) 
is picturesquely situated on an eminence to the left, with a chateau of 
Baron Enzberg. Numerous Roman remains have been discovered near 
the station. 

Beyind (23 M.) Nendingen, a considerable village with an elegant new 
church and the ancient chapel of St. Blasius, and the royal foundry of 
Ludwigsthal, the train passes through a deep cutting and crosses the Danube 
to (26 l /2 M.) Tuttlingen (see p. 41). Hence to (6 M.) Immendingen, see R. 10. 

From Sigmaringen to Vim and Radolfzell, see below. 

13. From Ulm to Radolfzell and Constance. 

Railway from TJlm to (86 SI.) Radolfzell in 6V4-7 1 2 hrs. (fares 11 M 30, 
7 Jl 50, 4 Jl 90 pf.); from Radolfzell to (12V2 M.) Constance in i/2- 3 /4 hr. 

Vim, see p. 32. The line diverges to the left from the Stutt- 
gart railway (R. 12) and at (l 1 /^ M.) Soflingen enters the smiling 
valley of the Blau. On the left, near (4'/2 M.) Herrlingen, lies 
Klingenstein, with a chateau of Dr. Leube. From Herrlingen a 

BLATJBEUREN. 13. Route. 53 

pleasant excursion leads via Schloss Ober-Herrlingen to (1 hr.j 
Lantern. The weather-beaten rock protrudes at various points in 
fantastic forms from the wooded sides of the valley. On the right 
the ruined castle of Hohe-0 erhausen or Rusenschloss ; opposite to it 
the rock of Rucken. The train crosses the Blau. 

10 M. Blaubeuren (*Poat; Ochs), an old town with 2950 inhab., 
lying picturesquely in a basin. The *Blautopf, a deep, pale-blue 
pool, just above the town, is the source of the Blau. Beside it is a 
monument to King Charles. The late-Gothic church of the old 
Benedictine Abbey, now a theological seminary, contains choir-stalls, 
carved by Jorg Syrlin the Younger (1493), a fine and richly carved 
high-altar, with statues by the same master, and paintings (history 
of John the Baptist) of the Swabian school. 

At Blaubeuren is situated one of the pumping-stationa of the Alb Water 
Works C Albtcauerversorgttng ), constructed under the direction of the late 
Dr. von Ehmann since 1870, which extend over nearly the whole of the 
Rauhe Alb and supply drinking-water to the numerous communities situated 
on its arid plateau. The water is pumped up through cast-iron pipes from 
springs lying nearly 700 ft. below the level of the plateau, while the motive 
power is afforded by a few small tributary-brooks of the Neckar and the 
Danube, assisted only slightly by steam-power. There is another pumping- 
station at Bybach near Geislingen (p. 31), which may be conveniently 
visited by tourists. 

Tourists who desire to explore the Rauhe Alb may follow the somewhat 
monotonous route from Blaubeuren to (22>/2 M.) Urach, via Suppingen, 
Feldstatten ("Post), Zainingen, and Bohringen (Hirsch). 

The line leads through the valley of the Aach, passing the Hohle- 
fels (on the left), a prehistoric habitation, to (14 M.) Schelklingen, 
with a ruined castle, 1 M. to the N.W. of which is the prettily 
situated former nunnery of Urspring. At (14'/2M.) Schmiechen the 
line enters the Schmiechthal. 

Pleasant expedition in the upper Schmiechthal via, (3/4 hr.) Thai- 
steusslingen (with the ruin of Steusslingen above, to the left) to (•/* hr.) 
Hutten, at the mouth of the wild Barenthal; and thence past the ruin of 
Jutting en (on the right) via Gundershofen to ( 3 /4 hr.) Springen, at the head 
of the valley. A road leads hence in 2 hrs. to Miinsingen (p. 47), via. 
Mehrstetteri. Railway from Schmiechen to Miinsingen proposed. 

17 M. Allmendingen. — 2OY2 M. Ehingen (Wilrttemberger Hof, 
at the station ; Kreuz ; Kronprinz ; Traube) , an old town with 
4100 inhab. , near the confluence of the Schmiech and the Danube. 
The Church of St. Blasius, in a debased style, has an old Gothic 
tower. The Kaiser -Wilhelms-Thurm on the Wolfert commands a 
fine view. 

The line traverses the broad valley of the winding Danube. 
23 M. Dettingen; 25^2 M. Bottenacker; 28 M. Munderkingen, an 
ancient little town encircled by the river. The new bridge over the 
Danube here has the largest stone-arch in Germany (164 ft.). — 
30 M. TJntermarchthal, below the romantic ravine of the Orosse 

Pleasant excursion in the "Grosse Lauterthal, with its numerous ruined 
castles , via (1 hr.) Lautevach, C/2 hr.) Wolfithal, and O/4 hr.) Laufenmuhle, 
with the ruin of Reichenstein, to C/4 hr.) Unterwilzingen ; and thence past 

54 Route 13. MENGEN. From Vim 

the ruins of Nonsberg and Wartslein (on the right), Maiseriburg (left), and 
Schiilzburg^ (right) to P/4 hr.) Anhausen. Farther np are: V4 hr. Indel- 
hausen, with the ruins of Alhayingen and the GerberthShle ; '/4 hr. Weiler, 
with the Beltelmannshohle ; then past the ruin of Devneek (on the left) to 
O/2 hr.) Gundelfingen, with two ruins. l fe hr. Bichishauien; '/2 hr. Blunder- 
singen (ruins at both) ; 1/2 hr. Btittenhausen (road hence to the N. in O/4 hr. 
to MUnsingen, p. 47); 1 hr. Was&erstetten ; then past Schloss Gra/eneck (on 
the right) to O/2 hr.) Marbach, a station on the railway between Miin- 
singen and Reutlingen (p. 47). 

Farther on are the imposing buildings of the old monastery 
of Obermarchthal, the property of the Prince of Thurn and Taxis. 
32 M. Bechtenstein, with the ruined castle of the Steins of Rechten- 
stein, is the prettiest point on the railway. The train crosses to 
the right bank of the Danube, and recrosses the river both before 
and beyond (35'/2 M.) Zwiefaltendorf, with a fine stalactite cavern, 
discovered in 1891. 

A road ascends the Aachthal hence to (1 hr.) Zwiefalten, a former 
convent (now a lunatic asylum), with a fine church. Thence to the 
Wimsener Hbhe, 3/ 4 hr. ; via Cnunt Normann's chateau of EhrenfeU and 
the ruin of Old EhrenfeU to the romantic Glasthal, l'/2 hr. 

38Y2 M. Vnlingen. The village lies to the left, at the foot of 
the Bussen (see below). ■ — 40 M. Riedlingen (Post), a small and an- 
cient town on the left bank of the Danube, 3 / 4 M. from the railway. 

Pleasant excursion (2 hrs. via Unlingen to the E.; also carriage-road) 
hence to the top of the "Bussen (2515 ft.), an isolated hill rising from the 
upper Swabian plain, and commanding a view of the whole of Upper 
Svvabia and of the Alps. On the hill is a pilgrimage-church, at its base 
the Federsee. 

44 M. Ertingen, with a castle of the Prince of Thurn and Taxis. 
47 M. Herbertingen. Opposite is the Donauheunelurg, near Thal- 
hof; farther to the "W. are other Huns' forts ('Henneburgen') at 
Pflummem, Langenenslingen, and Heudcrf. 

From Hekbektingen to Memmingen, 62 M. (railway in 3'/4-4 hrs.). Sta- 
tions : 5'/2 M. Saulgau, a little town with an interesting Gothic Church ; 8 M. 
Hochberg; 12 31. Altshausen (to Pfullingen and Schwakenreute, see below); 
15 M. Steinenbach; 17'/2 Avlendorf (p. 34), junction of the Ulm-Friedrichs- 
hafen line; 23 M. Waldsee, prettily situated between two lakes, with a 
Schloss and a 15th cent. Gothic church; 28 M. Rossberg; 32 M. Wolf egg, 
with the Schloss of Prince Waldburg -Wolfegg ; 36'/ 2 M. Kissleg (Post), 
with two interesting old castles and a remarkable rococo church (branch- 
line to Wcmgen and Hergatz, p. 200). — 43 M. Leutkirch, a busy town with 
3160 inhabitants. [Branch-line hence to (10 II.) Isny, capital of a Wurtem- 
berg district of that name, prettily situated on the Argen. A fine carved 
altar in the Prot. church of St. Nicholas. The "Schwarze Grat, 2 hrs. to the 
E, commands a splendid view of the Alps and Lake of Constance.] Pretty 
scenery, but unimportant stations : Unlerzeit, Aichstetten, Marstetlen-Aitrach, 
Mooshausen, Thatmheim; 59'/2 M. Buxheim, once a Carthusian monastery, now 
a chateau of Count Waldbott-Bassenheim. — 62 M. Memmingen, see p. 33. 

51 M. Mengen (Siegerist; Rail. Restaurant), on the Ablach. 

Fkom Mengen to Sigmaeingen, 6M. (railway in 24 min.). Xear (2V2M.) 
Scheer the train passes through a short tunnel and crosses to the left 
bank of the Danube. 4 J /2 M. Sigmaringendorf. Then past the mouth of 
the Lauchert, and via Sletten, Mariaberg, Gammerlingen , Veringen, etc., finally 
recrossing the river. — 6 M. Sigmaringen (see p. 54). 

The line follows the Ablach-Thal. 54 M. Zielfingen. 56i/ 2 M. 
Krauchenwies (*Goldner Adler) , with an old castle , the summer- 

Nor den 

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to Constance. CONSTANCE. 13. Route. 55 

residence of the Prince of Hohenzollem; interesting erratic boulders 
on the Andelsbach, in the park. (Branch-line to Sigmaringen via Jo- 
sephslust, 51/2 M., in24min.) — 59 M. Ooggingen; 61 M. Menningen. 

63 M. Messkirch (*L'6we; Adler; Sonne), a considerable little 
town, with a chateau of Prince Piirstenberg. A monument has been 
erected to Konradin Kreutzer, the composer, born here in 1782. 
The old church contains an altar-piece by H. Schaufelein (?) and 
monuments of the 16th cent, (epitaph of Count von Zimbern by 
Labenwolf). Traces of a Roman settlement have been found in 
the old town. — 641/2 M. Bichtlingen; 661/2 M. Sauldorf; 69 M. 

From Schwakenreute to Adlendorf, 30 M. (railway in 2-3 hrs.). 3 M. 
Sentenhart; 7'/2 M. Aach-Linz ; 10 M. Pfullendorf (Schwan; Restaurant in the 
Bother Ochs), a very ancient town (charming excursion to Heiligenberg, 
see p. 58; 2*/4 hrs.; diligence H/2, carriage 12 Jl). Stations Burgweiler, 
Ostrach, Hosskirch-Konigsegg (l'/a M. to the S.E. is the partly preserved 
castle of Konigsegg), Kreenried, and (25'/2 M.) Altshausen, junction of the 
Herbertingen and Aulendorf line (p. 54). 

At (71 M.) Miihlingen we enter the wooded ravine of the 
Stockach. 73 M. Zizenhausen; 76 M. Stockach (Krone; Post), pret- 
tily situated, near which the French under Jourdan were defeated 
by Archduke Charles in 1799; fine view from the (!/ 2 hr.) ruin of 
Nellenourg. Then through smiling green valleys , by Nenzingen, 
Wahlwies, and Stahringen, to (86 M.) Radolfzell (*Schiff; Krone; 
Sonne), an old town on the Vnter-See, with a Gothic church of 1436, 
where the line unites with the Bale and Constance railway. Near 
it, on the lake, is the Villa Seehalde, with a monument to its former 
proprietor, the poet Victor von Scheffel (d. 1886). 

The railway from Radolfzell to Constance intersects the neck of 
land between the Unter-See and the TJeberlinger See (p. 57), and 
passes stations Markelfingen, Allensbach, and Reichenau. On the 
island of Reichenau in the Unter-See (visible from the train) are 
the buildings of a Benedictine abbey, which was suppressed in 
1799 (see Baedeker s Switzerland'). The island is joined with the 
mainland on the E. by a dyke. The train crosses the Rhine by an 
iron bridge, adorned with statues. 

12^2 M. Constance. — Hotels. 'Insel-Hotel (PI. a; C, 3), in the old 
Dominican monastery, with garden and view of the lake, E., L. & A. 3-6, 
pens. 7-10 Jl; Halm (PI. c; C, 5), opposite the station, R. 2-3, B. 1, D. 3 
pens. 7-8 Jl; "Hecht (PI. d; C, 4), R., L., & A. 3, B. 1, D. 3 Jl; "Schone- 
beck (PI. e; C, 5), opposite the station, R., L., & A. 2-21/z, B. 1, D. 2y 2 , 
pens, from 6 Jl; *Badischer Hof (PI. f; A, 5); -"Krone (PI. g; C, 4), 
Anker, Schiff, Falke, Barbarossa, Bodan, Lamm, '-Schnetzer, second 
class, moderate charges. — Restaurants. ''Schonebeck, see above, Victoria 
(beer), both opposite the station; Engler^s Biergarten, near the public park 
Caf6 Maximilian, Bahnhof-Strasse. 

Post Office (PI. 7 ; C, 4), near the station. — Baths in the lake (PI. D, 
4, 5), well fitted up (bath 40 pf. ; ferry 10 pf). — English Church Service 
in summer. — The former Constanzer Hof (PI. D, 1), on the lake, is now 
an Institute for Nervous Patients (Dr. G. Fischer). 

Constance (1335 ft.), a free town until 1548, after the Reform- 
ation subject to Austria, and since the Peace of Pressburg in 1806 

56 Route IS. CONSTANCE. 

a town of Baden, has now only 17,000 inhab., though it once num- 
bered 40,000. It is situated at the N.W. extremity of the Lake of 
Constance, or Bodensee, at the. point where the Rhine emerges from 
it. The episcopal see, founded in 781 and held by 87 bishops in 
succession, was deprived of its temporalities in 1802 and suppressed 
in 1827. 

The *Cathbdral (PI. 4; B,3), founded in 1052, was rebuilt in 
its present form in 1435 and 1600. Gothic tower erected in 1850-57; 
the perforated spire is of light grey sandstone ; on either side is a 
platform commanding a charming view (adm. 20 pf.). 

On the Doors of the principal portal are "Bas-Reliefs, in 20 compart- 
ments, representing scenes from the life of Christ, carved in oak hy Sim. 
Haider in 1470. The * Choir Stalls, with grotesque sculptures, are of the 
same date. The organ-loft, richly ornamented in the Renaissance style, 
dates from 1680. In the nave (Romanesque), the arches of which are sup- 
ported by 16 monolithic pillars (28 ft. high, 3 ft. thick), sixteen paces 
from the principal entrance, is a large stone slab, a white spot on which 
always remains dry, even when the remaining portion is damp. Huss is 
said to have stood on this spot when the Council of 6th July, 1415, sentenced 
him to he burnt at the stake. In the N. chapel, adjoining the choir, is 
a Death of the Virgin, coloured stone figures life-size, 1460. Adjaoent is an 
elegant spiral staircase. — The Treasury (custodian 1 fe-i.Jl) contains a mis. 
sal embellished with miniatures, 1426. On the E. side is a crypt, contain- 
ing the Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre, with a representation of the sepulchre 
in stone, 20 ft. high, dating from the 13th century. On the exterior of the N. 
side stand two aisles of the once handsome "Cloisters, erected about 1480 
in the Gothic style. 

The "Wessenberg Haus (PI. 15; B, 3) contains books, pictures, 
and engravings, bequeathed to the town by the proprietor J. H. von 
Wessenberg (d. 1860), who for many years acted as the chief super- 
intendent of the diocese. A number of pictures, bequeathed by the 
artist, Marie Ellenrieder (d. 1863), are also exhibited here. 

The Church of St. Stephen (PI. 6 ; B, 4), a late-Gothic building 
of the 15th cent., near the cathedral, with a slender tower, contains 
some interesting wood-earving and sculptures, but the exterior has 
been disfigured by modern restoration. 

The Wessenberg-Strasse leads hence to the S. to the Obere Markt, 
at the corner of which stands the house 'Zum Hohen Hafen' (PI. 2 ; 
B, 4), where Frederick VI., Burgrave of Nuremberg, was created 
Elector of Brandenburg by Emp. Sigismund, 18th April, 1417. 
Adjacent to it is an ancient building with arcades (now the H6t. 
Barbarossa), styled by an inscription 'Curia Pacts', in which Emp. 
Frederick I. concluded peace with the Lombard towns in 1183. — 
A little to the W. is the new Protestant Church (PI. 5; A, 4). 

The Stadt-Kanzlei, or Town Hall (PI. 12; B, 4, 5), erected in 
the Renaissance style in 1593, was decorated in 1864 on the exterior 
with frescoes illustrative of the history of Constance. The apart- 
ments of the groundfloor contain the valuable Municipal Archives, 
comprising 2800 documents, the most interesting of which date 
from the period of the Reformation. Fine inner court. — In the 
Rosgarten (PI. 8 ; B, 5), formerly the guild-house of the butchers, 

CONSTANCE. 73. Route. 57 

is the *Rosgarten Museum, a rich and well-arranged collection of 
antiquities relating to Constance (from lake-dwellings, etc.) and of 
objects of natural history (adm. 40 pf.). ■ — In the market-place 
is a War Monument (figure of Victory), by Bauer (PI. 10). 

The Kaufhaus, or Merchants' Hall (PI. 1 ; C, 4), by the lake, 
erected in 1388, contains the great Council Chamber, supported by 
massive oaken pillars, where the conclave of cardinals met at the 
time of the Great Council (1414-18). The hall was restored in 1866 
and decorated in 1876 with frescoes illustrative of the history of the 
town, by Pecht and Schwbrer (adm. 20 pf.). The upper floor contains 
a collection of Indian and Chinese curiosities (30 pf .). 

The ancient Dominican Monastery (PI. a; C, 3), in which Huss 
was confined, situated on an island in the lake, near the town, has 
been in part converted into a hotel (Insel-Hotel, see p. 55). The 
well-preserved Romanesque cloisters, and the adjoining refectory 
with its graceful vaulting, repay inspection. 

The house in which Huss was arrested , in the Husen-Strasse 
near the Schnetzthor (PI. A, 5), bears a memorial tablet with his 
effigy, put upi n 1878. Adjoining it is an old relief, dated 1415, 
with satirical verses. Some houses farther on, at the 'ObereLaube', 
a bronze tablet with an inscription marks the spot where Jerome of 
Prague was imprisoned in 1415-16. In the suburb of Bruhl, V2M. 
to the W. of the town, is the spot where Huss and Jerome suffered 
martyrdom , indicated by a huge mass of rock with inscriptions 

The Stadt-Qarten on the lake, between the harbour and the Domin- 
ican island, affords a pleasant walk and a charming view of the lake 
and mountains. A bust of the Emp. William I. has been placed here. 

The abbey of Kreuzlingen (^Helvetia; Lowe; *Pens. Besmer), 
on Swiss territory, 3 / 4 M. beyond theS. gate, is now a normal school. 
The church contains a curious piece of wood-carving, with about 1000 
small figures, executed in the 18th century. 

A fine view of the lake and of the Vorarlberg and Appenzell Alps is 
obtained from the * Allmannshbhe ( s /4hr.), with belvedere (Restaurant), 5 min. 
above the village of Allmannsdorf, on the road to the Mainan. — Among 
other pleasant objects for a walk may be mentioned the Loretto-Kapelle 
O/2 hr.); the Jacob, a restaurant with a fine view (1/2 hr.); and the 
Kleine Rigi, above Miinsterlingen (Inn ; 1 hr.). 

In the N.W. arm of the Lake of Constance ( Ueberlinger See), 4'/2 M. 
from Constance, is situated the beautiful island of s Mainau, formerly the 
seat of a lodge of the Teutonic Order, as a cross on the S. side of the chateau 
(1746) indicates. It is l>/2 M. in circumference, and is connected with the 
mainland by a bridge 650 paces in length. Since 1853 it has been the prop- 
erty of the Grand-Duke of Baden, and is now entirely covered with plea- 
sure-grounds, with cypresses and other semi-tropical plants. Plain restau- 
rant near the chateau. Steamboat from Constance in 55 min. ; rowing-boat 
(in 1 hr., a pleasant trip) 5 Jl and gratuity ; one-horse carr. 5-6, two-horse 
8 M. Pedestrians take a shorter route (1 hr.), partly through woods. 

On the N. bank of the lake, opposite Mainau (steamboat in 40 min.), 
lies Meersburg (1463 ft. ; "Beehof, near the quay, pens, ijt, well-arranged 
lake-baths in the neighbourhood; Schiff, Wilder Mann , both on the lake; 
Lowe; Pent, zum Frieden, >/3 M. to the E.), a pleasant little town, with 

58 Route 13. HEILIGENBERG. 

many old houses, and good and inexpensive summer- quarters. The Old 
Castle, with the Dagobert Tower (ca. 800), is said to have once heen 
a seat of the Hohenstaufen. The old mill in the adjacent ravine is highly 
picturesque. The New Castle, long an episcopal residence, is now a deaf- 
and-dumb asylum. Fine views from the Kanzeli and from'the "Edelstein, 
2 M. from the harbour. The churchyard contains the tomb of the cel- 
ebrated Mesmer (d. 1815), the discoverer of mesmerism. ^The wines of 
Meersburg are the best on the lake. 

From Meersburg the steamer plies in '/« hr. more to Ueberlingen 
("Bad-Hdtel, with shady garden, pension 5 Jl; "Lowe; Sehiff; Engel; Krone; 
Wilder Mann; Adler; Beck, and other restaurants; private lodgings), an 
ancient town with 4000 inhab., now frequented for its lake-baths and 
mineral spring. Pleasant grounds have been laid out on the bank of the 
lake. The town contains several mediaeval buildings, prominent among 
which is the "Town Hall, a richly -decorated Gothic structure. The 
hall with its carved wood-work is an object of great interest. The 39 
statuettes on the walls, representing the various elements of the German 
Empire (3 spiritual and 4 temporal Electors, 4 Margraves of the Empire, 
Landgraves, Counts, Barons, Knights, Burghers , and Peasants), are by 
Jacob Rues (1490). Opposite to them are portraits of the Emperors, 
beginning with Rudolph II. — The adjacent Minster, of the 14th cent., 
with double aisles, contains an altar with fine wood-carving of the 17th 
century. The Stadt-Eanzlei, in the Miinster-Platz, has a fine doorway, 
of the end of the 16th century. Adjacent is an Ethnographical and In- 
dustrial Museum. The Steinhaus Museum contains a Historical Collection 
and a Cabinet of Natural History. Fine views of the lake from various 
points. The Appenzell Mts. are visible hence; also, to the S.E., the sum- 
mits of the Rhfetikon Mountains. About l'/2 M. to the N. of Ueberlingen 
are the Heidenlocher, mentioned in Scheffel's novel 'Ekkehard'. Excursions 
may also be made to the (V2-V4 ur ) Spezgarder Tdbel and the Hodinger 
Tobel (a picturesque ravine with waterfalls) and to Bodmann, on the W. 
shore of the lake, with an old imperial residence from which the lake 
(Bodensee) took its name. 

A pleasant excursion may be taken from Ueberlingen or Meersburg to 
Heiligenberg . A diligence plies twice daily in 3 3 /4 hrs. from Meersburg to 
Heiligenberg, via Salem ; carriage and pair, there and back 18 Jl, from 
Ueberlingen 12 Jl. It is best to proceed direct from Ueberlingen to Hei- 
ligenberg, visiting Salem on the return journey. Heiligenberg ("Adler, 
pension 5 Jl; "Winter's Inn, pension 4-4V2 •M), an insignificant place, 
with the extensive chateau and park of Prince Fiirstenberg, lies pictur- 
esquely on a rocky terrace 1000 ft. above the Lake of Constance. The cha- 
teau contains a magnificent Renaissance hall, 110 ft. long and 40 ft. broad, 
with a beautifully-carved wooden "Ceiling (16th cent.), probably the finest 
in Germany. The !S Chapel (restored) is also noteworthy. The , *View from 
the chateau is strikingly beautiful: it embraces the Lake of Constance, 
and the entire chain of the Vorarlberg and Swiss Alps, from the Hoch- 
vogel to the Jungfrau ; still better from the 'Sieben Linden 1 (seven lime- 
trees), 3 /4 M. from the village. — The same view is enjoyed from several 
parts of the flower-garden, on the left of the road to the castle ; also from 
the "Freundschafts-Hbltlen , a number of grottoes, y« hr. to the N.W. of 
the inn. — From Heiligenberg to Pfullendorf, see p. 55. 

Below Heiligenberg, to the S.W., 9'/2 M. from Ueberlingen, lies the 
suppressed Cistercian convent of Salem (Post), now partly occupied by the 
Margrave William, with large halls (the finest of which is the 'Kaiser-Saal') 
in the rococo style, a collection of paintings, etc. The Gothic "Church of 
the 14th cent, is lavishly adorned within with sculptures in marble (23 
altars), dating from the late-Renaissance period; fine late-Gothic ciborium. 

Railway from Constance to Schaffhausen and Bale, see Baedeker's 
Rhine or Baedeker's Switzerland. 


14. From Frankfort to Nuremberg by Wiirzburg, 

145 M. Railway in 51/4-U hrs. (fares 18 Jt 80, 12 M 50, 8 M 50; express 
22 Jl 10, 15 JC 60 pf.). — Trains for Hanau start from the Central Station, 
on the left bank of the Main, as well as from the E., or Hanau Station, 
outside the Allerheiligen-Thor, 3 /< M. from the Zeil. 

Frankfort, see Baedeker's Rhine. Soon after leaving the E. 
Station, we pass Bornheim on the left ; Offenbach (see below) lies to 
he light, on the opposite hank of the Main. 3 M. Mairikur ; 6 M. 
Hochstadt-D'ornigheim ; 9 M. Wilhelmsbad, with pleasant promenades : 
all resorts of the Frankforters. On the Main, !/ 2 M. to the S., is 
Philippsruhe, the seat of Landgrave Ernest of Hessen, with extensive 
orangeries. Near (10 M.) Hanau the train crosses the Kinzig. 

Fkom Fkankfokt Central Station to Hanau, 13 M. (railway in V2- 3 A 
hr.). The train crosses the Main below Frankfort. 2 M. Sachsenhausen, a 
suburb of Frankfort ; 3 M. Oberrad. 5 M. Offenbach (Sladt Kassel), a manu- 
facturing town with 35,778 inhab., founded by French refugees at the end 
of the 17th century. Its fancy-goods rival those of Paris, Vienna, and Berlin. 
There are also important engine-factories, foundries, etc. The town is 
commanded by a castle of Count Isenburg, built in the Renaissance style 
in 1564-72. — 9M. Milhlheim; to the left, on theMain, is the village oiRum- 
penheim, with a chateau of theLandgrave of Hessen. I2V2M. Klein-Steinheim. 
The train then crosses the Main, and enters the E. station of Hanau. 

Hanau (*Adler;*Riese; Post, plain), a pleasant town, in the fer- 
tile Wetterau, with 25, 000 inhab., has two railway-stations, East and 
West, l 1 ^ M. apart. The modern part of the town owes its origin 
to Flemish and Walloon Protestants, who were banished from the 
Netherlands in 1597 on account of their creed. Their handicrafts, 
such as weaving, diamond-cutting, and the manufacture of gold and 
silver trinkets, still flourish. In the Parade-Platz is the house (marked 
by a marble tablet ; now the police-office) in which the brothers 
Jacob (1785-1863) and Wilhelm Grimm (1786-1859) were born. 

Near Hanau, on 30th and 31st Oct., 1813, Napoleon with 80,000 men 
who had retreated from Leipsic defeated Marshal Wrede with 40,000 Ba- 
varians, Austrians, and Russians. The battle took place near the Lamboi 
maid, on the Leipsic road, beyond the Kinzig. A small stone in the wall 
of the Kinzig bridge bears the name of Wrede, who was wounded there. 

From Hanau to Eberbach and Stuttgart, see R. 4 ; to Fulda and Bebra 
(for Leipsic and Berlin), see Baedekers Northern Germany. 

To the left rises the Hahnenkamm (p. 60). To the right Stein- 
heim, a small town on the Main, with a conspicuous castle with 
five towers. I2Y2 M. Gross-Auheim. Just beyond it, to the right, 
lies Oross-Krotzenburg, on the site of aRoman camp, with remains 
of the Roman ramparts. — 15V2 M. Kahl (Krone; Lambertus). 

From Kahl we may visit the Kahlgrund, a pretty, wooded valley, the 
most populous in the Spessart (p. 63). The road leads E. to (3 M.) Alzenau, 

60 Route 14. ASCHAFFENBURG. From Frankfort 

(410ft.; Post; Bayr. Hof, with brewery), with aSchloss now occupied by 
the district court, and a ruined castle. (Diligence twice daily in 1 hr. to 
Dettingen, see below.) Ascent of the Ludwigsthurm on the Bahnenkamm 
(1433ft.), a fine point of view, 3/ t hr. — Then via Kdlberau to (21/2M.) Michel- 
bach, where wine is produced, Sleinbach, and (6 M.) Mbmbris (Karpfen; 
Kempf), where we cross the river Kohl. From (8 M.) Schimborn (Rosen- 
berger), we proceed by the road coming from Aschaffenburg to the E. via. 
Erlenbach, at the foot of the Kloiterberg (1260 ft.; fine view), and Elein- 
blankenbach to (15'/2M.) Schdllkrippen ( Fleckenstein ; Steigerwald ; MShler), 
whence we may visit the forester's house 'Am Englander'' (rfmts. on Sun. 
and Thurs.), descending to Jakobsthal and through the Lohrbach- Thai to the 
station of (IV4 hr.) Beigenbrilcken (p. 62). About 20 min. to the 8. of the 
forester's house is the Steigkoppe (1650 ft.), with a scaffolding which affords 
a fine view. — From Schollkrippen to Aschaffenburg (see below) omnibus 
daily in 3 hrs.; to Gelnhausen in 4 hrs. 

j.8'/2 M. Dettingen, where the British, Hanoverian, Austrian, 
and Hessian troops, commanded by George II. of England, defeated 
the French on 27th July, 1743 : the first decisive success of Austria 
in the War of Succession. To Alzenau, see above. — 2IV2 M. 
Kltin- Ostheim. 

2572 M. Aschaffenburg. — Hotels. *Peinz-Regent Luitpold, op- 
posite the station; 'Adlek (PI. a; C,3), R. &B. 272-3, J>.2 l liJt; "Goldnes 
Fass (PI. b; B, 2), E. 1 J 60-2 M 50, B. 80 pf., pens, from 5 Jl; Fbei- 
hou' (PI. c; C, 3); Geoegi, Eisenbahn- Hotel, both at the station. — 
"Weiss s Restaurant, at the 'Riese', Herstall-Str. ; beer at the Adler and 
Kalie Loch. 

Aschaffenburg (341 ft.), with 13,609 inhab., was for centuries 
the summer-residence of the Electors of Mayence, but since 1814 
has belonged to Bavaria. The extensive Schloss, with its four lofty 
towers (170 ft.), erected 1605-14, contains a Library (open Tues. 
and Thurs., 11-12) with valuable 'Incunabula' (e.g. Guttenberg's 
forty-two-line Bible) and books of the Gospels with admirable 
miniatures (the finest by Glockenton, an artist of Nuremberg, 1524) ; 
also a collection of 20,000 engravings and a *Gallery of Pictures 
(346 in number). Adm. 9-12 and 2-6 (50 pf. , incl. adm. to the 
Pompeianum, p. 61). 

No. 34. J. Pynar, Raising of Lazarus; 35. Seb. Vranck, Marauders; 
•37. Sal. van Ruysdael, River-scene; *55. A. Elsheimer, Christ on the way to 
Emmaus; "58. Rembrandt (or Arnold van Oeldert), Ecce Homo (1660); 62. 
Rubens, Silenus; A. van Everdingen, Norwegian landscape; 85. Eglon van 
der Neer, Conversation-piece ; 96. Jan Brueghel, 102. E. Sachlleven, Land- 
scapes; 109. Q. Dou, Dentist; 99, 112, 113. /. Momper, Landscapes; '125. 
A. van Oslade, Cottage interior (1639); '132. J^. Berchem, Sunny landscape; 
136, *142. A. van del- Neer, Landscapes; 139. /. D. de Beem, Still -life; 
143. Ph. Wouwerman, Horseman at a tavern (youthful work); 144. D. Tenters, 
Soldiers gambling ; 148. G. du Bois, Edge of the wood ; *149. P. deBloot, Peas- 
ants in a village-street; "160. D. Verburgh, Large landscape; 169. A. van 
de Velde, Horsemen; 171. Angelica Kauffmarm, Madonna; "ilQ. H. Sachl- 
leven, Large mountain landscape (1651) ; L. Giordano, 198. Esther, 199. 
Queen of Sheba; 206, 217, 225, 238, etc. A. de Gelder, Passion of Christ; 
209. Raph. Camphuisen, River-scene ; 210. Rembrandt, Resurrection; 211. 
C. Netscher, Portrait; s 218, 221, 226, "223. Com. de Beem, Fruit and flower 
pieces; 214, 227. 0. Buysmans, Landscapes; ; 220. A. Cuyp, Cavaliers with 
landscape (finest specimen of this master in Germany); 222. Bonaventura 
Peters, Sea-piece; 233. J. Jordaens, St. Augustine; 234. Manfredi (not P. 
Lastman), Herodias; 235. De Beem, Still-life; '248, 251. C. de Vos (or Mire- 
veltf), Man and his wife; 249. A. Keirincx, Wood-scene; 250. D. Seghers' 

to Nuremberg. ASCHAFFENBURG. 14. Route. 61 

Flowers ; 255. J. Duck, Looting a house; 256. J. van Goyen. Large river- 
scene (1646); 258. N. Berchem, Landscape with gipsies; 261,290. H. Baldung, 
Nativity, Crucifixion. 

Visitors with tickets (comp. p. 60) are admitted to the garden and 
follow a .picturesque path, with steps and arbours, to the exit opposite 
the Pompeianum (see below). 

The Romanesque *Stiftskirche (PI. 14; abbey-church), founded 
in 980, but frequently altered, has cloisters of the 12th century. 

The Interior has been skilfully restored since 1881. In the right 
aisle is a 'Monument in bronze, with a gilded sarcophagus said to contain the 
relics of St. Margaret, dating from 1540. In the choir is the monument of 
Albert of Brandenburg (d. 1545), Elector ofMayence, cast in 1525 during his 
lifetime, by P. Vischer, and opposite to it a Madonna in bronze by Joh. Vischer. 
To the right of the principal entrance is a large monument in alabaster of 
the last Elector, Frederick Charles Joseph (d. 1802). The church also 
possesses three valuable paintings by M. Grunewald , who lived for some 
time at Aschaffenburg (Resurrection, Pieta, and St. Valentinian, belonging 
to the altar-piece in the Pinakothek at Munich). 

The old abbey-buildings now contain the Municipal Collections 
(open Sun. 10-12 ; at other times on application to Hr. Broili, the 
director) : Roman antiquities found at Aschaffenburg (votive tablets, 
altars, vases, bronzes), prehistoric relics of the stone age, minerals, 
reminiscences of the electoral period, etc. 

The Church of St. Agatha (PI. 10; B, 2), to the N.E. of the 
Schloss, built in the Transition style in 1115 and of late judiciously 
restored, contains many ancient tombstones. 

To the W. of the church, on the lofty bank of the Main beyond 
the Schloss-Garten, stands the *Pompeianum (PI. A, 2 ; adm. 8.30- 
12 and 2-6, 50 pf.; comp. above), a villa erected by King Ludwig I. 
in 1824-49 in imitation of the 'House of Castor and Pollux' at Pom- 
peii , and adorned with mural paintings. The mosaic (Juno and 
Jupiter) on the wall of the summer dining - room was presented 
by Pope Gregory XVI. View from the platform. 

Pleasant walk through the Schonthal (PI. D, 3) and the ('/ 4 hr.) Fasanerie 
to the Bchmerleribacher Wald. — On the left bank of the Main, 2 M. to the 
W., where the river is crossed by a bridge constructed in 1430, is the 
Schiine Busch (comp. the Plan), a royal park with a chateau, orangery, 
and inn. — Another pleasant walk is by (4'/2 M.) Johannesberg, with its 
new belvedere, to the Ludwigsthurm on the Hahnenkamm (p. 60). Then 
down by Alzenau (p. 60). 

From Aschaffenburg to Mayencb, 46'/2M. (direct railway in 1V2-3V2 hrs.). 
The through-trains from Mayence (and Cologne) to Munich and Vienna 
travel over this line. 9 M. Babenhausen is the junction for Hanau and Eber- 
bach (p. 23). 26 M. Darmstadt, and (46V2 M.) Mayence, see Baedekers Rhine. 

From Aschaffenburg to Amorbach, 28 M. (railway in l 3 /4-2hrs.). Soon 
after quitting the station the line sweeps round towards the S., passing 
the Fasanerie (see above) on the left, and follows the right hank of the 
Main, rich in vines and fruit-trees. 4M. Obernau; S'/aM. Sulzbach, 3'/!>M. to 
the E. of which lie the picturesque baths ("Curhaus) of Sodenthal, with 
springs containing salt and bromine ; 9 M. Kleinwallstadt ; 11 M. Obernburg 
(Kunig), opposite which, on the other side of the river, is the little town 
of that name, with a busy trade in timber and wine. At (15 M.) WSrth, a 
small town with an old. chateau, the train crosses the Main. 16 M. 
Klingenberg (Hirsch; Krone); the small town, noted for its excellent red 
wine and its fire-proof clay, lies on the opposite bank. 18'/2 M. Laudenbach. 
20V2 M. Kleinheubach (Adler), with Schloss and park of Prince Lbwen- 
atein-Wertheim-Rosenberg (chapel with "Frescoes by E. Steinle). On the 

62 Route 14. MILTENBERG. From Frankfort 

opposite bank lies Grossheubach, 1 M. to the S.E. of which is the Fran- 
ciscan monastery of Engelsberg , with a pilgrimage-church (view), where 
Dom Miguel of Braganza (d. 1866), pretender to the throne of Portugal, is 
buried. In a wood near this (l'/a M. from the village) are the so-called 
Hain- or Heunen-SSulen, twelve huge columns of sandstone, remains of an 
ancient quarry of the Koman period, which seems to have been suddenly 

2272 M. Miltenberg (395 ft.; Engel; Riese), a thriving little town of 
3500 inhab., in a charming situation, stretches for a considerable distance 
between the river and the wooded height on its bank. Its quarries of 
variegated sandstone were known in the time of the Romans. The old 
Schloss of the Electors of Mayence, built in the 15th cent, and destroyed 
in 1552, contains Hr. Conrady's valuable collection of antiquities and ob- 
jects of art (admission free). The Municipal Collection of Antiquities is in 
the old hospital. Several interesting timber-built houses. — Then Weil- 
bach and (28 M.) Amorbach ("Badischer Hof; Post), a small town with 
2500 inhab. and mineral baths, seat of the Prince of Leiningen, whose 
handsome English-Gothic chateau of Wald-Leiningen lies 6 M. to the S. 
The old abbey-church, with two early- Romanesque towers and a nave 
rebuilt in the rococo style in the 18th cent. , is now used for Protestant 
services. The abbey-mill and other Gothic edifices in the town, and the 
rococo library-hall in the former chapter -house should be noticed. — 
Hence to the Odenwald, see Baedeker's Rhine. 

From Miltenberg to Weetheim, 18 M. (diligence twice daily in 
3 3 /4 hrs.). The picturesque road, which will repay even walkers, runs on 
the left bank of the Main through the fertile and well-wooded valley, dotted 
here and there with ruined castles, via Biirgstadl (near which, on the 
Wannenberg, are an ancient Germanic rampart and a deserted Roman 
quarry), to (5 M.) Freudenberg (Rote), a picturesque little place, with the 
ruins of a castle of the 12th cent, destroyed in the Thirty Years' War. 
Farther on, to the left, are the extensive quarries of Reistenhausen ; then 
Fechenbach with the ruined Kollenberg, Dorfprozelten, and Sladtprozelten 
("Post; Adler), with a castle of the now extinct Schenks of Klingenberg, 
destroyed by the French in 1688. Thence by Mondfeld and Oriinenwbrlh 
to Wertheim (see p. 63). 

The line passes a monument (r.) to the Austrians who fell in 
1866, and ascends by (30 M.) Hosbach and (32 M.) Laufach to the 
long tunnel of (36*/2 M.) Heigenbrucken (Fleckenstein's Inn, at the 
station). About 3*^ M. to the N., above Jakobsthal, is the Steig- 
koppe (p. 60). The line here enters the higher regions of the Spes- 
sart (p. 63), winds through the wooded and grassy Lohrbach-Thal, 
and runs across numerous bridges and through many cuttings in 
the red sandstone to (45 M.) Partenstein and (49 M.) Lohr, on the 
Main. About 1 M. to the S. is Lohr (*Kessler; Hirsch; Krone; 
Roder), an industrial little town, prettily situated. The Rathhaus 
and the Parish Church are interesting. 

From Lohr to Wertheim, 23 M. (railway in 2 hrs.). The train ascends 
the pleasant valley of the Main, following the right bank of the winding 
river. 1 M. Stadt Lohr (see above); 2'/2 M. Rodenbach; 5'/2 M. Neustadl 
am Main, with a well-restored church (Romanesque basilica), dating from 
a Benedictine monastery founded in the 8th century. 9'/2 M. Rothenfels 
(Anker, good wine), with large quarries and a chateau of Prince Lowen- 
stein- Wertheim -Rosenberg. 11 M. Hafenlohr; 12'/2 M. Marktheidenfeld 
('Post ; Schone Aussicht) , with a handsome bridge over the Main and 
near a large trout-breeding establishment. Nearing (16 M.) Trennfeld, we 
observe on the right "Schloss Triefenstein, once an Augustinian provostry, 
now the property of Prince Lowenstein-Wertheim-Freudenberg, very hand- 
somely fitted up (tapestry, collection of arms) ; beautiful park and charm- 
ing view. On the left bank are Somburg, with an old castle, and the 

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to Nuremberg. SPESSART. 14. Route. 63 

Burkardus-Hbhle, the cave I in which St. Burkhard, first/bishop of Wiirz- 
burg, died in 752. A tunnel, 550 yds. long, below the Bettinger Berg, brings 
us to (ilM.^Kreuzwertheim. — 23 M. Wertheim ("Baducher Hof, in the town ; 
'Held, on the Main, with garden and fine view, Lowensteiuer Hof, Lowe, 
Ochs, unpretending), an old town with 3640 inhab., the residence of Prince 
Lb wenstein- Wertheim -Freudenberg, is prettily situated at the influx of 
the Tauber into the Main, at the foot of a wooded hill, crowned by the 
extensive and partially^preserved ruins of a castle destroyed in the Thirty 
Years 1 War. Several quaint houses of the 16th century. The situation 
of the town, with the imposing red sandstone ruin above it, somewhat 
resembles that of Heidelberg. The church contains fine monuments of 
Counts Joh. and Mich, von Wertheim (15th and 16th cent.). 

The 8. part of the Spessart, the finest and most extensive forest- 
district in Germany, noted for its gigantic oaks and beeches, and its game, 
is washed on three sides by the Main, and is bounded on the N. by the 
valleys of the Aschaff and the Lohr, through which the railway from 
. Aschaffenburg to Lohr runs. Almost in the centre of this district rises the 
Geyersberg (1920 ft.), from which long hills radiate to the W., S., and E., 
on the crests of which we may walk in the delicious leafy shade for hours 
at a time (as in the Vosges Mts.). On the W. slope of the Geyersberg, 11 M. 
from Stadtprozelten (p. 62) and as far from Marktheidenfeld (p. 62), Wert- 
heim (see above), and Lohr (p. 62), lies Rohrbrunn (1520 ft.), a summer- 
resort consisting of two forester's houses and a new inn (pens. 31/2 JK), 
and a good centre for exploring the Spessart. Opposite is (10 min.) a 
hunting-lodge of Prince Luitpold, behind the forester's house of Diana, 
where the^wild swine are fed at 5 or 6 p.m. To the S. (20 min.) is the 
Annahohe or Hohe Warle (1210ft.), a forester's house, whence we survey 
the vast leafy ocean of the Spessart. We may also visit a venerable oak, 
1000 years old, 8-10 min. to the S.W. To the N.E. a beautiful forest-path 
leads past the (l'/4 hr.) forester's house of Jagerverein to (1 hr.) Lichtmau 
(785 ft. ; ~'Inn), prettily situated in the wooded valley of the Hafenlohr^ (wild 
swine feeding). [Thence we either descend the valley to (3V2hrs.) Hafenlohr 
(p. 62), or go to the N. through fine timber across the Schwarze Riicken to 
Rechtenbach and (3 1 /2hrs.) Lohr (p. 62). — A road leads from Rohrbrunn to 
the S.W. past the forester's house of Diana and through the Dammbach-Thal 
to dVahr.) Krausenbach(Iim), whence we ascend to the left (guide advisable) 
to the (V2 M.) Gaishohe (1705 ft.), on which a view-tower has recently been 
built. We descend past the ruined Wildenstein to (l>/4 hr.) Eschau (670 ft.; 
"Krone), whence a carriage-road ascends the Elsawa-Thal to Hobbach (Villa 
Elsawa of Dr. Wehsarg, pension h-i'/tdt) andMespelbrunn (see below), and 
descends to (4'/2 M.) Obernburg (p. 61). — Charmingly situated, i. s |^ hr. to 
the N. of Rohrbrunn (guide advisable) , lies Mespelbrunn , the ancestral 
castle of the founder of Wiirzburg University (p. 68; refreshments in the 
forester's house, to the left). From this point a pleasant route (guide- 
posts) leads by Neudorf and the Hohe Warte (1210 ft.) to (2 hrs.) Bad 
Sodenthal and (I1/4 hr.) Sulzbach (p. 61). 

54!/ 2 M. Langenprozelten. Near (58 M.) Gemunden (Kreiser ; Rail. 
Restaurant) we cross the Frankische Saale, which here falls into the 
Main. The little town lies picturesquely at the foot of wooded hills, 
commanded by the ruins of Schorenb erg, which was destroyed in 1243. 

From Gemunden to Elm, 28'/2 M. (railway in l>/4-2 3 /4 hrs.). The line 
runs through the pleasant Sinnthal. Stations Rineck, Burgsinn, Mittelsinn, 
Jossa (to Briickenau, see p. 85), Sterbfritz, Vollmerz (near it, to the E., 
the ruins of the Steckelburg, once the seat of TJlrich von Hutten) ; then Elm, 
a station on the Bebra-Hanau Railway (see Baedeker's Northern Germany). 

Feom Gemunden to Hammelburg (17V-J M.), railway in I1/4 hr. 
through the pretty Saale-Thal."^ Stations: Schimau, with a convent on the 
hill to the right; Wolfsmiinster, Ordfendorf, Michelaubriick, Morlesau, Die- 
oath. — Hammelburg ("Post; "Schwarzer Adler), an ancient town, pictur- 
esquely situated on the right bank of the Saale, presented by Charlemagne 
to the abbey of Fulda. On the opposite bank, on a vine-clad hill, rises 

61 Route 14. WURZBURG. From Frankfort 

Schloss Saaleck. — From Hammelburg to KUsingen (p 83), lS'/sM., diligence 
thrice daily in 8 hrs., via Fuchsstadt, Trimberg , with a well-.preserved 
ruin, and Euerdorf (Stern). Walkers pass to the left of Fuchsstadt. 

From Gemhnden To Schweinfcrt (Kissingen) , 31'/» M., railway in 
1 3 A br. — Beyond (2 M.) Wemfeld (see below) the line turns to the left into 
the fertile and smiling Wemthal, running now on one side of the stream, 
now on the other. 4 M. Gdssenheim, 2'/2 M. to the N. of which is the 
ruined castle of Bomburg; 7 l Jt M. Eussenheim; 11 M. Thiingen, with a 
chateau; 15 M. Mttdesheim; if'/z M. Arnstein, a small town with an old 
chateau ; 21 M. MUhlhausen. The line quits the Wernthal, passing Schloss 
Werneck (p. 82) on the N.E., and at (25 M.) Weigolshausen joins the rail- 
way from Wiirzburg to (31Va M.) Oterndorf- Schwein/urt (p. 82). 

59!/ 2 M. Wemfeld (see above).— 66 M. Karlstadt (530 ft.), once 
the fortified frontier-town of the episcopal see of Wiirzburg , and 
still surrounded with walls and towers, is said to have been founded 
by Charles Martel, and extended by Charlemagne. Professor Boden- 
stein, the instigator of the Puritanical iconoclasm, was born here, 
and has thence been surnamed 'Karlstadt'. On the opposite hill, 
on the left bank of the Main, is the ruined Karlsburg; and farther 
on , at Laudenbach , is a chateau of Prince Wertheim , destroyed 
during the War of the Peasants. — 71 M. Retxbach ; 73 M. Thiin- 
gersheim; 77 M. Veitshochheim , with a royal chateau and park; 
78'/2 M. Zell. Opposite the vine-clad Steinberg lies the old mon- 
astery of Oberzell, now Konig & Bauer's printing-press factory. 

81 M. Wiirzburg. — Hotels. "Kronprinz von Bayebn (PI. b ; D, 2), 
Residenz-Platz, R., L., & A. 2i/«-3V2, B. 1, D. 3 M; *Russischer Hof (PI. a; 
•C, 2), Untere Theater-Str., near the station, R., L., <fc A. from 2^4, B. 1, 
D. 21/2 M; "Scuwan (PI. c; B, 3), Buttnersgasse, with view of the river, 
R. &A. 2 Ml M 80, B. 90 pf., D. 21/2 M; 'Rogmee (PI. d; C, 2), by the 
theatre; Wuettembeegee Hof (PI. e ; C, 2), in the Markt, R., L., & A. 2 jK 
80 pf., B. 1, D. 2</iJl, commercial; "Bahnhof (PI. k; C, D, i), 'National 
(PI. 1; C, 1), with caf^-restaurant, Zanglein (PI. m; C, 1), *Sohott (^«m 
Deutschen Kaiser; PI. n, C, 1), all near the station and moderate. Fban- 
kischer Hof (PI. f ; C, 2), Eichhorn-Str. ; Adlee (PI. g ; B, 2), Marktgasse; 
Wittelsbacher Hof (PI. h; B, 2), in the Markt; Landsbeeg (PI. i; C, 2), 
Semmels-Str. — Pension Heffnee, Petersplatz 6, R. 1-2, pension 3-4 jU, 
well spoken of. 

Cafes-Restaurants. "Alhambra, Franziskaner-Platz ; Schnitzar (Vienna 
Cafe), Kiirschnerhof ; Cafi National, at the station, etc. — Wine. Hader- 
lein, Dominikaner-Platz, with garden; Ziegler, Julius Promenade; Stammer, 
Martinsgasse ; Bauerlein, Alte Briicke ; wine-rooms in the Julivtspital, to 
the right of the entrance , and the Burgerspital (PI. C, 2) , Semmels-Str.; 
Wend, Domerpfarrgasse, wine-room, preserved meats, etc. (the last three 
are closed at 8 p.m.). — Beer. PlaWtcher Garten, outside the Rennweger 
Thor (PI. D, E, 3), concerts several times weekly ; Letzter Hieb (PI. F, 3), a 
garden-restaurant about '/« M - farther on, with fine view; Hutleri 'tcher 
Garten, outside the Sander-Thor (PI. C, 4), at the tramway-terminus, etc. 

Cabs. From the station to the town : 1-2 pers. 60, 3-4 pers. 80 pf. 

By time: each '/< br - of the first hour, 1-2 pers. 40, 3-4 pers. 50 pf.; each 
additional 1/4 hr. 30 or 40 pf. ; from 10 p. m. to 6 a. m. double fares. 

Tramway from the station via. the Kaiser-Str., Dom-Str., and Sander- 
Str. to Sanderau station (10, 15, or 20 pf.). 

Post & Telegraph Offices in the Parade-Platz (PI. C, 2) and at the 

Theatre (PI. C, 2) ; performances in winter only. 

River Baths. Wellenbad, by the quay below the old bridge ; Damenbad 
above the old bridge, etc. Warm Baths: Dr. Wirsing, Strohgasse- Jager 
SiX the Holzthor. ' ' 

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to Nuremberg. WURZBUBG, 14. Route. 65 

Wiirzburg (575 ft. ; 61,032 inhab., 10,000 Prot.), the ancient 
capital of an episcopal principality, and now that of the Bavarian 
province of Unterfranken or Lower Franconia, is charmingly situ- 
ated in the vine-clad valley of the Main. The inner and older part 
of the town, of which churches and ecclesiastical buildings form 
the chief feature, is encircled with well-kept promenades, nearly 
3 M. in length, while the modern quarters, including the new uni- 
versity buildings, present a bright and handsome appearance. 

Wiirzburg is one of the most venerable cities in Germany, having 
been the seat of a bishop since 741, when Burkardus, the first bishop, 
was consecrated by St. Boniface. The bishops soon attained to great 
wealth and power, and were created dukes of Franconia in 1120, a dig- 
nity confirmed to them by Emp. Frederick I. in 1168. Down to 1803, 
when Wiirzburg was incorporated with Bavaria, the principality was 
governed by an unbroken line of these bishop -princes, whose sway in 
the 17th and 18th cent, often included the see of Bamberg also. From 
1805 to 1813 Wiirzburg was the capital of a grand-duchy of the Rhenish 
Confederation. The fortifications were removed in 1869-74. 

From the Bahnhof-Platz (PI. C, 1), where the Kilian Fountain 
was erected in 1895, the Kaiser-Strasse and Theater-Strasse (comp. 
p. 67) lead to the (10 min.) Resident- Platz (PI. D, 2, 3), in which 
rises the Luitpold Fountain, erected in 1894 on the 70th birthday 
of the Prince Regent Luitpold by the circles of Lower Franconi aand 
Aschaffenburg. The fountain, designed by F. von Miller, is sur- 
mounted by a figure of Franconia, with a portrait-medallion of Prince 
Luitpold below; still lower are lifesize figures of Tilmann Riemen- 
schneider, Matthias Griinewald, and Walther von der Vogelweide. 

The extensive royal, formerly episcopal, * Palace (Residenz), 
one of the grandest and most effective of 18th cent, edifices of the 
kind, was erected in 1720-44 in the rococo style from Neumann's 
designs. It is 550 ft. long, 290 ft. deep, and 70 ft. high, and con- 
tains 7 courts, 283 rooms, a chapel, and a theatre. 

The principal Staircase, in the central structure, to the left, is very 
imposing; its lofty ceiling is adorned with a fresco by O. B. Tiepolo of 
Venice, representing Olympus and the four quarters of the globe. The 
ceiling-painting in the large Kaiseesaal, depicting the marriage of Emp. 
Frederick I. and Beatrix of Burgundy, which took place at Wiirzburg 
in 1166, is also by Tiepolo. The Palace Chapel, which contains two 
altar-pieces by Tiepolo, is sumptuously enriched with marble and bronze. 
The former episcopal apartments are richly decorated with French tapestry 
(Battle of Alexander, presented by Louis XIV.), etc. Magnificent "Mirror 
Saloon. — The Pictuke Gallekt is particularly rich in etill-life pieces by 
O. B. Weenix, J. van Slreeek, Ellas Vonck, B. van der Meer, O. huyks, A. van 
Utrecht, etc. Among other works may be mentioned: S JV. Berchem, Juno 
and Argus (an early work) ; "M. Stoop, Robbers in a cottage ; H. van Balen, 
Holy Family (lifesize); "J. Livens, Mourning for Christ; J. Verkolje, Party 
on a harbour. — The huge Cellars, probably the largest in Germany, 
.contain 200 casks of excellent Franconian wine produced by the royal 
vineyards. — The palace is shown daily at 10, 11, 2, and 3 o'clock (50 pf. 
each ; the visit takes 8 A br.). Visitors ring for the castellan in the back- 
court of the left wing. Adjacent is the office of the cellarer. 

The left (N.) wing of the palace contains the Collection of the 
Historical Society (open on Sundays in summer, 10-12; at other 
times 50 pf. each pers.), and in the right wing is the Picture Gal- 

Baedekeb's S. Germanv. 8th TCHit 5 

66 Route 14. WURZBURG. From Frankfort 

lery of the Kunstveiein (daily, except Sat., 10-3). — The *Hof- 
garten, at the back of the palace, laid out in 1729, and afterwards 
frequently altered , is a favourite promenade. It contains a new 
Orangery (20 pf.), with figures from Herrenchiemsee, and a cafe. 

In the broad Hofstrasse, leading W- from the palace to the ca- 
thedral, is the Maxschule (PI. C, 2), containing the commercial 
and grammar schools and the collections of the polytechnic society. 

The Cathedral (PI. C, 2), in the PaTade-Platz, a cruciform ba- 
silica in the Romanesque style , begun in 862 and consecrated in 
1189, was materially altered in 1240 (to which date the two E. 
towers and the apsejjbelong) 

The Interior, marred by 18th cent, restoration, contains numerous 
monuments of bishops: those of Bibra (d. 1519) and 'Scherenberg (d. 1495), 
by the 6th and 7th pillars on the right, were executed by Siememehnei- 
der (p. 77). The left aisle contains several fine brasses with low reliefs, 
e.g. that of Peter von Aufsess (d. 1522), by the 9th pillar. On the left side 
of the nave is a font of 1279. Altar-pieces of the 17-18th centuries. In 
the choir hangs a large crucifix by Riemenschneider. 

Adjoining the cathedral on the N. rises the Neumunster Church 
(PLC, 2), of the 11th century. The red rococo facade towards the 
Kiirschnerhof was constructed in 1711-19 by Pezani; the dome was 
added in 1731. The well-proportioned interior was decorated with 
stucco and gilding in the 18th century. On the choir of the Neu- 
miinster Church, facing the cathedral, is a tablet with a Latin and 
a German inscription (the latter by King Ludwig I.) , erected in 
1843 to the memory of Walther von der Vogelweide (d. about 1230), 
the greatest of the mediaeval German poets, who was interred in 
the old cloisters. 

A sum of money was left by the poet for purchasing food for the 
birds , and a vase was placed on the top of the original tomb for this 
purpose. The new monument is similarly provided, but the bequest has 
long since been diverted to the use of the canons themselves. 

The Martinsgasse leads hence to theMAKKT(Pl.B,C,2), in which 
rises the elegant Gothic *Marienkapelle, erected in 1377-1441, and 
restored in 1856, when the perforated spire was added. 

The reliefs on the three portals (Annunciation, Last Judgment, Virgin 
enthroned) are coeval with the church. The 'Statues by the S. portal 
(Adam and Eve) and on the buttresses (four restored) are by Eiemen- 
ichneider. Observe in the interior the tombstone of a knight (1499) and 
wooden 'Statues (SS. Dorothea and Margaretha) by Riemenschneider. 

To the S.W. of the market-place lies the old Rathhaus (Pl.B, C, 
2), the oldest part of which , the so-called Grafen-Eckartsthurm, 
built in 1453-56, faces the Domstrasse. In the same street is the 
Vierrohren-Brunnen, a fountain erected in 1733. The Domstrasse 
leads to the Old Main Bridge, see p. 68. 

From the Domstrasse the Augustinergasse and the Neubau- 
strasse lead to the S. to the Julilus Maximilian Univeksitt, found- 
ed in 1582 by Bishop Julius (p. 68), and attended by about 1550 
students, of whom about 900 are medical. The University Build- 
ings (PLC, 2), designed by Adam Kalinl587, contain various col- 
lections : the Zoological, the Mineralogical and Geological, the Art- 

to Nuremberg. WURZBURG. Id. Route. 67 

History Museum (Wagner's collection of antiquities, including 
Greek monuments, vases, fragments of statues, casts from antique 
'works, tapestry, wood-carvings by Riemenschneider, early Christian 
lamps, rings, etc.) , a somewhat extensive Picture Gallery (open 
Thurs. 9-1), the Cabinet of Engravings (Mon. and Wed., 9-12), etc. 
All the collections are closed in vacation, though strangers may 
obtain admission for a fee. 

Pictube Galleey (artists' names not all authenticated). Spinello Aretino, 
Altar-piece; Raphael (?), Madonna with the carnation; Bellini (?), Eest on 
the Flight into Egypt; works by Tiepolo, Tintoretto, Pordenone; Poussin, 
Bacchanalian scene; Millet, Italian landscape; Bourguignon, Battle ; Greuze, 
Girl's head; Velazquez (?), Two portraits; Skreta, Three portraits; Van der 
Neer, Moonlight scene ; Brueghel <b Van Balm, Landscape ; Hogarth, Street- 
scene ; l Hell-fire 1 Brueghel, Temptation of St. Antony ; Sachtlevm, River-scene ; 
Hoadtcoeter, Poultry - yard ; Snyders (?) , Greengrocer; Rubens (?), Boman 
battle; Van Dyek, St. Jerome; Peters, Flight into Egypt; Fr. Hals, Portrait ; 
Claeisz <fr De Heem, Still-life; Elshaimer, Destruction of Sodom; Cranach, 
Lot and his daughters; Denner, Old woman; Schillz, Four landscapes, etc. 

The S.W. side of the quadrangle, in the Neubau-Strasse, is oc- 
cupied by the University Church or Neubau-Kirche, built in 1582-91 
in a curiously mixed Gothic and Renaissance style and recently well 
restored. The tower is used as an Observatory (Sat. 2-4). Ad- 
joining the church on the E. is the University Library, containing 
over 250,000 vols., and adjacent is the Michaelis-Kirche or Seminar- 
Kirehe (1765). — To the W. of the University is the early-Gothic 
Franciscan Church, with a monastery of the 13th cent. (PLC, 3). 

From the Neubau-Strasse the Peter-Strasse leads to the S. to the 
Peterskirche. On the S. side of the Platz is the old Mint (now a 
school); on the E. side is the Regierungsgebaude , or government 
offices, once a Benedictine abbey, the Church of which, now Pro- 
testant , was tastefully decorated in the interior in the rococo style 
in 1782-89. 

From this point the Otto-Strasse leads to the S.E., past the (left) 
new Justizgebaude (PI. D, 3 ; law-courts) and the monument of 
Phil. Franz von Siebold, the naturalist and traveller (1796-1866), 
to the promenades by the Sander Glacis (p. 68). 

From the Residenz-Platz (p. 65) the Theatek-Stkasse runs to 
the N.W. On the right we notice the Ludwigshalle (PI. D, 2), for- 
merly railway-offices , now used for exhibitions, in front of which 
rises a monument to von Ziirn (d. 1884), a public-spirited burgo- 
master of Wiirzburg. To the right, farther on, at the corner of the 
Semmels-Strasse, is the Biirgerspital (PI. C, 2), with its popular 
wine-room (p. 64). Opposite to it the Haugerpfaffengasse leads to 
the right to the Hauger Church (PI. C, 1), with two towers and a 
lofty dome, built in 1670-91 by Petrini, in the rococo style. The 
interior is overiaden with gilding. 

At the end of the Theater- Strasse the Kaiser-Strasse leads to 
the right to the railway-station, while the Julius Promenade leads 
to the left to the Main. To the right in the latter is the extensive 
and admirably organised Julias Hospital (PI. C, 1, 2), founded in 

68 Route 14. WURZBURG. From Frankfort 

1 576, and richly endowed, its property being now worth 9,000,000 Jl. 
Upwards of 600 persons, of whom 400 are patients, are daily boarded 
and lodged here. The clinical institutions connected with the hos- 
pital since the beginning of the 17th cent, also form a medical 
school. The Statue of the founder, Bishop Julius Echter von Mespel- 
orunn (d. 1617), in the lower Julius Promenade, is by Schwan- 
thaler. Behind the hospital is the Botanic Garden. 

From the W. end of the Julius Promenade, where the Custom 
House (PI. B, 2) is situated, we follow the bank of the Main to the 
N., past the 'crane-quay' and the municipal Abattoir, to the new 
Luitpold Bridge (PI. B, 1), which spans the river with seven arches 
and affords a fine view of the valley. On the opposite bank are large 
new barracks. In the Pleicher Ring, leading to the S.E. from the 
bridge to the Kaiser-Strasse and the railway-station, are the new 
Zootomical Institute, the l Anatomie' 1 , and the Pathological, Physio- 
logical, and Physical Institutes, all belonging to the university. Pleas- 
ant grounds on the left. Beyond the Kaiser-Platz(Pl. C, 1) we reach 
the Hauger and the Rennweger Ring, and beyond the Hofgarten 
(p. 65) the Sander Ring (PI. B, 4), which extends to the Main. 

The Dom-Strasse (p. 65) leads to the Old Main Bridge (PI. B, 
2, 3), 644ft. in length, constructed in 1474-1607, and adorned 
with statues of saints. On the left bank, immediately to the right 
is the small Hofspital-Kirche, containing the '14 guardian saints 
carved by T. Riemenschneider. The Gothic Deutschhaus - Kirche 
(PI. A, 2), now used for military purposes, was built in 1287-1303. 
— To the left, 5 min. above the bridge, rise the grey towers of St. 
Burkard (PI. B, 2), the only church of Wiirzburg of intact exterior, 
erected in 1033-42 in the Romanesque style and restored in 1168, 
with late-Gothic choir of 1494-97. In the interior (now being 
restored) it has shared the fate of the other churches. The nave 
contains a late -Romanesque offertory-box in sandstone, and the 
8. transept a carved altar of 1590. 

Through a vaulted passage below the choir of St. Burkard the 
Burkardergasse leads to the Burkarder Thor (PI. B, 3), beyond 
which runs the Mergentheim road. The first road diverging to the 
right beyond the gate is the 'Leisten-Strasse', near which the ex- 
cellent 'Leistenwein' is produced. The second road diverging to 
the right from the high-road (by the garden-restaurant of Leimsud) 
leads to a Station Path, which ascends in 10-12 min. to the octa- 
gonal Marien-Kapellb ('Kappele'; PI. A, 4) on the Nicolausberg 
(1178 ft.), a pilgrimage-chapel , built in 1748-92 and containing 
good altar-pieces. The terrace in front of it affords fine views of 
the town and fortress. If we ascend the steps behind the chapel, 
we may follow the slope to the left (beautiful view) to the (10 min.) 
Schutzenhof Restaurant, and thence regain the town in 1 / i hr. 

On the hill opposite "Wiirzburg, 427 ft. above the river, rises 
the fortress of Marienberg (1016 ft.; PI.. A, 3), constructed since 

to Nuremberg. KITZINGEN. 14. Route. 69 

1650 on the site occupied successively by a Roman fort and an 
episcopal castle, -which was taken by Gustavus Adolphus in 1631. 
To reach it we cross the bridge, turn to the right, and ascend to the 
left by the 'Erste Schlossgasse' (12 min.). We apply to the guard 
above the second covered gateway and are conducted to several fine 
points of view (cards of admission at the 'Kommandantur' ; gratis). 

In 1525 the insurgent peasantry lost time and strength in a vain at- 
tempt to capture this castle , after which the episcopal troops entered 
the town and executed 60 of the ringleaders. Near Wiirzburg the Arch- 
duke Charles defeated the French General Jourdan in 1796. In 1866 the 
campaign of the Prussian army of the Main terminated at Wiirzburg with 
the bombardment of the fortress (27th July). An armistice was concluded 
next day. 

Railway to Bamberg, R. 17; to Munich, R. 25; to Heidelberg, R. 15. 

The line to Ansbach (p. 130) and Gunzenhausen diverges here. 
The next stations on the Nuremberg line are (86 M.) Rottendorf 
and (90 M.) Dettelbach (a town on the Main, 3 M. to the E.). 

95^2 M. Kitzingen (625 ft.; *Schwan; Rothes Ross ; Stern, on 
the right bank of the Main), a busy trading town, with 7541 inhab., 
noted for its beer, is connected by an ancient stone bridge, 886 ft. 
long, with the suburb of Etwashausen on the left bank. In 1525 
Margrave Casimir of Ansbach ordered seven of the burghers to be 
executed in the market-place , and many others to be deprived of 
sight , as a punishment for their participation in the Peasants' 
War. On a hill near the station, ifa M. to the S.W. of the town, 
are the Waterworks, supplied from the Main by steam-power. Above 
the station is the Neue Schiesshaus , which affords a charming view 
of the vine-clad hills of the Main and of the Steigerwald. 

The line crosses the Main by a handsome bridge, 290 yds. long, 
and runs to the S.E. through a hilly district, passing the Schwan- 
berg. Stations Mainbernheim , Iphofen (with walls , towers , old 
town-gates, and a Gothic church), Markt-Einersheim, Hellmitz- 
heim, Markt-Bibart , Lang en f eld , and (120 M.) Neustadt, on the 
Aisch , a hop-trading place , with remains of old walls and towers 
(4100 inhab.). 

Bkanoh Railway by Dottenheim and Ipsheim to (9 l fe M.) Windsheim, 
an ancient little town on the Aisch, once a free town of the empire, and 
still surrounded with walls. 

Beyond (125 M.) Emskirchen we cross the Aurach by a fine 
viaduct, 132 ft. high. 128 M. Hag enbicchach; 134 M. Siegelsdorf 
(branch-line to Langenzenn); 136 1 /2 M. Burgfarrnbach, with a 
chateau of Count Piickler. Then across the Rednitz. On the right 
the Alte Feste (p. 70). 

140 M. Furth (964 ft.; Hotel Kiltt, Hotel National, both at the 
Fiirth and Nuremberg Railway Station ; Schwarzes Kreuz , Drei 
Konige, in the town, plainer; V. 8. Consul), a busy town with 42,659 
inhab., vies with Nuremberg in its staple commodities of toys and 
fancy-articles, and possesses very extensive manufactories of gold- 
leaf and of mirrors. Conspicuous among the buildings is the modern 

70 Route 15. LAUD A. 

Bathhaus with its lofty tower. The Gothic Church of St. Michael 
(14th cent.) contains a beautiful late-Gothic *Oiborium, 25 ft. high. 
The Eednitz, which joins the Pegnitz below the town to form the 
Regnitz, is crossed by a railway and a suspension-bridge. 

FromFCrth to Cadolzbueg, 8M., local railway in 35 min., via Dam- 
bach and (2Vs M.) Alte Veste. At the Alte Veste (1184 ft.), on a hill on the 
Eednitz, the battle between Gustavus Adolphus and Wallenstein, which 
compelled the Swedish monarch to retreat, was fought on 4th Sept., 1632. 
The headquarters of Gustavus were at the inn 'Zum Grunen Baum', in the 
street now named after him. Six different attacks on the intrenched camp 
of Wallenstein had proved unsuccessful. Extensive view from the toweT. 
The adjoining restaurant is a favourite resort of the Nuremberg ers. — 
The line proceeds via Zirndorf, Weiherhof, and Egertdorf to (8 M.) Cadolz- 
burg, a market-village with 1237 inhab. and a well-preserved Castle of the 
Counts of Hohenzollern, with their armorial bearings on the outer gate. The 
oldest part of the castle dates from the 9th cent., the newer parts from 1410. 

The main line between Furth (junction for the line to Bamberg, 
p. 81) and (5 M.) Nuremberg is the Staatsbahn or government- 
railway; trains also run hourly (in V^r.) on tne Ludwigsbahn (sta- 
tion at Nuremberg outside the Spittler-Thor), the oldest line in Ger- 
many (1835) ; and there is also a tramway (p. 96). Our train crosses 
the Ludwigs-Kanal near (141 M. ) Doos, runs foT a little way parallel 
with it, and then turns to the E. into the (145 M.) Nuremberg 
station (p. 95). 

15. From Wiirzburg to Heidelberg. 

99 M. Railway in 3'/, 5i/z hrs. (fares 12 M 80, 8 M 50, 5 M 50 pf.). — 
From Wurzburg to Stuttgart, express in 4 hrs. via Osterburken and Heil- 
bronn; Berlin to Stuttgart via. Wurzburg in 16 hrs. ; comp. R. 4. 

The line coincides with the Munich line as far as (4 M.) Hei- 
dingsfeld (p. 128), diverges to the right , and ascends through a 
monotonous hilly region. 6!/ 2 M. Reichenberg; the village, in the 
valley to the left, is overlooked by a handsome Schloss on the hill 
above. 10 M. Geroldshausen; beyond (14 M.) Kirchkeim we cross 
the Baden frontier.' The line now descends. Beyond (17 M.) 
Wittighausen several deep cuttings and a tunnel. Then through 
the wooded and grassy valley of the Orunbach to (20^2 M.) Zimmern, 
where the vine-culture begins. 22y 2 M. Qriinsfeld, an old town, 
with part of the walls still standing. The handsome church con- 
tains a good monument to a Countess von Wertheim (d. 1503) by 
Tilman Riemenschneider. 25!/2 M. Oerlachsheim. The train crosses 
the Tauber, and turns to the left to (27 M.) Lauda (*Rail. Restau- 
rant), junction of the Wertheim line. 

From Lauda to Wertheim (20 M.) railway in 1 hr. through the smiling 
Tauber-Thal. 2>/2M. Distelhausen;6M.Tauberbischofsheim{Adlei;3UK)iD.h&h.), 
the scene of an engagement between the Prussian and Wurtemberg troops 
in July, 1866; 7>/2 M. Hoehhausen; 12 M. Oamburg, with an old castle. Two 
bridges and two tunnels. 15 M. Bronnbach; the old Cistercian abbey, with 
a transition-church of the 12th cent., now belongs to Prince Lowenstein. 
17 M. Reicholzheim; 19V2 M. Wertheim (p. 63). 

Fbom Lauda to Mergentheim, 6 M., railway in 25 min., by Unter- 
bulbach and Edelfingen, — Mergentheim (670 ft. j Hirsch, in the town ; 

KONIGSHOFEN. 15. Route. 71 

Deutsche? Bof, at the station) is an old town on the Tauber (pop. 4400), 
where the Master of the Teutonic Order resided down to 1805. The large 
Schloss, built in the Renaissance style in 1572, is now a barrack. The 
most interesting of the churches is St. John's, in the Gothic style (13th cent.). 
The Karlsbad ("Curhaus, closed in winter), near the town, has springs 
containing salt and magnesia. — From Mergentheim to Crailsheim, see p. 26. 

28Y2M. Kovig&hofenfDeutscherHof), a small and ancient town 
at the confluence of the Umpfer and the Tauber, where the in- 
surgent peasants were defeated in 1525. 

The line quits the Tauber, and turns to the S.W. into the 
Umpfer- Thai. 31 M. Vnterschupf; 33M. Schweigern; 34 M. Boxberg- 
Wolchingen. At Boxberg a ruined castle. The church of "Wolchingen 
(to the right), in the transition-style of the 13th cent., has hand- 
some portals and interesting Romanesque capitals. It contains the 
tombstones of several knights of Rosenberg (14th and 15th cent.). 
Beyond a tunnel, (41 M.) Eubigheim. Then through the Kirnach- 
Thal to Hirschlanden, Rosenberg, and (48y 2 M.) Osterburken {Kanne, 
opposite the station), an ancient town on the site of a Roman camp. 

From Osterburken to Jagstfeld, 2372 M., railway in l'/4 hour. The 
line crosses the Kirnach, and traverses the valley of that stream to Adels- 
heim, a small town on the E. spurs of the Odenwald. Then through the 
Seckach-Thal to Sennfeld, Roigheim, and (10 M.) MBctmiihl, an old town, 
with walls and towers, at the influx of the Seckach into the Jagsl, stoutly 
defended by Gotz von Berlichingen against the Swabian League in 1519 ; 
at the N. end are the extensive ruins of the castle. — We cross the Jagst 
and follow the left bank to ZilUlingen, Siglingen, Ifeudenau, Unter-Ories- 
hsim, and Jagstfeld (p. 21). 

The Baden railway diverges to the right from the Wurtemberg 
line, passes through a tunnel, and traverses pleasant wooded and 
grassy valleys on the S.E. fringe of the Odenwald. 50 M. Adels- 
heim; the little town is s / 4 M. distant (see above). The line now 
runs through the Seckach-Thal. Several tunnels. 53 M. Seckach ; 
56M. Eicholzheim; 57M. Schefflenz; QQM.Auerbach. Near(62M.) 
Dallau the Elz is crossed. 63 M. Neckarburken. 66 M. Mosbach 
(*Prinz Karl; Badischer Hof; Rail. Restaurant), an old and busy 
little town on the Elz, with 3500 inhabitants. 

68 M. Neckarelz (435 ft. ; Rail. Restaurant), at the influx of the 
Elz into the Neckar, is the junction of the Stuttgart and Hanau 
line (p. 22). 

From Neckarelz to Meckesheim, 20 M., railway in I-IV2 hour. The 
train crosses the Neckar. Beyond a short tunnel is the little chateau of 
Neuberg on the right. Two tunnels. Stations Asbach, Aglasterhausen, 
Helmstadt, Waibstadt (with a Gothic church). We next follow the Sehwarz- 
bach-Thal. IS'/j M. Neidenstein, with a chateau ; 17 M. Eschelbronn. — 20 M. 
Meckesheim, junction of the Heilbronn and Heidelberg railway (see p. 22). 

From Neckarelz to (80 M.) Eberbach, junction for Darmstadt 
and Hanau, seep. 22. Beyond the next tunnel is (85 M.) Hirschhom 
(*Zum Naturalisten), picturesquely situated at the foot of the fine 
castle of that name. 87 M. Neckarhausen. — 89 M. Neckarsteinach 
(•Har/e, with a garden on the Neckar), with four old castles of 
the Steinachs, surnamed the Landschaden ('land-scourges'). The 
Mittelburg, one of these castles, has been restored in the mediaeval 

72 Route 16. PLAUEN. 

style. Opposite, on a wooded hill, rises the ancient castle of Dils- 
berg. Beyond a tunnel the train crosses the Neckar. 

93 M. Neckargemund (Pfalz; Hirsch), where the Neckar re- 
ceives the Elsenz, is the junction of the line to Meckesheim and 
Neckarelz (see p. 71). Opposite (95!/ 2 M.) Schlierbach is the abbey 
of Neuburg. A number of villas are passed as we near Heidelberg. 
The train stops first at the Carlsthor station (for the upper town), 
and then passes through a long tunnel below the castle to the 
(99 M.) principal station (see Baedeker's Rhine"). 

16. From Leipsic to Nuremberg by Bamberg. 

220 M. Railway, express in 8-9V« hrs. (fares 29 Jl 50, 21 Jl 40, 15 Jl 
10 pf.), ordinary trains in 13 hrs. (fares 28 Jl 70, 20 Jl 20, 13 Jl 30 pf.). 
— Express from Leipsic to Munich by Nuremberg in 13'/4 hrs. (fares 44 Jl 
20, 31 Jl 70 pf., 24 Jl) ; to Lindau by Nordlingen and Augsburg in 18 hrs. 
(fares 62 Jl 40, 44 Jl 60, 29 Jl 30 pf.). — The express from Berlin to 
Nuremberg and Munich runs via, Halle, Weissenfels, Zeitz, Gera, Saalfeld, 
Probstzella, and Hochstadt (see p. 74; time 14 hrs. 25 min.; via, Leipsic 
and Hof-Wiesau 12 hrs. 48 min.), and is joined at Zeitz by the train from 
Leipsic, starting from the Thuringian Station. 

Leipsic, see Baedeker's Northern Germany. We start from the 
Bavarian Station. 5^2 M. Oaschwitz ; 9 M. Bohlen ; 13 M. Kieritzsch, 
where a branch diverges to Chemnitz. 

2472 M. Altenburg (Hotel deSaxe; Hotel de Russie, etc.), with 
31,440 inhab., capital of the Duchy of Sachsen-Altenburg, is over- 
looked by the ducal Schloss. Late-Gothic church (1410), and line 
park. (See Baedeker's Northern Germany.) 

33Y2 M. Gossnitz, junction for Glauchau and Chemnitz to the 
E., and Gera to the W. ; 39 M. Crimmitzschau ; 46 M. Werdau 
(junction for Zwickau), all with spinning and weaving factories. 
To the left , on a wooded hill, Schloss Schonfels. 51 M. Neumark, 
junction for Greiz. — 56 1 / 2 M. Reichenbach (Lamm; Deutscher Kai- 
ser; *Rail. Restaurant), a manufacturing town with 21,595 in- 
habitants. — Carriages are changed here for Eger (see below). 

The train crosses the deep Goltzsch-Thal by a grand viaduct with 
four rows of arches one above the other, 706 yds. in length and 
285 ft. high. Below, to the left, lies the little town of Mylau. 
59'/2 M. Netzschkau; 63 M. Herlasgriin (branch-line by Auerbach 
and Falkenstein to Oelsnitz, see below). Then another lofty viaduct 
across the deep, wooded Elster-Thal. 

72 M. Plauen (*Deil's Hotel; Blauer Engel; Wettiner Hof ; 
Furstenhalle ; Stadt Dresden; U. S. Consular Agent, T. W. Peters), a 
busy manufacturing town on the Weisse Elster (47,000 inhab.), is 
the capital of the Voigtland, overlooked by the old castle of Hrad- 
schin, anciently the seat of the Voigt or governor. 

From Plaoen to Wiesau via Eger, 62i/ 2 M., railway in 3'/4 hrs. The 
line diverges to the left from the Hof and Nuremberg line and leads through 
the picturesque Elster-Thal, a hilly district with numerous factories. 2 M. 
Neundorf; 6 M. Weischlitz (junction for the Elsterthal Railway to Greiz and 
Gera); Vfe M. Pirk; 12^2 M. Oelenitz (branch to Averlach and Zwickau); 

HOF. 16. Route. 73 

2OV2 M. Adorf (branch to Chemnitz). Then (22>/2 M.) Elster (.BStel de Saxe, 
with the Cursaal; 'Weltiner Bof; Bauer, etc.), a pleasant watering-place, 
with alkaline and saline springs. 

The train quits the Elster and crosses the watershed between the 
Elster and the Eger. 31 M. Brambach. At (37 M.) Yoitersreuth, the Austrian 
frontier-station, luggage is examined. 42 M. F ranzensbad, junction for Hof 
(see below). — 46>/2 M. Eger (luggage from Munich examined here ; 'Rail. 
Restaurant). Description of the town, and routes hence to Carlsbad and 
Prague, and to Vienna via Pilsen, see Baedekers Austria. 

Beyond Eger the train quits the Austrian territory. At (.531/2 M.) Wald- 
sassen is a Cistercian abbey, founded in 1128, suppressed in 1803; hand- 
some church in the baroque style ; fine carving in the library-hall. 56 M. 
Steinmiihle; 59 M. Mitterteieh, on the watershed between the Eger and the 
Nab. To the right is the Kbsseine, p. 92. At (62y 2 M.) Wiesau (p. 134), the 
line unites with that via Hof to Munich. 

79 M. Mehltheuer; 82y 2 M.Schonberg (branch to Schleiz). Beyond 
(87!/2M.) Reuth the train enters Bavaria. The blue outlines of the 
Fichtelgebirge (see Map, p. 88) become visible on the left. 

1021/2 M. Hof (1656 ft. ; *Kaiserhof; Hirsch, Wittetebacher Hof, 
both at the station; "Lamm; * Prim- Regent; "Ooldner Lowe, R. 
174-2 Jl, B. 70 pf.; *Rail. Restaurant), a considerable town on the 
Saale, with 24,548 inhab., is the junction of the Munich line viS, 
Wiesau and Ratisbon (R. 27). Gothic Rathhaus of 1563. The fine 
Michaelskirche , consecrated in 1299 and frequently altered, was 
thoroughly restored in 1884. On the Theresienstein (*Restaurant) 
is the pretty public park; J / 2 M. farther off is the Labyrinthenberg 
(1866 ft.), with a ruin and a belvedere : view of the rounded sum- 
mit of the Dobrdberg (2325 ft.) to theW., in the Franconian forest. 

Bkanch Railway, 14'/2 M., in 28 min., via Naila to Marxgriln, whence 
a diligence runs twice daily in >/2 hr. to (3 M.) Steben (2130 ft.; "Neues Cur- 
Hdtel; Cur-H6tel <£ Bayrischer Hof ; Anker; Pension Sporl), a loftily situated 
chalybeate bath, well fitted up. The little town (800 inhab.) was almost 
entirely burned down in 1877 and has been handsomely rebuilt. In 1796-97 
Alexander von Humboldt was mining superintendent here; the house he 
occupied is denoted by a tablet. Excursions to the "Hollenthal, to the 
Lamgenauer-Thal, and to Blankenberg, prettily situated on the Saale. — 
From Steben to Kronach (p. 74) diligence daily in 6 hrs., via Geroldsgrun, 
Steinwiesen, and Unterrodach. 

Fbom Hof to Eger, 37'/2 M. (railway in 2'/2 hrs.). 8V2 M. Oberkotzau; 
8V2 M. Rehau (on the right the Orosse Romberg, with a view-tower); 15'/2 M. 
Selb. — 20 M. Asch (Post), a Bohemian manufacturing town, with 13,200 in- 
hab., contains monuments to Luther and Joseph H. Fine view from the 
Hainberg, V2 hr. to the N., the highest point of the Elstergebirge. [A 
branch-line runs from the. station, which is l'/4 M. from the town, by 
Aseh-Stadt, Neuberg, and Thonbrunn, to (8 3 /4 M.) Rossbach, with consider- 
able manufactories.] — Then stat. Baeslau, Antonienhbhe- SlSckermiihle, 
Franzensbad, and (37'/2 M.) Eger (see above). 

The line traverses a hilly district, running near the winding 
Saale. 106 M. Oberkotzau , junction of the line to Ratisbon and 
Munich (R. 27); 109 M. Schwarzenbach, on the Saale; H8V2M. 
Seulbitz. — 117 M. Miinchberg (*Bayr. Hof; branch-line to Helm- 
brechts, 51/2 M., in 35 min.). 

The "WaldBtein (2890ft.) is most easily ascended hence (comp. p. 91). 
Pleasant footpath (or by omnibus twice daily in 50 min.) to (3 M.) Sparneek 
(Post); thence by a distinct path to the top in 50 minutes. 

123!/2 M. Stammbaeh. On the left rise the Waldstein (see above), 

74 Route 16. LICHTENFELS. From Leipiic 

Schneeberg (p. 91), and Ochsenkopf (p. 90), the highest points of 
the Fichtelgebirge. 1271/2 M. Falls-Gefrees ; the village of Oefrees 
lies in the Liibnitz-Thal, 3 M. to the E. 131 M. Markt- Sehorgast 
(1660 ft.) lies in the valley to the right (to Berneck, see p. 89). 
The engineering of the line here is interesting (gradient at first 
1 : 40 ; descent to Neuenmarkt 575 ft.) : cuttings, embankments, and 
dark pine-clad valleys in rapid succession. To the left in the distance 
is the former Cistercian abbey of Himmelkron, known for the legend 
of the Countess of Orlamiinde (the 'White Lady'; d. 1382), ancestress 
of the Brandenburg - Kulmbach family. Gothic cloisters and the 
burial-vaults of the counts. 

131'/ 2 M. Neuenmarkt (junction for Bayreuth and Schnabelwaid, 
etc., see p. 86 and R. 25); 1V 2 M. to the N. is Wirsberg (1470 ft.; 
H6t. Werner, etc.), a summer-resort, with pretty walks. — 139 M. 
Unter - Steinach ; 3 M. to the N. lies Stadt-Steinach. Country 
picturesque, especially near (142M.) Kulmbach (1075 ft. ; *Goldner 
Hirsch, R. 1 M 60-2, B. 3/ 4 , D. 1 M 80 pf. ; *Rail. Restaurant), a 
town with 7000 inhab., famed for its beer, formerly the residence 
of the Margraves of Brandenburg-Kulmbach, on the Weisse Main, 
commanded by the Plassenburg (1390 ft.), now a prison. 

Near (14672 M.) Mainleus, by Schloss Stemenhausen, the Weis$e 
and Rothe Main unite to form the Main. 149^2 M. Mainroth ; 
152*/2 M. Burgkunstadt, a little town with an old Rathhaus and 
Schloss. We cross the Main to (155!/^ M.) Hochstadt-Marktzeuln, 
junction of the Probstzella, Saalfeld, and Berlin line. 

Feom Hochstadt to Saalfeld (50 M.) railway in 2 1 /2-3'/2 hrs. through 
the pretty Rodach-Thal. 2'/s M. Redwitz, at the entrance of the Steinach- 
Thai; 5 M. Ober-Langenstadt; 6V2 M. Kiips, a considerable village with a 
chateau of Herr von Redwitz. — 10 M. Kronach (Goldner Wagen or Pott; 
Sonne), a small town (4000 inhab.) at the confluence of the Hasslach and 
Rodach, formerly fortified and bravely defended during the Thirty Years' 
War, was the birthplace of the painter Lucas Miiller, known as Cranach 
(1472-1553). The Gothic church (1548-1607) stands on a lofty rock, which 
ascends to the imposing and well-preserved fortress of Rosenberg (1240 ft. ; 
now pleasure-grounds, with restaurant and a small historical museum). 

Thence through the Hasslach-Thal by stat. Gundelsdorf to (15'/2 M.) Stock- 
heim, with valuable coal-mines in the vicinity. The line now ascends by 
Rolhenkirchen and Forlschendorf to (26 M.) Steinbach (1950 ft.), on the water- 
shed between the Rhine and the Elbe, and descends into the Loguitz-Thal 
to (29 M.) Ludwigsttadt (branch-line in 40 min. to Lehesten, with extensive 
slate-quarries). By the hamlet of Lauemtein the train quits Bavaria, enters 
Saxe-Meiningen, and reaches (34 M.) Probstzella (Rail. Restaurant), where 
it joins the Prussian State railway. Then Marktgolitz, Unterloquitz, Eichicht, 
and (50 M.) Saalfeld, junction of the lines to Jena, Grossheringen, Halle, 
and Berlin, and to Weida, Zeitz, and Weissenfels or Leipsic: see Baedeker's 
Northern Germany. 

161 M. Lichtenfels (866 ft. ; Anker, R. 1-1 '/ 4 jg t Hotel Moulin, 
both near the station ; *Krone, in the market) is the junction of 
the Werra line (see Baedeker's N. Germany). Schloss Banz on the 
right (l 1 /4 h r - from Lichtenfels) and Vierzehnheiligen on the left 
(1 hr.) are conspicuous objects. Pleasure-grounds on the Burobera. 

Carriage to Vieriehnheiligen 4V2, to Banz 6 M (return included). We 
inay visit both on foot by going from Lichtenfels to Vierzehnheili»en 

to Nuremberg. BAMBERG. 16. Route. 75 

(1 hr.), and thence to Bans (l>/» hr.), and descending to (>/i hr.) stat. 
Staffelstein (see below). By the direct road Banz is l'/z hr. from Lichten- 
fels: we follow the direction of the railway, cross the Main at the ferry- 
houses, and then ascend the hill. 

The once celebrated Benedictine Abbey of Banz (1380 ft. ; *Inn), founded 
in 1096, was dissolved in 1803. The extensive buildings on a wooded height, 
400 ft. above the Main, now belong to Duke Charles Theodore of Bavaria. 
Delightful view from the terrace. Valuable collection of fossils found in 
the lias of the neighbourhood (fine saurians, colossal ammonites, etc.). 
The Egyptian collection is unimportant. A Descent from the Cross, a 
relief in silver, presented by Pope Pius VI. to his godson Duke Pius of 
Bavaria, is erroneously attributed to Benv. Cellini. 

Opposite Banz is Vieriehnhailigen (1270 ft. ; Hirsch), the most frequented 
shrine in Franconia, visited by about 50,000 pilgrims annually. The church, 
with its two towers, was rebuilt in the rococo style in 1743-72. An altar 
in the centre of the nave marks the spot, where, according to the legend, 
the 14 'Hothhelfer' ('helpers in need 1 ) appeared to a shepherd-boy in 1446, 
and gave rise to the foundation of the church. The two W. chapels 
contain numerous thank-offerings, such as figures in wax, etc. — The 
traveller who has visited Banz is not recommended to go to Vierzehn- 
heiligen also, unless for the sake of extending his excursion along the top 
of the hill to the (3 M.) chapel (Restaurant) and the verge of the precipitous 
Staffelberg (see below). 

Near (166 M.) Staffelstein the Staffelberg (1770 ft.) with its cha- 
pel, on the left, rises abruptly from the valley; and farther on, to 
the S., is the Veitsberg (1515 ft.), with a chapel and ruined castle. 
169 M. Ebensfeld; 172y 2 M. Zapfendorf; 177 M. Breiten-OUssbach 
(to the left, Schloss Giech); 179V 2 M. Hallstadt. Near Bamberg the 
line from Schweinfurt (p. 83) joins ours on the right. 

181 M. Bamberg. — Hotels. 'Bamberger Hof (PI. a ; C, B, 2), Griiner 
Markt, R., L., A. 2 JU 50, B. 70-80 pf., D. 2>/2 Jl. — Deotsches Haus 
(PI. b; C, 2), Kbnig-Str., R. A B. from l'/z JU; "Dhei Kronen (PI. d; B,8), 
Lange-Str., R., L., & A. 1V2-3, B. »/«, D. incl. wine 2 M 70 pf.; Erlanger 
Hop (PI. c; C, 1), near the station, R., L., & A. lVs-3, B. i/j-i, D. 2>/« Mi 
H6t. Sl Restaurant Luitpold, Luitpold-8tr., near the station. 

Restaurants. Messerschmitt, corner of the Langen-8tr. and Promenaden- 
Str. (good Franconian wine); Rathskeller, Kessler-Str. ; Deutsche! E aw, see 
above; Tambosi and WitleUbach, with gardens, both on the Promenade; 
Angra, at the Sophienbriicke ; Theater-Restaurant, Schiller-Platz ; Villa 
Remeis, with view (p. 79). Beer at the Fasslein , Konig-Str. etc. Beer- 
Gardens on the Michaelsberg, Stephansberg, Kaulberg, and Jakobsberg, 
much frequented on summer-evenings, with fine views. 

Cab into the town, with one horse 75 pf., with two horses l'/z Jl; 
to the Jakobsberg 1 or 2 Jl, to the Michaelsberg l"/4 or V/2JI; to the 
Altenburg 6 Jl (two horses). Within the town: 'A hr. 50 pf. or 1 Jl, 
Vs hr. 1 or 2 Jl, 1 hr. 2 or 3 Jl. 

Post Office (PI. C, 3), Schiller-Platz and at the station (PI. D, 1). — 
Telegraph Office (PI. 10; B, 3), at the lower bridge. 

Swimming Baths at the Theresienhain (p. 80), above the town. 

United States Consular Agent, Louis Stern, Esq. 

Bamberg (785 ft.) , a town with 35,248 inhab., lies in a very 
fertile district on both banks of the Hegnits, at its junction with 
the Ludwigs- Canal (connecting the Main and the Danube, little 
used) and 3 M. above its confluence with the Main. The town al- 
ready enjoyed municipal privileges in 973, was erected into a 
bishopric by Emp. Henry II. in 1007, and since 1802 has be- 
longed to Bavaria. About half of the town is built upon a chain 

76 Route 16. BAMBERG. From Leipsic 

of hills, crowned with churches. Busy industries have sprung up 
here of late years (cotton-spinning, weaving, brewing, etc.). 

The Luitpold-Strasse leads from the station to the town. In the 
St. Gangolph-Platz, on the left, is the church of St. Oangolph (PL 
C, 1, 2), founded in 1063, originally Romanesque, with a Gothic 
choir, but disfigured by alterations. In the chapel in the N. tran- 
sept, behind the altar, there is a crucifix with a draped and crowned 
figure of Christ in repose, over lifesize. 

The E. branch of the Regnitz is crossed by three bridges, the 
Sophienbriicke (PI. C, 2), the new Peuntbrikke (PL D, 3), and the 
Kettenbrucke (PI. C, 2). The chief traffic crosses the Kettenbrucke, 
or chain-bridge, constructed in 1828-29, from which the Hauptwach- 
Strasse leads to the S. to theMaximilians-Platz and the GriineMarkt. 

In the Maximilian s-Platz (PL B, C, 2), on the right, is the 
Priester- Seminar (PL 3). In the centre rises an imposing Fountain 
(PL 13), executed in 1880 by Miller of Munich, with statues of 
Maximilian I. of Bavaria, Emp. Henry II., his wife Kunigunde, 
Bishop Otho the Saint, and Emp. Conrad III. 

Farther on is the Grunb Markt (PL B, 2, 3), where the well- 
stocked vegetable-market is held in the forenoon. On the right, at 
the corner of the Jesuiten - Strasse, is the church of St. Martin 
(PL 1), built by Andr. Pozzo in the Baroque style in 1686-1720, with 
a dome and massive barrel-vaulting ; the tower, 180 ft. high, affords 
a good survey of the town. Adjoining the chuTch is St. Martins 
Pfarrhof, formerly a university and Jesuit college, now the Royal 
Lyceum (PL 4). The entrance , 2 Jesuiten-Strasse, leads into a 
court, in the arcades at the back of which are the entrances to the 
Linder Cabinet of Natural History (10-12; on the right) and to the 
*Library (PL 5, B, 2; on the left). The latter, formed by the union 
of the Jesuits' library with collections from several convents, now 
contains 300000 vols, and upwards of 3000 MSS. 

The library ia open daily (except Sun., holidays, and Sat. afternoons), 
8-12 and 2-4; during the summer-holidays visitors are admitted from 9 to 
12. Some of its most interesting contents are exhibited under glass in the 
principal hall : fine parchments from the library bequeathed by the Emp. 
Henry II. to the chapter of Bamberg; several Gospels and missals of the 
Carlovingian period, including the so-called 'Bible of Alcuin\ probably 
written at Tours ; prayer-books of Henry II. and his wife Kunigunde, with 
fine Byzantine ivory diptychs of the 11th cent. ; also numerous miniatures, 
rare printed works, interesting drawings, water-colours, etc., including 
several ascribed to Dilrer (?). 

The Griine Markt, in which rises the Neptune Fountain ('Gabel- 
mann'; PL 14), erected in 1698, and the Obstmarkt lead, to the 
Obere Brucke (PL B, 3), a bridge over the left arm of the Regnitz, 
completed in 1455, with a stone Crucifix of 1715. On an artificial 
island halfway across stands the Rathhaus (PL 7), rebuilt in 1744- 
56, and adorned externally with allegorical frescoes in the taste of 
the period. The old tower covering the entrance to the bridge is 
adorned with rococo balconies. — A little lower down is the Vntere 

to Nuremberg. BAMBERG. 1.6. Route. 77 

Briicke, an iron bridge constructed in 1858. Above is another iron 
bridge crossing from the right bank to the Oeiersworth, an island 
with an old episcopal palace, now a court of justice. The two chief 
bridges afford fine views of the river and the picturesque houses on 
its banks. — From the Upper Bridge the Carolinen-Str. ascends to 
the Carolinen-Platz, a square enclosed by the cathedral, the 
old, and the new palace. 

The *Cathedral (PI. B, 3) with its four towers, one of the 
grandest Romanesque edifices in Germany (312 ft. long, 92 ft. wide, 
and 86 ft. high), was founded by Emp. Henry II. in 1004, but 
dates in its present form from the close of the 12th and the be- 
ginning of the 13th century. The "W. choir, with the transept 
in front of it , is later , as its pointed style and moulded pillars 
indicate, perhaps dating from 1274, when an indulgence was grant- 
ed to the promoters of the building, and the nave covered with 
its pointed ceiling. The four eight-storied towers are 265 ft. in 
height ; the two at the E. end are in pure Romanesque, but the 
open-work turrets on the W. towers reveal the influence of the 
early French - Gothic style. The sculptures are among the best 
examples of German plastic art between the late-Romanesque and 
the early-Renaissance periods. 

The sculptures on the recessed Pkincipal Poktal (Fiirstenthor, N.), 
which resembles the 'Goldene Pforte' of Freiberg Cathedral, represent the 
Last Judgment, the Apostles standing on the shoulders of the Prophets, 
and symbolical figures of Church and Synagogue (the last with its eyes 
bandaged). The two smaller portals to the right and left of the E. Choie, 
approached by a fine flight of steps, are also embellished with sculptures: 
on the S.E. portal (the 'marriage-door 1 ), the usual entrance to the cathe- 
dral, are figures of Adam and Eve, SS. Peter and Stephen, and the Emp. 
Henry II. and his consort Kunigunde 5 the N.E. door (the 'Mother of God' 
or 'Grace' door) has fine columns with elaborate capitals ; above the archi- 
trave, the Virgin worshipped by saints. 

The -Interior (open 5.30-10.30 a. m. ; in the afternoon only during 
service on Sun., Wed., & Sat.) was judiciously restored by King Lewis I. 
in 1828-37 and purged of disfigurements. (The sacristan, who shows the 
choirs and treasury, lives at the back of the W. choir ; entrance in the 
Carolinen-Platz ; fee V*-l «*■) 

In the centre of the Nave is the "Sarcophagus of the founder Henry II. 
(d. 1024) and his consort Kunigunde (d. 1038), executed, in a fine-grained 
limestone resembling marble, by Tilmann Biemenschneider, the famous 
sculptor of Wiirzburg, in 1499-1513. On the highly ornate sarcophagus re- 
pose the emperor and empress, over lifesize, in the fantastic costumes of 
the 15th century. The reliefs on the sides represent scenes from their lives : 

1. The Empress proves her innocence by walking over red-hot plough-shares ; 

2. She pays the workmen who erected the church founded by her ; 3. The 
Emperor cured of an illness by St. Benedict ; 4. He implores pardon for sin ; 
5. His death. — Modern Pulpit by Rotermundt. 

To the left of the approach to the St. George's or E. Choik is an Eques- 
trian Figure of Emp. Conrad III., who died at Bamberg in 1153 and vvas 
buried in the cathedral (or perhaps of Stephen, King of Hungary, who was 
baptized here). — The stone screens separating the E. choir from the aisles 
are adorned with interesting sculptures, representing the Apostles and Pro- 
phets (in pairs) and the Annunciation, all of the early 12th cent. ; between 
these, on the N. side, are three fine statues (Madonna, Sibyl, an angel) of 
the end of the 13th century. Adjacent is the monument of the last prince- 
bishop (d. 1808). — The E.- Choir contains, on the right, the -monument 

78 Route 16. BAMBERG. From Leipsie 

of the prince-bishop George II. (d. 1505), from Peter Vischer's studio, and 
the sarcophagi of Bishop Otho II. (d. 1196 ; Romanesque) and Bishop Giinther 
(d. 1066; 13th century). The figure of Christ, in bronze, over the altar, 
was designed by Schwanthaler, as were also the 22 reliefs of saints on 
the altar. The ehoir-stalls are modern. — The Cbyft, below the E. choir, 
is severely Romanesque ; the vaulting is borne by 14 round and octagonal 
columns. It contains the simple sandstone sarcophagus of Kmp. Conrad III. 
and a well. 

In the St. Peter's or W. Choie is the low marble sarcophagus of Pope 
Clement II. (d. 1047), once Bishop of Bamberg, with reliefs of the 13th 
century. On the walls are the monuments of the prince-bishops Bchaum- 
burg (d. 1475), Gross- Trockau (d. 1501), fommertfelden (d. 1503), the last 
two being from Peter Vischer's studio, and George III. of Ltmburg (d. 
1522), by Loyen Hering, one of the earliest Renaissance monuments in 
Germany. The choir-stalls are of the Gothic period. 

In the S. Tbansept, to the left of the W. choir , is an ivory crucifix 
said to date from the 4th cent., and presented to the church by Emp. 
Henry II. in 1008, — The two doors in the 8. transept lead to the sacristy 
and to the Nagel-Capelle (Chapel of the Nail), added in the 15th cent., 
which contains 64 monumental brasses of canons (1414-1540), a carved re- 
redos of the 15th cent., and an Entombment after Ann. Carracci. The 
adjacent Antonids -Capelle contains an altar-piece by Lucas Granach 
(1513) representing the Madonna in a garland of roses, with saints and 
portraits of Emp. Max I., the Pope, and other princes of that period. — 
The Treasury contains, among other curiosities, a nail of the True Cross 
in a mounting of the 15th cent., the skulls of Emp. Henry II. and Kuni- 
gunde, the Emperor's crown, his sword, drinking-horn, and knife, combs 
of the Empress, a chasuble embroidered by her, and the enamelled head 
of St. Otho's crozier. 

From the cathedral we may cross over to the Oberpfarrkirche in 2 min. 
through the 'Obere and Untere Bach'. 

The W. side of the Carolinen-Platz is bounded by the pictur- 
esque Alte Hofhaltung or Alte Residenz (PI. A, B, 2), with a lofty 
gable and handsome jutting window and portal, built in the second 
half of the 16th cent, on the site of an older palace of the Counts 
of Babenberg, in which the Lombard King Berengarius died in 
captivity in 966, and Count Palatine Otho of Wittelsbach slew Emp. 
Philip of Swabia in 1208. In front of this palace rises a monument 
(PI. 15) to the prince-bishop Von Erthal Cd. 1797), erected in 1865. 

The N. and half of the E. side of the Carolinen-Platz are occu- 
pied by the Neue Residenz (adm. 10-11 and 2-4; on Sun. and 
holidays 10.30 to 12 and 2-3; 50 pf.), or New Palace, erected by 
Bishop von Schonborn in 1698-1704. Here, in Oct., 1806, Napoleon 
issued his declaration of war against Prussia. From 1806 to 1837 
this palace was the residence of Duke William of Bavaria, father- 
in-law of the French Marshal Berthier. On 1st June, 1815, the 
marshal, whose mind had been unhinged by the return of Napoleon 
from Elba, threw himself from one of the windows on the E. side 
and was killed. — The S. wing contains the Archives. 

The Obere Carolinen-Strasse, between the two palaces, leads from 
the Carolinen-Platz to the Jakobsberg and the St. Jakobskirche 
(PI. A, 3), a flat-roofed Romanesque church of the 11th cent., with a 
Gothic W. choir and an E. choir which was transformed in 1771 into 
a rococo facade, all recently restored. At the back of the W. ehoir, to 
the left, is Schmidt's interesting Porcelain Painting Establishment. 

to Nuremberg. BAMBERG. 16. Route. 79 

A little to the N. of St. Jakob's is the Michaelsberger-Str., by 
which we ascend to the *Michaelsberg (PI. A, 2), with its con- 
spicuous church and other buildings of a Benedictine abbey founded 
by Emp. Henry II. The court, -which we enter by the W. gateway, 
affords a good picture of a mediaeval convent on a large scale, though 
most of the present buildings date only from last century. 

The Church of St. Michabl, a Romanesque edifice of the 
12th cent., with Gothic additions, tastelessly restored last century, 
has been entirely renovated in the interior. 

The Intekiob contains many monuments of bishops (16-18th cent.), 
transferred hither from the cathedral. Behind the high-altar is that of 
St. Otho (d. 1139), dating from the 14th cent. ; at the back ia a painted 
statue of the saint, probably a relic of an earlier monument. The altar 
contains his pastoral staff, mitre, and chasuble. Handsome rococo choir- 
stalls of the 18th century. 

TheS.E. wing of the abbey-building now contains the municipal 
Gallbry op Art. Entrance adjoining the church-steps (adm. Sun. 
10-12, free; week-days 10-12 and 2-5, in winter 10-12 and 2-3, 
adm. 50 pf. ; catalogue 50 pf.). 

Rooms I & II. Early German Masters : 64 paintings by M. Wohlgemuth 
Hans von Kulmbach, Hans Baldung Grien, M. Strigel, H. Schaufelein, Lucas 
Cranach, and others. — Rooms III & IV. contain (according to the cat- 
alogue) 61 pictures by A. del Sarto, C. Dolci, M. Caravaggio, Sassoferrato, 
C. Maratla, Tiepolo, and other Italian masters, and 11 pictures by Spagnoletto 
and other Spanish painters. — Rooms V, VI, & VII. Dutch and Flemish 
Masters of the 16th and 17th cent., including C. de Grayer, Honthorst, 
Jordaens, Sal. Suysdael, and Jan van Goyen. — Room VIII. French School. 
— Room IX. Heller Collection: 319. Corn. Janszoon van Ceulen, Portrait; 
322. A. Diirer, Head of St. Paul, a study. — Rooms X, XI, & XII. contain 
modern works, chiefly by artists of Bamberg and Munich ; 489 Head 'al 
fresco' by Cornelius. — Also water-colours, miniatures, crayon sketches, 
and small works of art in ivory, alabaster, and wood. — On the first floor 
a large carpet of the end of the 15th cent, with scenes from the Passion. 

On the N. side of the church is the old abbey, now the Burger- 
spital or poor-house. To the left are the secular buildings, now a 
brewery and restaurant. Passing the terrace of the restaurant, we 
reach the Monastery Oarden, laid out in the 18th cent., where an 
avenue of limes affords charming views of the town. 

From the Michaelsberg we may go to the W., past the little 
church of St. Qetreu and the Lunatic Asylum (PI. 8), to the Villa 
Remeis , now the property of the town , which commands a fine 
panorama (restaurant, see p. 75). 

To the W. of the Upper Bridge (p. 76) the Lugbank ascends to 
the left to the Pfahl-Platz and the Kaulberg. On the Untere Kaul- 
berg, to the left, stands the Gothic *Obere Pfarrkirehe zu Vnserer 
Lieben Frauen (PI. 2; B, 3), erected in 1320-87, disfigured in the 
18th cent., but of late thoroughly restored. The Gothic choir contains 
11 altars. Good wood-carving on the organ-case by Veit Stoss (1523). 
On the N. side is the Ehethur ('wedding-gate'), with an elegant 
porch borne by two slender columns and containing figures of the 
Wise and Foolish Virgins. 

From the Pfahl-Platz (see above) we may go to the S. through 

80 Route 16. FORCHHEIM. From Leipsic 

the Judengasse and ascend the Stephansberg to the new Observatory 
('Sternwarte'; PI. B, 4), built with a bequest of the late Hr. Remeis. 

Beautiful walk up the Kaulberg (see blue notice-boards), past 
the Karmeliter-Kaserne (barracks; PI. A, 4), then down a little to 
the right, and lastly straight up the hill to the (40 rain.) *Alten- 
burg (1265 ft.; cafe' at the top). The castle, probably founded in 
the 10th cent, and after 1251 a castle of the bishops, was destroyed 
in 1553 by Margrave Albert of Bayreuth, but afterwards partly 
restored. Fine view from the tower (162 steps; afternoon light 
best). The chapel, restored in 1834, contains monuments of the 
16th cent, and stained glass. 

The Theresienhain and Luisenhain (PI. C, 4), with their pro- 
menades skirting the Regnitz , afford pleasant walks. They are 
reached from the new town in 10-15 min. by the Sophien-Brucke, 
the Schonleins-Platz (with a bust of the famous physician of that 
name ; d. 1864), and the Hain-Str. ; and from the old town by the 
Geiersworth-Str. and the Miihlendamm. Near the centre of the park 
is a cafe, and at the end of it, 2 M. from the town, is the little 
village of Bug (pron. 'book'). — On the right bank of the Regnitz, 
to the S. of the station, lies the suburb of Wunderburg, with its 
extensive market-gardens. 

Interesting excursion to Banz and Vierzehnheiligen (p. 75). — Fran- 
conian Switzerland, see p. 92. 

The environs of Bamberg form a vast orchard and market-garden, 
of which, however, little is seen from the train. Pine-plantations 
and hop-gardens are traversed. The railway, high-road, Regnitz, 
and Ludwigs-Canal run parallel. 188 M. Hirschaid; 192 M. Eggols- 
heim. To the left on the height near Forchheim rises the Jagers- 
burg (1184 ft.), once a hunting-lodge of the bishops of Bamberg. 

196 M. Forchheim (870 ft. ; Eirsch; Zettelmaier, Zur Eisenbahn, 
both at the station), once a frontier-fortress of the bishops of Bam- 
berg, was a place of some importance as far back as the time of 
Charlemagne. Pop. 6000. The Gothic Church contains twelve scenes 
from the Passion, of Wohlgemut's school and wood - carvings and 
reliefs by Adam Krafft and Veit Stoss. The spacious Schloss, of the 
14th cent., is now occupied by public offices. The rapid Wiesent 
falls into the Regnitz here. — Excursion to the Franconian Switzer- 
land, see p. 92. 

About 11 M. to the N.W. of Forchheim is Count Schonborn's beautiful 
chateau of Pommersfelden, built in 1711-17 in the baroque style and sump- 
tuously fitted up in the interior, though the best specimens of the once 
famous picture-gallery were sold in 1867. Large park. Visitors apply at 
the steward's office. 

To the right, near (201 M.)Baiersdorf, are the ruins of Scharfen- 
eck, destroyed by the Swedes in 1634. Beyond a tunnel of 374 yds. 
the Regnitz-Thal and Ludwigs-Canal are seen on the left. 

2051/2 M. Erlangen(920ft.; *Schwan; Wallflsch; *Blaue Glocke; 
beer in the Oute Quelle, etc.; Rail. Restaurant), with 17,565 inhab. 

to Nuremberg. ERLANGEN. 16. Route. 81 

(3800 Rom. Cath.), still partly enclosed by its ancient walls, owes 
its regular construction to a lire in 1706, which destroyed most of 
the houses, and its prosperity mainly to French Protestants, exiled 
by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685), who transferred 
their industries hither, and also to German Protestants who took 
refuge here when the French devastated the Palatinate. 

The University (1000 students, chiefly of medicine and theology), 
was founded in 1743 by Margrave Alexander of Brandenburg-Bay- 
reuth. In front of the building, originally the palace of the mar- 
graves, is a Statue of the founder by Schwanthaler. In the market- 
place opposite rises the modern Pauli Fountain, with Tritons, 
Nereids, and bronze figures of Erlanga and Alma Mater. The 
University Library contains several curiosities, including a Bible 
with miniatures of the 12th cent., and a valuable collection of draw- 
ings by Netherlandish and German masters of the 15-1 6th cent, 
(some of them damaged), Diirer being represented by about 20 
sketches. The university also contains natural history collections 
and an 'aula' with numerous portraits. The beautiful palace-garden, 
which now belongs to the university, contains several university 
institutions, chief of which is the Coltegienhaus, completed in 1889, 
with a facade adorned with figures of the four Faculties. Near it 
are an unfinished statue of the Great Elector and a large fountain 
with 45 statuettes, said to be portraits of the first French refugees 
who settled here. The Luitpold-Platz is adorned with a bronze 
statue of Prof. Herz. In the Bahnhof-Platz is a tasteful little foun- 
tain in bronze. 

Pleasant walks on the Kathsberg (belvedere and restaurant) and the 
Altstadter Berg, a spur of the Jura, at the foot of which a fair is held at 
Whitsuntide. On the W. slope is the Canal Monument, by Schwanthaler, 
erected by Ludwig I. in memory of the completion of the Ludwigs-Canal 
(p. 75), with figures of the Danube and Main, Navigation and Commerce. 

Branch Railway (17i/a M., in 2 1 /* hrs.) to the E. to Orafenberg (Post; 
Stadelmann), a little town with a Schloss, prettily situated at the foot of 
the EberharUberg, a fine point of view. (Entrance to Franconian Switzer- 
land by the charmingly situated Egloffstein.) 

Near (208 M.) EUersdorf we have a pretty view, to the left, of 
the chateau of Qrossgriindlach (formerly the Himmelsthron Convent, 
burial-place of the 'White Lady', p. 74). The line crosses the 
Ludwigs-Canal to (210 M.) Vach and joins the Wiirzburg railway 
(see p. 69) ; to the right rises the Alte Feste (p. 70). The Regnitz 
is crossed; fine view of Fiirth to the left. 215 M. Fiirth, and thence 
by Doos to (220 M.) Nuremberg, see pp. 69, 70. 

17. From Wurzburg to Bamberg. Kissingen. 

Railwat to (62 M.) Bamberg in 2-3Vs hrs. (fares 8 Jt 10, 5 M 40, 3 J( 
50 pf.; express 9 M 30, 6 JU 60 pf.). From Oberndorf-Schweinfurt to EU- 
singen, see p. 83. 

Wurzburg, see p. 64. Beyond (5 M.) Rottendorf (p. 69), junc- 
tion for Nuremberg, the line turns towards the N.E. 101/2 M. Selig- 

Baedeker's S. Germany. 8th Edit. 

82 Route 17. SCHWEINFURT. From Wilnburg 

enstadt ; 14 M. Bergtheim (watershed , 37C ft. above Wi'trzburg, 
257 ft. above Schweinfurt) ; 17 M. Essleben; 20 M. Weigolshausen, 
■where the direct line to Gemiinden (p. 64) diverges (to the left 
Schloss Werneck , now a lunatic asylum) ; 23 M. Bergrheinfeld. — 
261/2 M. Oberndorf-Schweinfurt (Rail. Restaurant ; Inn, opposite 
the station, plain ; omnibus to the town 20 pf.), junction for the 
Gemiinden (p. 64) and the Kissingen lines (see below). 

To the S.E. of Weigolshausen, prettily situated on the Main, lies 
(5i/ 2 M.) Ludwigsbad Wipfeld (Curhaut), with sulphur-springs and peat- 
baths, etc. Omnibus from Schweinfurt station in l'/i hr. ; one-horse carr. 
from Weigolshausen or Seligenstadt 4>/2 Jt- 

28 M. Schweinfurt (*Rabe; *Deutsches Haw; * Krone; Cafe- 
Restaurant Victoria; Post), with 12,430 inhab., once a free town of 
the Empire. In the market-place is a *Statue of Rilcktrt, the poet 
(1788-1866), by Thiersch and Ruomann. The house in which 
Riickert was born, at the corner of the Riiokert-Str., is indicated 
by a relief. The handsome Rathhaus of 1570-72 contains the muni- 
cipal library (over 10,000 vols.) and the Museum of mediaeval art 
and historical relics (adm. 9-12 and 2-5). The Protestant church 
of St. Johann (recently restored) dates from the 14th century. The 
Gymnasium, or grammar-school, founded in 1631 by Gustavus 
Adolphus, was transferred to a handsome new building to the N. of 
the town in 1881. Engine-works, dye-works, sugar-factories, etc., 
flourish here, and a large cattle-market is held every fortnight. 
Pleasant walk to the chief Reservoir of the water-works; also to the 
Wehrwcildchen (left bank). On the (V4 hr.) Peterstirne is a belvedere 
built in 1872, with a collection of weapons and fresco-paintings. 

The line follows the Main. On the hill to the left is the chateau 
of Mainberg. 31 '/ 2 M. Schonungen; 35 M. Gadheim; 39 M. Ober- 
Theres. To the left rises the old chateau of Theres, founded as a seat 
of the Babenberg family before 900, converted into a monastery in 
1043, and dissolved in 1803. Adjacent is a modern chateau. 

42 M. Hassfurt (Post), a small town with walls and massive 
gateway, possesses a fine Gothic chapel, the *Marien-Capelle, or 
Ritter-Capelle (middle of 15th cent.), restored by Heideloff. On the 
outside of the choir is a triple row of the armorial bearings of the 
members of an ecclesiastical brotherhood of nobles, founded in 1413, 
which contributed to the cost of building the chapel. Others are 
carved on the pillars and on the vaulting in the interior (in all 248). 

Branch Railway in 55 min. to (972M.) Hofheim, via (5 M.) Konigsberg, in 
the Duchy of Coburg, with 1000 inhab., birthplace of the famous mathemati- 
cian Johann Miiller, surnamed Eegiomontanus (d. 1476), to whose memory 
a fountain was erected here in 1871. 

To the left of (461/2 M.) Zeil, another walled town, rises the ruined 
fortress of Schmachtenberg, erected in 1438, destroyed by Albert of 
Brandenburg in 1552. On the left bank, opposite (50 M.) Ebelsbach, 
lies the small town of Eltmann, commanded by the ancient watch- 
tower of the castle of Waldburg, a thousand years old. 52 M. Stett- 
feld; 54M. Staffelbach; 58 M. Oberhaid. To the right the towers 

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to Bamberg. KISSINGEN. 17. Route. 83 

of St. Michael's, the Altenburg, and lastly Bamberg with the four 
cathedral-towers become visible. The Main is then crossed. 
62 M. Bamberg, see p. 75. 

From Oberndorf-Schweinfurt to Kissingbn, 1472 M. (rail- 
way in i/z-i nr 0- ^ */2 M. Oberwerrn; 6 M. Poppenhausen ; 872 M. 
Ebenhausen, where the line toMeiningen (p. 85) diverges. We skirt 
wooded hills, pass the ruin of Bodenlaube (p. 84), and enter the 
valley in which this famous 'Bad' is situated. 

1472 M. KiflSingen. — Hotels. °CoBHAtJS (PI. 4; B, C, 2), with baths, 
R., L., & A. from 4, B. 1 Jl 20, D. 3'/2, pens, from 9 Jl ; "Hotel de 
Russie (PI. a; B, 3), R. 2-10 Jl, L. & A. 90, B. 1 Jl 40, D. 3 Jl 50 pf., 
pens, from 7 Jl; "Hotel Victoria (PI. b; B, 3); '-Sanneh (PI. d; B, 4), 
R., L., &A. 3-5, B. 1J 20 pf., D. 3, pens. Vfr-lOJl; all in the Curhaus- 
Strasse. — "Englischek Hof (PI. e ; C, 2), Theater-Str. ; : Holzmann (PI. i), 
Metkopole (PI. m), R. 3-6, B. D/4, D. 21/2 Jl; Hot. & Villa Diana, 
Schmitt (PI. k), R. from 2 Jl, L. 80 pf., D. 2 Jl 60 pf. , all on the opposite 
bank of the Saale (PI. A, 1); *Zapf (PI. 1; C, 4), at the station, R. from 
2 Jl, L. 30 pf., pens. SJl. — Second-class: 'Wittelsbacher Hof (PI. f); 
Pkeussischer Hof (PI. h), R. 2-4 Jl, B. 80 pf., pens, from 5 Jl; Wurttem- 
berger Hof (PI. g) ; "Central-Hotel (PI. c; C, 2), all in the town, and 
open in winter also. — Hotels Garnis: Grand HStel Garni, Hailmann. both 
by the Curgarten. On the other side of the Saale: Dr. E. Diruf, Furstenhof, 
Pilartz, Minerva, D. Vay, Gleissner, Olmilhle, Keyser, Erhard, Villa Franconia, 
Westend - Haw , Park Villa, Vier Jahreszeiten , Villa Hollander, Teutonia, 
Thuringia, Martin, Alteriberg, E. Vay, Bavaria, Monbijou. In the town: 
Frau von Balling, with garden ; Dr. Scherpf, Habermann, Hohmann, Gayde, 
Dr. Stohr, Gobel, Biidel, Dr. Sotier, Villa Bauer, Villa Stella, Villa Elsa, 
Herramhof. In the Curhaus-Str. : Bergmann, Will. Dr. G. Diruf, Herbert, 
Fischer, Rieger, Abt, Villa Krampf, Singer, Bernhardt. 

Restaurants. Casino (p. 84j ; Cursaal; Messerschmidt , near the Cur- 
garten; Federbeck, Hartmann-Str.; Frilhlingsgarten, Theater-Str.; Schweizer- 
haus, on the right bank of the Saale; wine at HalVs (old-German wine- 
room), Arnold's, DaucK's, KarcVs, all in the market. 

Carriage with two horses to the salt-baths l'/2 Jl, to Booklet 13, Hammel- 
burg 23, Briickenau 30 Jl ; with one horse one-third less. For short drives 
in the town and environs there are fiacres with a fixed tariff. 

Reading Rooms at the Curhaus (gratis) and at the Casino by the Actien- 
Badhaus (adm. for non-subscribers 50 pf.); also Weinberger's, by the Cur- 
garten (per week 2 [ /2, per month 6 Jl). 

Theatre (PI. 13), performances daily during the season. 

Tax payable by patients whose stay exceeds a week : 30 Jl for the 
head of a family, and 10 Jl for each additional person , or 20 and 6 Jl, 
or 10 and 3 Jl respectively, according to the rank of the parties. Children 
under fifteen and servants pay one-half less. 

Baths (10-1 und 3-6) at the Curhaus, at the Actien-Badhaus, and in the 
Salinen-Badeanstalt. — Pneumatic Institute (Dr. Dietz), Schloss-Str. 6. 

English Church (PI. D, 1); service during the summer. 

Kissingen (660 ft.), the most frequented watering-place in Ba- 
varia (4250 inhab.), lies picturesquely in the valley of the Fran- 
kische Saale, enclosed by wooded hills. The sanatory properties of 
the waters were known as early as the 16th cent., and the Prince 
Bishops of Wurzburg took the place under their protection ; but at 
the beginning of the present century it was still a mere village. The 
growing repute of the springs and increasing number of visitors have 
now converted the place into a handsome and well-built town, which 


84 Route 17. KISSINGEN. 

is visited by over 14,000 patients annually, many of whom are 
English and Russians. 

The extensive Curgarten between the Curhaus and Cursaal, 
the principal promenade, is embellished with a marble *Statue of 
King Lewis I., by Knoll of Munich, a Hygeia imparting to the 
Rakoczy and Pandur their healing influence, and a statue of King 
Maximilian II., both in marble, by Arnold, a native of the place. 
On the S. side are the chief drinking-springs, the Rakoczy (300,000 
bottles of which are annually exported) and the Pandur, which is 
also used for baths. On the N. side is the Maxbrunnen, resembling 
Selters water. From 6 to 8 a.m., the hour for drinking the waters, 
the Curgarten presents a lively scene, and a band plays in line 
weather. From 5 to 7 p.m. the band again plays, and the fashion- 
able world reassembles. 

Opposite the garden , on the right bank of the Saale , stands the 
Actien-Badhaus (PI. 1), a large edifice of red sandstone, with two 
wings (left, baths for ladies; right, for gentlemen), and an engine- 
house in the centre. Adjacent is the Casino, with reading-room, 
restaurant, etc. — A tablet on the house of Dr. Diruf, also on the 
right bank, commemorates the attempted assassination of Prince 
Bismarck in 1874 (see below). 

Pretty walk, through the Von der-Tann-Strasse and by the 
Stationsberg, or by the path (PI. C, 4, 5) to the left, above the Hotel 
Zapf, to the ruins of (25 min.) Bodenlaube (1128 ft.), the N. tower 
of which commands a fine view (Restaurant zur Linde, below the 
ruin). We may return by the road leading through Vnterboden- 
laube, with its interesting old lime-tree. "Well-kept walks lead to 
the Lindesmiihle, the Altenberg, the Staffelsberg (fine view from the 
Ludwig Tower), the Wichtelskohlen, the Kaskaden-Thal and Alten- 
burger Haw, the Klaushof (Hotel, in the wood), the Klaushohe 
(omn. five times every afternoon, 1 J(, there and back \. x liJi}, etc. 

On 10th July, 1866, Kissingen was the scene of a sharp engagement 
between the Prussians and Bavarians. The latter were, however, even- 
tually obliged to yield. Near the cemetery, 1 /t M. from the Curgarten, is 
a handsome monument in memory of the fallen. 

The Saline Springs with the extensive evaporating-sheds, situat 
ed on the Saale, l 1 /^ M. to the N., are reached by walks on both 
banks. A small steamboat plies on the Saale to the springs every 
20 min. (fare 30, return -fare 50 pf.). A handsome bath-house 
(Salinenbad) has been erected over the ^Artesian Well, which is 
330 ft. in depth (containing two per cent of salt ; temperature 63° 
Fahr.) and frequently rises to a height of 10 ft. in its covered reser- 
voir. Near it is a. Statue of Prince Bismarck, who has frequently 
visited the Obere Saline, 1/2 M. farther on. 

At the village of Hansen, 3/4 M. farther on, is the Schonbornsprudel, a 
shaft upwards of 2000 ft. in depth, by which it was intended to reach an 
extensive stratum of salt. The work has, however, been given up t as it 
injured the other mineral springs at Kissingen. A square tower, 100 ft. 
in height, built over the shaft, is open to visitors from 4 to p.m. 

BRUCKENAU. 17. Route. 85 

Booklet, another watering-plaee with powerful chalybeate springs 
and mud-baths (about 350 patients annually), is prettily situated on 
the Saale, 6M. to the N. of Kissingen (diligence daily at 10 a.m.; 
fare 1 Ji). Rooms at the Curhaus, in Plank's Inn, various villas, etc. 
Between the Curhaus and the Badhaus with its Trinkhalle are pleas- 
ant grounds with fine old trees. 

'Schloss Aschach, on the Saale, 8 /i M. to the S. of Booklet, restored in 
the mediseval style, the property of Count Luxburg, contains a collection 
of old goblets, carving, etc. (fee). — Attractive excursion through the Saale- 
thal to (6 M.) Neustadt (see below). 

The third of these Franconian baths (20^2 M. from Kissingen ; 
diligence daily in 4'^ hrs.; fare 1JI 90pf.) is Bad Bruckenau (Cur- 
Hotel and Ourhauser, R. 1-4 Ji, B. 70, D. 1JI 20 pf. ; Schloss-Hdtel; 
*Hot. Fuglein, R. from 1 Ji, D. 1 Jl 70pf., pens. 4-5 Ji; Bayrischer 
Hof; Schwan; Villa Knell, Villa Heil, Sinnthalhof), in the grassy 
valley of the Sinn, enclosed by wooded hills, 2 M. to the W. of the 
little town of Bruckenau (Post). Handsome Oursaal in the Italian 
style, built in 1827-33, with restaurant and public rooms. The 
Stahl, Wernarzer, and Sinnberger Springs, impregnated with car- 
bonic acid, are beneficial in cases of poverty of blood, indigestion, 
kidney disease, etc. About 1400 patients annually. Visitors' tax 
5 Ji ; band-subscription 2 Ji weekly. 

Beautiful walks in the environs. Shady paths with views (Lwdurigs- 
Platz, Washington- Platz , Amalienruhe, etc.) lead to the N. through the 
Harlhwald to (I'/z hr.) Klotter Volkertberg ; to the W. to (2 hrs.) Schwar- 
zenfels, with its old castle; to the S. by (he Sinnberg to the (2 hrs.) Drei- 
slelzberg (2385 ft.), with belvedere tower. — Finest of all the excur- 
sions is the ascent of the Kreuzberg (3050 ft.), the highest of the Rhbn 
Mts., crowned with a Franciscan monastery (to the N.E., 4 hrs.). Road, 
following the Sinn, as far as (7 M.) Wildflecken; thence to the top (with 
guide) in l'/s br. Extensive view of N. Franconia as far as the Fichtel- 
gebirge, and W. as far as the Taunus. The hills around Wiirzburg and 
the Steigerwald close the view towards the S., and the Thuringian Forest 
and the hills of Fulda to the N. 

From Bruckenau to Jossa, 11 M., local railway in 1 hr. (fares 1 Jl, 
65 pf.). Stations: Stadt Bruckenau (see above); H/4 M. Sinnthalhof (see 
above); i3/ 4 M. Bad Bruckenau (see above). Then along the Sinn, via 
Eckarts, Zeitlofs, and AUengronau to (11 M.) Josta (p. 63). 

From Kissingen to Meiningen, 46 M. (railway in 3 hrs.). 5>/2 M. Eben- 
hausen (p. 83); the line diverges here to the left from the Schweinfurt 
railway, and leads by Rottershausen to (16'/2 M.) Miinnerstadt (' Frdnkischer 
Hof), a small town on the Lauer, with an interesting church in the tran- 
sition style. 18 l /2 M. Niederlauer. — 21 M. Neustadt ("Ooldner Mann), an an- 
tiquated town prettily situated on the Saale. Near it ( 3 /« M.) is the "Sale- 
burg, an ancient palace probably built by Charlemagne, now one of the 
largest and most picturesque ruins in Germany. At the foot of the hill 
lies Bad Neuhaus (*Curhaus), with salt and carbonic acid springs. 

[From Neustadt to Bischofsheim, 12 M. (railway in l'/2 hr.). The line 
traverses the wooded Brendthal, passing Brendloremen (with a venerable 
church, said to have been erected hy King Carloman in 770), Schonau, and 
Wegfurt. Bischofsheim 'vor der Rhon' (Stern; Lowe), an ancient town with 
1350 inhab., lies at the N. foot of the Kreuzberg (see above), which may 
be ascended hence via Haselbach in lVz-2 hrs.] 

A little beyond Neustadt the line quits the Saaletkal and turns to the 
left into the valley of the Streu. Stations: Henitreu; Unsleben; Afellrich- 

86 Route 18. BAYREUTH. From Neuenmarkt 

stadt, with an old church disfigured by restoration. 36 l /2 M. Rentwerts- 
hausen. The train here crosses the low watershed between the Saale and 
the Werra, and descends to (41 M.) Ritschenhauien and (46 MO Meiningen 
(see Baedekers Northern Germany). 

From Eissingen to Oemiinden via Hammelburg, see p. 63. 

18. From Neuenmarkt to Weiden. The Fichtelgebirge. 

49 M. Railway to Bayreuth, 28-40 min. (fares 1 M 70, 1 Jl 20, 75 pf.) ; from 
Bayreuth to Weiden, 11/2-2 hrs. (fares 4 Jl 70, 'A Jl, I Jl 95 pf.). Express 
from Bayreuth to Munich, 6V2 hrs. 

Neuenmarkt, see p. 74. Our line turns to the S., and runs 
through the broad valley of the Weisse Main to (3 M.) Trebgast, 
then through a narrow valley , which afterwards expands. 6 M. 
Harsdorf; lO 1 ^ M. Bindlach. Near Bayreuth extensive meadows 
are traversed. Avenues of poplars on the left , and the Wagner 
Theatre and the large lunatic asylum on the right are conspicuous. 
The suburb of St. Qeorgen is passed. At the station is a large 

13 M. Bayreuth. — Hotels. "Sonne, Richard-Wagner-Str., R. from 
2, D. V/tJl; 'Askek, Opern-Str.; "Reichsadlek, Maximilian-Str. (Markt), 
R. IV2-2, D. 2 Jl , B. 80 pf. ; "Bahnhof-Hotel , opposite the station; 
Schwaezes Ross, Ludwigs-Str. ; Teaobe, Richard-Wagner-Strasse. 

Restaurants. Beer at Bopfmiiller's (Reichsadler), in the market-place ; 
Vogel, Prinz-Luitpold-Platz ; Baals, Bencker, Maximilian-Str. (wine); "Cafe 
Sammet, Harmonie-Briicke, with the 'Wagner room'' and garden, moderate ; 
Cafe' Vogel, etc. 

Baths. Bad Rosenau, Stadtische Bade- und Schicimmanstall, both in 
the Bade-Strasse. 

Post Office, at the railway-station. — Telegraph Office, Markt 80. 

Gabs. Per drive in the town (V« hr.), with one horse, 1-2 pers. 40, 
3-4 pers. 60 pf. ; with two horses 50 or 75 pf. To the Wagner Theatre 
2 Jl, with two horses 3JI; to the Biirgerreuth, Rollwenzelei, Oberkonners- 
reuth, or Geigenreuth (a farm adjoining the Fantaisie Park) 2 or 3 Jl; to 
the Eremitage 3 Jl, with two horses 4-5 Jl; to the Fantaisie 4-6 J. 
Gratuities included in these fares. 

Porter in the town or to the station, for 33 lbs. 15 pf., for 110 lbs. 20 pf. 

All charges are raised during the Wagner festivals; the 'Wohnungs- 
Comite' should be applied to for accommodation. 

Bayreuth (1180 ft.), with 24,556 inhab. (3300 Rom. Cath.), the 
capital of Upper Franconia, residence of the Margraves of Branden- 
burg-Culmbach from 1603 to 1769 and Bavarian since 1810, is 
mainly indebted for its present appearance to Margrave Christian 
(d. 1655), who transferred Ms seat from Kulmbach hither, to George 
William (d. 1726), and to Frederick (d. 1763), husband of Wil- 
helmine, the talented sister of Frederick the Great. Under the last- 
named prince many handsome buildings were erected. 

At the end of the street ascending to the right as we quit the 
station , is seen the Richard Wagner Theatre (p. 88). To the left 
the Bahnhof-Str. leads over the Main to the Luitpold-Platz, in 
which (to the right) rises the Palace of Duke Alexander of Wurtem- 
berg. Farther on, to the left beyond the Harmonie-Briicke, is the 
Opern-Strasse, with the Opera House, a sumptuous building erected 
by Margrave Frederick in 1747, and richly decorated in the interior 

Geog'r. Antit .v. Wagner A DcbeB .Leipzig"- 

to Weiden. BAYREUTH. 18. Route. 87 

in the rococo style. At the end of the Opern-Str. is the Maximilian- 
Platz, whence the Maximilian-Str. diverges to the W., the Lud- 
wig-Str. to the S., the Bad-Str. and the Richard- Wagner-Str. to the 
E. The House of Richard Wagner, Richard- Wagner-Strasse 283 1 /2> 
built in 1873-74 by "Wolfle , bears the inscription : 'Hier wo mein 
Wahnen Frieden fand , Wahnfried sei dieses Haus von mir be- 
nannt'. Above is a sgraffito by Krausse, representing "Wotan as a 
wanderer. In front of the house is a bust of King Lewis II. Wagner 
(d. 1883) is buried in the garden. 

The Ludwig-Str. (see above) leads to the Residenz-Platz , in 
which is the New Palace (PL 2), a long building with wings, now a 
royal residence, erected in 1753. The left wing now contains the 
picture-gallery of the Kunst-Verein (open Sun., Tues., & Thurs., 
11-1). The Palace Garden and Park are used as public promenades 
(military band on Sun. and holidays). The large Fountain in front 
of the Palace bears an equestrian Statue of Margrave Christian 
Ernest (d. 1712), a marshal in the imperial service, erected in 1700. 
The four allegorical figures in sandstone at the foot of the pedestal 
represent the four quarters of the globe. 

In front of the Gymnasium rises Schwanthaler's Statue of Jean 
Paul Friedrich Richter (d. 1825; PI. 3), whose house in the 
Friedrich-Strasse (No. 5, to the right) bears an inscription. 

From the N. end of the Friedrich-Str. the Kanzlei-Str. leads to 
the right to the Maximilian-Str. and the old palace. The Gothic 
Stadtpfarrkirche (Prot. ; PI. 4), built in 1439-46, contains several 
pictures by Riedel, a native of Bayreuth. Beneath the church is the 
Furstengruft , in which most of the princes from the 17th to the 
18th cent, are interred. 

The Old Palace (PI. 1), begun in 1454, burned down in 1758, and 
soon after rebuilt, is now occupied by public offices. The octagonal 
Tower, erected in 1603, with a remarkably fine double spiral staircase, 
affords a good survey of the environs (key at the sacristan's, Richard- 
Wagner-Str. 291 ; fee 40 pf.). In front of the Palace rises a Statue 
of Maximilian II. in bronze, by Brugger, erected on the 50th anni- 
versary of the union of the principality with the kingdom of Bavaria. 

The Roman Catholic Church beside the palace (formerly the 
palace-church) contains the tombs of Margrave Frederick and his 
consort Wilhelmine (p. 86). Close by is the Harmonie , a pretty 
little Renaissance building. — The Maximilian-Strasse (market- 
place) is embellished with several fountains. Many of the houses 
possess handsome oriel windows. In the Schul-Strasse , which di- 
verges to the right, is the handsome school, in front of which is a 
bronze bust of J. B. Graser (d. 1841), the schoolmaster, by Zum- 
busch. In the cemetery to the W. of the town (Erlanger Str.) are 
the graves of Jean Paul Richter (see above) and Franz Liszt (d. 1886), 
the latter in a small domed chapel. 

To the N. of the town, 1 M. from the station, on the hill 

88 Route 18. BAYREUTH. From Neuenmarkt 

below the Biirgerreuth, stands the Wagner Theatre, where the 
,Nibelungenriiig' was first performed in 1876 and 'Parsifal' in 1882. 
The theatre, built by Briickwald of Leipsic, contains 1650 seats. 
Higher up is the Biirgerreuth , a restaurant which commands a fine 
view of Bayreuth and the environs. Above the Biirgerreuth to the 
N. towers the Hohe Warte (1525 ft.), on which rises the Sieges- 
thurm (65 ft.) in memory of the war of 1870-71 , commanding an 
extensive view. 

St. Georgen, commonly called the 'Brandenburger', situated on a 
hill to the N.E., is a suburb of Bayreuth, founded by Margr. George 
William (d. 1726) at the beginning of the 18th century. The road 
to it passes through a tunnel below the railway, beyond which, on 
the left, is the large Cotton Factory mentioned at p. 86. The road 
divides here. The branch to the right, a maple and chestnut avenue, 
flanked with handsome modern houses, leads to St. Georgen. The 
linden avenue to the left, planted in 1723, leads past a large spin- 
ning-mill (left), the new District Prison (right), and the St. Georgen 
House of Correction (left) , to the Military Hospital , once the 
chapter-house of the knights of an l Ordre de la Sincerite", instituted 
in 1712 by George William and changed to the Order of the Red 
Eagle (Roter Adler-Orden) in 1734 by Margrave George Frederick 
Charles. The meetings of the order were held in the church of 
St. Georgen (still called ' Ordenskirche) , built in 1705-18. The 
balustrade of the gallery is adorned with the arms of the knights 
down to 1767. — At the other end of the principal street is the 
Abbey Church of Gravenreuth. 

The Eremitage, 3 M. to the E. of Bayreuth, a chateau with gardens, 
fountains, artificial ruins, etc. , was erected by George William in 1715. 
It contains a number of family-portraits, including Frederick the Great, 
as a child , and as king , and his sister the Margravine Wilhelmine, 
who wrote her memoirs here; among those in the lower part of the 
Schloss is that of the Countess Orlamunde (the 'White Lady', p. 74). 
In the vicinity is the ' Grosse Bassin,* an imitation of that at Versailles, 
surrounded by a temple of the Sun and its two detached wings. The 
walls of these buildings are fantastically inlaid with coloured stones, 
rock-crystal, etc. The interior of the temple is sumptuously fitted up, 
and contains handsome columns of striped marble. Between the chateau 
itself and the offices (now a restaurant) is a pretty garden. Adjacent are 
the Roman theatre and the large water-tower, containing 1000 gallons of 
water for the fountains. The water-works play on Sundays about 5 p.m. 
(adm. gratis) and may be seen at other times for a fee of 2 Jl. 

About halfway to the Eremitage , at the point where the road turns 
at a right angle to the N., is a small inn, called RollwenzeVs Haus, with 
a room where Jean Paul Richter used to write, containing some memorials 
of him. 

The Fantaisie, a chateau 3'/2 M. to the W. of Bayreuth, built in 1758 
and tastefully fitted up, the seat of Duke Alex, of Wurtemberg (d. 1881) 
from 1828 to 1881, is charmingly situated on a richly wooded hill, near 
the village of Eckersdorf. The gardens and park, with bath-house, phea- 
santry, fountains, etc., are kept in excellent order. The grounds attract 
numerous visitors from Bayreuth (,-Hdtel Fantaisie, by the park). — I n the 
vicinity is Si. Gilgenberg, a lunatic asylum, prettily situated. 

Eckersdorf lies on the direct route to the Franconian Switzerland 
diligence daily in 4 hrs. to Waischenfeld , p. 94). A pleasanter route 

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to Weiden. BERNECK. 18. Route. 89 

for pedestrians is by -Mistelgau , Qlashiitten , Volsbach , and Kirchahorn to 
Rabenstein (p. 94) in 4-5 lira. 

To the left, as Bayreuth is quitted, are St. Georgen and the Ere- 
mitage, to the right wooded hills. 18 M. Stockau; 20^ M. Sey- 
bothenreuth ; 25 M. Kirchenlaibach (junction for the Nuremberg 
and Eger Railway, p. 110). 29 M. Kemnath-Neustadt ; on the right 
the Rauhe Kulm (2240 ft.), on the left the S. spurs of the Fich- 
telgebirge. We follow the valley of the Heidenab. 32 M. Trabitz; 
36 M. Pressath; 39y 2 M. Schwarzenbach ; thence through extensive 
pine-forests ( Parksteiner and Mantler Wald) to (41 ^ M.) Park- 
steinhutten and (49 M.) Weiden (p. 134). 

The Fichtelgebirg e. 

Diligence once daily from Bayreuth to (9>/2 M.) Berneck in 2 hrs. 
From stat. Markl-Schorgast (p. 74) to (El'/sM.) Berneck omnibus twice daily in 
40 minutes. — From Berneck through the Goldmuhl - Thai (valley of the 
Weisse Main) to Bischofsgrun, diligence daily in l 3 /« hr. (carr. 6-8 Jl, incl. 
fee). Then on foot over the Ochsenkopf and Schneeberg to Weissenstadt in 
G hrs. — Walk to the top of the Waldslein and back (2'/'2 hrs.) ; drive from 
Weissenstadt by Wunsiedel to the Alexander shad in 2 hrs. ; ascend the 
Luisenburg with guide, and return to Wunsiedel (3 hrs.). From Wunsiedel 
by train in 10 min. to Holenbrunn, on the Fichtelgebirge Railway, p. 118. 
— Carriage and pair from Bayreuth to Alexandersbad by Berneck, Seehaus, 
Trostau, Schonbrunn, and Wunsiedel in 8-9 his., 40-45 Jl. — Guides (4-5 Jl 
per day) are seldom required, as the German Alpine Club and local asso- 
ciations have made paths and provided finger-posts. 

Bayreuth, see p. 86. The road leads through St. Georgen (p. 88) 
to (3 M.) Bindlach (p. 86), where it begins to ascend. Fine view as 
we look back on Bayreuth. Near Berneck we cross the Weisse Main. 

91/2 M. Berneck (1273 ft.; *L6we; *Hirsch, R. li/ 2 -2«i?, B. 
60 pf.; *Krone or Post, R. 1-1 1/ 2 Jl, D. 1 Jl 40 pf.; Stadt Bay- 
reuth; Bube, with garden-restaurant ; Schmidt's Restaurant, in the 
market - place ; Bareneck Restaurant , with pretty view) , pictur- 
esquely situated in a narrow valley watered by the Oelsnitz, is a 
favourite summer-resort (1500 inhab.). In the main street is the 
Curhaus, with reading-room, garden, and restaurant. On the Oels- 
nitz, at the foot of the Schlossberg, is the Cur-Colonnade, where 
a band plays several times a week. (Visitors' tax for a stay of more 
than five days, 4 Jl, two pers. 6 Jl, etc.). On the steep hill above 
the town are the ruins of two castles and of a chapel. A pleasant 
path along the Oelsnitz gradually ascends the wooded hill in 20 min. 
to the Obere Burg (1548 ft.) , destroyed by the Hussites in 1430. 
Fine view hence ; still finer from the Engelsburg , 10 min. farther 
on, and the adjacent Kirchleite (1935 ft.; belvedere). 

Another excursion is to ( 3 / 4 hr.) the ruined castle of Stein, ro- 
mantically situated in the valley of the Oelsnitz. Thence we may 
walk through the valleys of the Oelsnitz and the Liibnitz, past the 
ruin of Orunstein, to ( 3 /4 hr.) Gefrees (p. 74). — Pearl-mussels 
(Unio margaritifer) are found in the Oelsnitz in considerable quan- 

90 Route 18. BISCHOFSGRUN. Fichtelgebirge. 

tities ; the shells are opened and the pearls removed every 6-7 years 
by a government official. 

Omnibus from Berneck to Markt-Schorgast and Bischofsgriin, see above. 
Carriage and pair 12-15 Jl a day, or 6-8 Jl for half a day, incl. gratuity. — 
Himmelkron, mentioned at p. 74, lies 4 M. to the W. 

The New Road from Berneck by Ooldmuhl (Heisinger ; Zapf ; 
Schwarzes Ross) to (9 M.) Bischofsgriin crosses the Oelsnitz. (On 
the hill-side is the arboretum Bliichersruhe, with its belvedere.) It 
then leads to the left through the * Ooldmuhl- Thai, or valley of the 
Weisse Main, to the Qlasenmuhle (see below), passing a chalybeate 
spring 1^2 M. before reaching Bischofsgriin. The shorter, but less 
interesting Footpath, on the E. side of the valley, at first ascends 
rapidly ; then, generally level, leads through wood, passing ( 3 / 4 hr. 
Barnreut (1700 ft.). Thence it partly follows the road to (iy 4 hr.) 
Wilfersreut (2296 ft.), descends by the Weisse Main to the Qlasen- 
muhle (1952 ft.), and lastly ascends again to (1 hr.) Bischofsgriin 
(2225 ft.; *Schmidt; Puchtlef), a village conspicuously situated at 
the N. base of the Ochsenkopf, almost entirely rebuilt since a great 
fire in 1887, with large manufactories of beads. 

The path to the Ochsenkopf (3363 ft.; ascent 1 hr.; guide not 
indispensable : Ochsenkopf 2 <M, Ochsenkopf and Schneeberg 4 Jl) 
leads through wood, and except at one place, the ascent is gradual. 
At the top it traverses blocks of granite and passes the Schneeloch, 
a hollow where snow lies till June. At the top is a slab with a 
very ancient carving of an ox's head (frequently restored). From 
the View Tower we gain an extensive view of the Fichtelgebirge, 
Franronian Switzerland , etc., including the Thuringian Forest to 
the N.W. About 5 min. to the S. of the tower is a spot known as 
the 'Aussicht' (view), commanding a picturesque glimpse of War- 

The route by Warmensteinach to Bischofsgriin and the Ochsenkopf, 2 hrs. 
longer than the above, is preferable. The road quits the valley of the Main 
beyond Goldmuhl, and ascends to the right in the valley of the Zoppatenbach 
to (20 min.) Brandholz. The antimony, lead, and silver mines once largely 
worked here, as numerous heaps of rubbish still testify, are now exhausted. 
About 1/2 hr. beyond Brandholz we cross a meadow and ascend the road. 
In a few minutes more, where the path divides, the branch to the left 
leads to (l'/4 hr.) Warmensteinach (2065 ft. ; TrasseVi Inn), prettily situated. 
The shingle-roofed houses lie scattered along the slopes of the upper valley 
of the Sieinach. Glass-making and glass-polishing are the chief industries. 

A road leads hence through the Lbchle - Thai, a romantic wooded ra- 
vine (tavern), to (1 hr.) Grassemann (2405 ft.), a former mining settle- 
ment, situated on an open plateau. Before the village we pass the Lud- 
u>igs- Quelle. Thence either to Bischofsgriin in l'/2 hr. by a distinct path 
(short-cut to the right just beyond the finger-post), or direct to the summit 
of the Ochsenkopf (see above; path indicated by white marks; guide not 

From the Ochsenkopf we descend the saddle to the E., which 
connects the Ochsenkopf and Schneeberg; 20 min., Source of the 
Mnin(Weissmainquelle; 2910 ft.), an excellent spring, the only one 
for a long distance (benches; inscription); 10 min., the Weissmain- 
felsen (2857 ft.) , a group of rocks affording a fine view of the 

Fichtelgebirge. WEISSENSTADT. 18. Route. 91 

Schneeberg and Nusshard , and towards the S. The Bischofsgriin 
and Fichtelberg road , in the valley which separates the Schneeberg 
from the Ochsenkopf, is now followed to ( 3 / 4 M.) (2410 ft; 
beer). We here enter the wood to the left , and ascend to (1 hr.) 
the *Nusshard (3190 ft.) , a group of huge blocks of granite ren- 
dered accessible by steps. The nine round hollows on the top of 
the rock are called 'the Druids' dishes'. The (V2 hr.) Schneeberg 
(3454 ft.) is crowned with a group of rocks, 30 ft. high, named the 
Backofele ('oven'), rendered accessible by a ladder. On the top is 
a hut built by the Fichtelgebirge Club. *Panorama uninterrupted, 
except towards the S.W. by the Ochsenkopf: to the S.E. is the 
Kosseine, to the left the Luisenburg; N.E. the Erzgebirge in the 
distance ; N. the Rudolfstein , Weissenstadt , and the Waldstein ; 
N.W. the Thuringian Mts. and the Gleichberge . 

"We now descend in 40min. to the 'DreiBrilder' (2736 ft.), three 
lofty groups of granite slabs, that in the middle resembling a wolf; 
7 min., the *Eudolfstein (2848 ft.), a huge and imposing group of 
granite rocks, ascended by steps, commanding a superb view. We 
next descend through wood, passing the Staff-Reizenstein monu- 
ment, to the ('/ahr.) plain and (I1/2 M.) Weissenstadt. Before cross- 
ing the Eger we observe several rock-cellars on the left. 

Weissenstadt (2070ft. ; Adler or Alte Post; Lowe~), a small town 
with 2600 inhab. , lies in a somewhat marshy valley, on the Eger, 
which rises 6 M. to the S.W. Ackermann's stone-polishing works 
enjoy a high reputation. 

The "Grosse Waldstein (2920 ft.) may be ascended from Weissenstadt 
in 1 hr. (without guide). By the barns on the N. side of Weissenstadt, 
the path diverges from the Kirchenlamitz road to the left and leads into 
the wood to a P/4 hr.) finger-post on the left, 'zum Waldstein', 1 /t hr. 
more. This is another group of granite rocks made accessible by paths 
and steps, and crowned with an iron pavilion; extensive and picturesque 
"Panorama, with wooded foreground. The castle of Waldstein, of which 
fragments remain, a robbers' stronghold, was destroyed by the Swabian 
League in 1523. Adjacent is the finely situated Waldhaus (2897 ft. ; Rfmts.). 
— We may now descend to the Source of the Saale (2312 ft.), either direct 
by the Barenfang (path pointed out by the forester) in V2 hr., or by 0/2 hr.) 
Zell (2020 ft.), and thence to the S. to the spring in V2 hr. more. Thence 
3 /4 hr. more to the Gefrees and Weissenstadt road. From Zell or from the 
Waldstein via Sparneck to Mi'mchberg (rail, stat., p. 73), 2 hrs. 

A marked path, running first to the N.W. then to theE., and crossing 
the road from Weissenstadt to Sparneck, leads from the Waldhaus to the 
(l 3 /4 hr.) Epprechtstein (2600 ft.) , with a ruined castle and a beautiful 
view; thence by Buchhaus (rfmts.), or direct, to P/4 hr.) Kirchenlamitz 
(*Lowe), I72 M. from the station, p. 134. 

The shadeless road from Weissenstadt to (2 3 / 4 hrs.) Wunsiedel is 
unattractive to walkers. (Carr. and pair to Alexandersbad in V/% hr., 
7-8 Jf; diligence to Roslau, p. 134, twice daily in iy 4 hr.) 

Wunsiedel (1755 ft. ; *Kronprinz, R. 1 Jt 20 pf.; *Einhorn, R. 
1 Jl, B. 50 pf. ; Mutter's Restaurant ; one-horse carr. to Alexanders- 
bad 3, two-horse 5 ^f), a pleasant, well-built town with 4000 in- 
hab., on theRosZa or Rbsslau, was the birthplace of Jean Paul Fried- 

92 Route 18. ALEXANDERSBAD. 

rich Richter (p. 87), whose bust by Schwanthaler has been placed in 
front of the house where he was born, adjoining the church. 

The Alexandersbad (1915 ft.; *Chalybeate Baths and Hydro- 
pathic, the property of a company, D. 2</2 Jl; * Hotel Weber, also 
with pine-cone baths, D. lifajf; *Roglermuhle Inn. on the Diinkel- 
hammer, */* M. from the Hot. Weber), 2 M. to the S.E. of Wunsie- 
del, is named after the last Margrave of Ansbach-Bayreuth. The 
chalybeate springs and the pine-cone and mud-baths, combined with 
the pleasant scenery, attract numerous visitors. 

The 'Luisenburg (2266 ft.), the most striking point in the environs, 
so named after the visit of Queen Louisa of Prussia in 1805, formerly called 
Luxburg, with a few traces of an old castle, lies H/2 M. to the W. of the 
Alexandersbad and 2 M. to the S. of Wunsiedel. (Guide desirable: from 
Wunsiedel or from Alexandersbad to the Luisenburg 2, to the Luisenburg 
and Kosseine 3 Jl.) The Luisenburg is, as it were, a mountain in ruins. 
Huge masses of granite of fantastic form are piled together in wild con- 
fusion, the result of disintegration; they are partly overgrown with thick 
moss, interspersed with pines and bushes, and are rendered accessible by 
steps, bridges, etc. At the entrance to the labyrinth is the Getellschafts- 
Platz, with a restaurant (2255 ft.). Numerous inscriptions on the rocks. 
This rocky labyrinth affords a beautiful walk, ascending in V2 hr. to the 
Bundesstein or Kreuz (2575 ft ). The finest point is the "Burgstein (2858 ft.), 
20 min. farther on, a group of rocks on the top of the hill, with a railing, 
affording a panorama towards the E., N., and W. 

The "Baberstein (2785 ft.), 1/4 hr. farther on, consisting of four lofty rocks, 
is another good point of view. The 'Kosseine (3078 ft.) , 3 /i hr. from the 
Haberstein (l'/j hr. direct from Alexandersbad) commands the finest and 
most extensive view in the Fichtelgebirge , embracing the greater part of 
the Upper Palatinate towards the S. (Temple at the top ; a little below it 
is a simple restaurant; good water 10 min. below the summit on the E. 
side.) — From this point a path leads by the Matze (2670 ft.) and the 
Girgelstein (2400 ft.) to the (2 hrs.) Silberhaus (forester's house, with two 
beds), whence we may ascend by the forester's house of (1 hr.) Seehaus to 
the Nusshard and the (1 hr.) Schneeberg (p. 91). 

Railway in 10 min. from Wunsiedel to (2 l ,U M.) Holenbricnn 
on the Fichtelgebirge Railway (p. 134). 

19. Franconian Switzerland. 

Comp. Map, p. 77. 

The small hilly district dignified with this title (1600 ft. above the 
sea-level), with its pretty valleys watered by the Wiesent, its wooded heights, 
forming the W. spurs of the Fichtelgebirge, and lying nearly in the centre 
of a triangle formed by Nuremberg, Bamberg, and Bayreuth, owes its repu- 
tation chiefly to its Stalactite Caverns, containing remains of antedilu- 
vian animals, specimens of which are preserved in almost every museum 
in Europe. The 'Jura' limestone and dolomite rock-formations are also 
picturesque, occasionally assuming the most grotesque shapes. 

The finest points are accessible to walkers only. A guide (seldom ne- 
cessary) may generally be procured for 2-3 Jl per day. — Kailwat from 
Forchheim to Ebermannstadt, 9'/'2 M., in 3/ 4 hr. — Post Omsibds from Eber- 
mannstadt via Streitberg and Behringersrniihl to Waitchen/eld, 17i/ 2 M., in 
4>/4 hrs.; from Pottenstein to Pegnitz (railway-station, see p. 110), twice daily 
in l 3 /4 hr. 

From Forchheim (see p. 80) the local railway leads in a wide 
curve to the E. into the pleasant Wiesent-Thal, and passes the 
stations of Pinzberg (*Terrasse Inn, !/ 2 M. from the station, with 

STREITBERG. 19. Route. 93 

beautiful view), Goslerg, Wiesenthau, Kirchehrnbach, and Prelzfeld. 
9'/2 M. Elermanristadt (9u7 ft.), the terminus, lies at the junction 
of the Lange-Thal (see below) and the Wiesent-Thal. A road (carr. 
at the station) leads hence, via Oasseldorf, to ( 3 / 4 hr.) — 

2 M. Streitberg (1046ft.; *Curanstalt, recommended for some stay, 
R. b l /z-l&J[ per week, D. 2 Jt ; *6oldener Lowe, or Post, with gar- 
den, R. iJt 20-2 Jf, B. 50 pf., D. li/ 2 , pens. Ajf; Adler), a pic- 
turesquely situated village, frequented as a summer-resort (visitors' 
tax 3 M, families 5 Jf). Pretty walk to the C/4 hr.) Mnschel- 
quelle. Fine views from the (lOmin.) ancient Streitburg and the 
( 3 /4hr.) ruin of Neudeck, opposite ; still finer from the Hummerstein, 
8/4 hr. to the W., on which is a refuge-hut (key at the inn at 
Gasseldorf), and the Guckhull, 1 hr. to the N.E. Pleasant excur- 
sions through the *Lange-Thal and the '■FeUenschlucht' 1 to the (1 hr.) 
Schbnsteinhohle , a grotto with fine stalactites (guide for one pers. 
1 Jl, for several 40 pf. each), and through the Leinleiter-Thal to 
(1 hr.) Vnlerleinleiter, with a fine park of Baron Seckendorf. 

The road goes on from Streitberg, on the right bank of the 
Wiesent, to (2i/ 2 M.) Muggendorf (1060 ft.; *Curhaw # Hotel %ur 
Frankischen Schweiz, DAy^Jl; *Stern, R.l, D.ll/2 •<$; Wolfsschlucht, 
with reading-room; Schwan, Sonne, Tiirkei, less pretending; re- 
staurants Rosenau and Erholung, with pretty views ; Kohlmann), 
prettily situated , and a good centre for excursions. (Christoph 
Brendel is a good guide ; 2 Jl per day.) Shady promenades on the 
opposite bank of the Wiesent. 

Below Muggendorf 0/2 hr.) is the Rosenmilller , s Hohle, the entrance to 
which is visible to the left from the road (guide, usually at the cave, 
and lights for 1-6 pers., 2 Jl). It contains fine stalactites and fossil remains 
of auimals. The Oswaldshohle ('/a hr.) may be visited also, if time permit. 
Near it are the Wundersltohle and Witzenhohle. The latter is said to contain 
a heathen altar (?). The Kupperiburg , near the Rosenmuller's Hohle, the 
Hohenstein, and the 'Hohe Wacht, above the Oswaldshohle, are good points 
of view. The village of Wichsenstein , the highest point (1944 ft.) of the 
Franconian Switzerland, commanding an extensive panorama, may be reach- 
ed from Muggendorf in 2V2hrs., via Windisch-Oailenreu'h. In the Trubach- 
T/ial, 3 M. to the S., is the picturesque chateau of EgloJ} stein (p. 81). 

At Muggendorf the road divides. The branch to the right leads 
to the S.E. through the Wiesent-Thal past (3 M.) the picturesque 
little chateau of Burggailenreuth (p. 94 ; to the right, on the hill), 
and the (3 M.) Stempfermuhle (p. 94), with the Drei Quellen, 
whence Gossweinstein, on the height to the right, may be reached 
in 3 / 4 hr., to ( 3 / 4 M.) Behringersmuhl (*Post, R. 1 Jl; *Hurtmann), 
a village much frequented as a summer-resort, charmingly situated 
at the junction of the Wiesent-Thal, the Ailsbach-Thal, and the 
Puttlach-Thal. The Pfaffenstein, '/ 2 hr. to theW., commands a fine 
view. — The road to the left crosses the hills towards the E. to 
(3 M.) Doos (p. 94). From this road another leads to the right, 
just beyond Muggendorf, to (2 M.) Engelhardsberg (Wunder; key 
of the Riesenburg, see p. 94), 10 min. from which rise the bold 
Adlerstein (1740 ft.), a splendid point of view, and the (10 min.) 

94 Route 19. GOSSWEINSTEIN. 

Quakenschloss , a jagged grauwacke rock (whence we return by 
Engelhardsberg). To the N. of the village rises the C/4 hr.) *Rie- 
senburg, a wild group of dolomite rocks rendered accessible by paths 
and bridges (adm. 50 pf., 2 pers. 35 pf. each, 3-4 pers. 25pf. each, 
5 or more pers. 20 pf. each). Charming view of the *Schotter-Thal or 
Schauder-Thal, one of the most beautiful valleys in this district. 
At the S. end, 3 / 4 hr. from the Riesenburg , lies Behringersmiihle 
(see above). We descend into this valley, turn to the left , and in 
74 hr. reach the Doos or Toos Inn (1118 ft. ; unpretending), where 
a key of the Riesenburg is also kept. 

Here begins the picturesque Rabenecker-Thal, watered by the Wiesent. 
We quit the road (which goes on to Waischenfeld, 2 M.) at a mill (l 3 /4 M.), 
and beyond the Wiesent ascend to the right, on the left side of the partly 
preserved Burg Jtabeneck, to a lofty plain; then take the path to the left 
by the wood, turning off to the right after a few yards, and passing 
(25 min.) Schonhof, reach C/2 hr.) Burg Rabenstein (1456 ft.) , a pinnacled 
castle restored in 1829, looking down upon the Ahorn-Thal, 160 feet below. 
In the latter, at the foot of the hill, lies the Neumiihle (Restaurant). 

The custodian shows the remains of antediluvian animals found in 
the caves, and conducts the visitor to the C/4 hr.) Sophienhohle or Raben- 
stein Cavern, the most interesting in the district owing to the abun- 
dance of the fossil bones and the perfection of the stalactites it contains. 
An hour is required to explore it (fee 3-4 Jl; full illumination 9 Jl; 
magnesium wire 40 pf. extra for each of the three chambers). The Ludwigs- 
hohle on the opposite side of the Ahorn-Thal hardly merits a visit. 

We may now cross the hill separating the Ahorn-Thal and Wiesent-Thal 
to (1 hr.) Waischenfeld (1137 f t. ; Obrl ; Hoffmann), pleasantly situated on 
the Wiesent, and environed with watch-towers and ruined castles. The 
Forstershbhle (20 min.; key at GorVs Inn; one pers. 1 jtl, each additional 
visitor 50 pf.), a dome-shaped vault, contains fine stalactites. — Post-omni- 
bus hence to Bayreuth (p. 86), daily in 4'/4 hrs. (2 Jl). 

Walkers may go from Rabenstein across the table-land direct in 2 hrs. 
to Pottenstein (see below): by the Neumiihle (see above) we cross the 
bridge and ascend to the left to Zaupenberg; then, leaving the villages of 
Ailsdorf and Kleinlesau on the right (see finger-posts), we reach, beyond 
Waidmannsgesess, the road leading from Oberailsdorf to Pottenstein. — 
To reach (2 hrs.) Behringersmiihl we return for a few hundred paces on 
the Schonhof road, then take the Oberailsdorf footpath to the left (whence 
a direct path leads to Tuchersfeld, see below), and follow the path through 
the pretty and sequestered valley of the Ailsbach. From Behringersmiihl 
to Tuchersfeld and Gossweinstein, see below. 

The road from Muggendorf to Pottenstein crosses the Wiesent 
at Behringersmiihl and again divides: the road to the right ascends 
rapidly to (Y2 hr.) Gossweinstein (1617 ft.; DistUr, with garden; 
Amschler 'zur Frank. Schweiz'; Gold. Adler; Lowe; Rose), where 
there is a large pilgrimage - church and a Chateau , completely 
restored in the Gothic style (visitors admitted). The Burg, the 
Kreuz behind the church , and the Wagnershbhe, all command a 
*View of the greater part of the Franconian Switzerland, including 
the valleys of the Ailsbach, Wiesent, and Piittlach, which converge 
at Behringersmiihl. Through the grounds in the government forest 
we descend in 1/2 hr. to the Stempfermiihle (p. 93), and thence 
reach Muggendorf in 2 hrs. 

Near Burggailenreuth (p. 93), IV2 hr. to the W. of Gossweinstein, is the 
Gailenreuther Hohle , or Zoolith Cavern (the forester at Baron Horneck 

NUREMBERG. 20. Route. 95 

von Weinheim's Schloss dispenses modest refreshments and shows the 
cavern ; 1-3 pers. 1 JC each, 4-6 pers. 50 pf. each, larger parties 25 pf. each ; 
light 10 pf. for each pers.), which has attained a European celebrity owing to 
the investigations of Esper, Rosenmiiller, Cuvier, and Goldfuss. It consists 
of three or four stories , one above the other , each containing chambers 
filled with numerous remains of bears, lions, wolves, hysenas, etc. These 
wild beasts probably lived in the caves to which they brought their prey, 
and where they afterwards themselves died. There are several other cav- 
erns here of the same character, such as the Kapps-Hbhle (difficult of 
access), containing beautiful stalactites. Scientific men are recommended 
to visit these interesting caves; the ordinary traveller will probably be 
satisfied with the Sophienhohle (p. 94). 

The road leads to the E. from Behringersmiihl through the ro- 
mantic Puttlach-Thal to (1^2 M.) Tuchersfeld (Settler, rustic), a 
most picturesque village , commanded hy lofty pinnacles of rock. 
Thence to (3 M.) Pottenstein (1425 ft.; Distler, Schbpff), a heautifully 
situated little town, with a chateau. Diligence twice daily in 2 hrs. 
to Pegnitz (p. 110). 

Pleasant excursion to the S. through the romantic Schutter-Thal or 
Kuhlenfelser-Thal , past the Schulter and Klumper mills (by the first of 
which are the stalactite caverns called the Grosse and Kleine Teufelslocfi), 
to (41/2 M.) Kiihlenfels. Back by Kirchenbirkig to (3>/2 M.) Pottenstein. — 
A road also leads from Pottenstein on the hill, past a chapel ("View), to 
(3 l /s M.) Gossweinstein (p. 94). 

20. Nuremberg. 

Hotels. *BayrischerHof (PI. a; C, 2), Karl-Str. 1, in a quiet situation, 
R., L., &A. from 3, B. 1, D. 3JI; "Strauss (PI. c ; C, 3), Karolinen-Str. 43, 
R., L., <fe A. 3-4, B. 1 Jl 20 pf., D. 3 Jl, with lift, electric light, and good 
cafe-restaurant; "Goldner Adlek (Sdt. Bchlenk; PI. b, D2), Adler-Str. 15, 
with lift, R. & A. 21/2-3, B. 1, D. 3 Jl ; Wurtembergee Hof (PI. d; D, 4), 
near the station, R. & A. from 2, B. 1, D. %Jl; these four of the first 
class. — "Wittelsbacher Hof (PI. f ; D, 3), Pfannenschmiedsgasse 22, with 
small garden and restaurant, R. & A. IV2-0 Jl, B. 80 pf. ; '-Dedtscher Kai- 
ser (PI. g; D, 3), "Monopol (PI. h; D, 3), both with cafes-restaurants ; 
"Kaiserhof (PI. k ; D, 3) ; Rother Hahn (P). i ; D, 3), all in the Konig- 
Str. ; Maximilian (PI. e; E, 3), Lorenzer-Str. 8. — *Nurnberger Hof 
(PI. 1 ; D, 3), unpretending, Herzog Max, both in the Konig-Str., R. lVz-2 Jl : 
B. 80 pf., D. Ufa Jl; Himmelsleitek, Karoliuen-Str. 53, R. l l /iJl; Wolfs- 
sohxucht, Johannesgasse 4; Einhorn, Breitegasse 76, near the Germanic 
Museum, R. 1J 20-? Jl, B. 60-80 pf. 

Restaurants. At the Hotels Strauss, WilteUbacJier Hof, and JDeutscher 
Kaiser, see above. Also "Stadtpark, Maxfeld (p. 109) ; Rosenau (PI. A, B, 2, 3 ; 
p. 109). — Wine. "Giessing, Rathhausgasse 8 (closed in the evening) ; •Herrtn- 
keller (Fottinger), Theatergasse 19 ; Nassawer Keller, in the Nassau House 
(p. 99); "Posthbrnlein (Doring), near the chapel of St. Maurice; cold meat, 
etc., at the last three. — Beer. ~ Strauss, Deutscher Kaiser, Monopol, Wolfs- 
schluctit, see above. Also Wartburg , Weinmarkt 7; Braiwurst-Glbcklein 
(p. 102), at the back of the Moritzcapelle, quaint; lt Bratwurst-Herzle,B.ev/.- 
gasse 9. — Mariewthorzwinger (formerly Schellmaimszwinger), at the Ma- 

Cafes. Monopol, see above; Krauss, Kaiser-Str. 46; Central, Karo- 
linen-Str. 23; Merkur, Klaragasse 7; Noris, Josephs-Platz 1; Gisela, Spitt- 
lerthorgraben 1. — Confectioners. Eisenbeiss, Konig-Str. 2a, at the Museum 
Bridge; Merklein, Rathhausgasse 10; Scheuermann, Schustergasse 3, behind 
the Sebaldus church. 

Baths. Ludwigsbad, Breitegasse 91, at the Weisse Thurm; Wildbad, 
on the Schiittinsel, E. side of the town. 

Cabs. For 1/4 hr. 1-2 pers. 60 pf., 3-4 per . 1 Jl; 1/2 hr., 1 or I1/2 Jl; 

98 Route 20. NUREMBERG. Collections. 

»/4 hr., l>/2 or 2 M; 1 hr., 2 jU or 2>/2 *0; small articles free, box 20 pf. — 
Porter into the town: under 33lbs. 35 pf. ; between 33 and liOlbs. 50 pf. 

Tramways. 1. From the Maxfeld (Stadtpark ; to the N.E. of PI. F, 1) 
to the Bahnhof-Platz (PI. D, E, 4), Plarrer (PI. B, 3) , and Furth (p. 69; 
from the Central Station to Furth, 3/* nr -> 20 pf.); white lamps, etc. — 
2. From the Maxfeld to the Rathhaus-Platz (PI. D, 1, 2) and the Schlacht- 
hof (to ihe S.W. of PI. A, 4); green lamps. — 3. From the Lauferthor 
(PI. F, 1) to St. Joist (p. 109) ; yellow lamps. — 4. From the Bahnhof-Platz 
to SteinbUhl (p. 1U9 ; to the S. of PI. C, 4). — 5. From the Bahnhof-Platz to 
the Hauptdepdt (New Barracks; to the N.W. of PI. A, 3); blue lamps. — 
6. From the Plarrer (PI. B,3) to the Lorenzer-Platz (PI. D, 3) and Dulzend- 
teich (p. 118; 20 min. ; 20 pf.). 

Post Offices, Bahnhof-Platz 1 (PI. E, 4; poste restante). Several branch- 
offices. — Telegraph Offices. Bahnhof-Platz 7, Hauptmarkt 12 (next the 
Frauenkirche ; PI. D, 2), and at most of the post-offlces. 

Theatres. Stadt- Theater (PI. D, 3), by the Lorenzkirche (closed in sum- 
mer). — Summer Theatre at theWittelsbacher Hof, Pfannenschmiedsgasse22. 

— Music Halls. Wolftsehluchl (see p. 95), Johannesgasse 4 (closed in summer) ; 
Reichshallen- Theater, Konig-Str. 50. — Bands in the Stadtpark (p. 109), on 
Tues., Thurs., and Sun. (afternoon ;>nd evening) ; at the Rosenau (p. 95), etc. 

Shops. Nuremberg Wares : Wahnschaffe, Josephs -Platz 18, carved 
wood, etc.; G, Quehl, Kaiser-Str. 5, at the corner of the Fleischbriicke, etc. — 
Imitations of Ancient Works of Art, in terracotta (stoves, vases, etc.), 
metal, papier-mache, and wood (furniture) : Fleischmann, Hirschelgasse 23 ; 
Eysser, in Peller's house, Aegidien-Platz 23 (p. 105). — Fancy Articles in 
wood, in the Renaissance style (caskets, frames, etc.) : Schmid-Daler <b Co., 
Panier-Platz 9. — Wood Mosaics: Adelhard, Flaschenhof-Str. 18. — Ivory 
Carving: Behl, Kaiser-Str. 37. — Fancy Goods: J. O. Kugler, L. Dbhler, 
Konig-Str. — Artistic Glass and Porcelain, etc. : Ostermayr, Lorenzer- 
Platz; 0. Neumarck, Adler-Str. 33. — Steel Goods: Leykauf, Konig-Str. 16. 

— Antiquities: Pickert, Diirer-Platz 10; Helbing, Karl-Str. 6; Wohlbold, 
Augustiner-Str. 11; F. Neumann, Trodelmarkt 31-33. — Booksellers and 
Art-dealebs: J. L. Bchrag, Soldan, both in the Konig-Strasse. — Lebkuchen 
(a kind of gingerbread). Melzger, Josephs-Platz 6, Eathhausgasse 6, and 
Hauptmarkt 23; Haberlein, Konig-Str. 6, Winkler-Str. 35, and Ludwig-Str. 
34; Richter <& Co., Josephs-Platz 2 and Bindergasse 11; Zinn in the Frauen- 
thor, etc. — All the shops are shut oa Sundays and holidays. 

English Church Service in summer at the Bayrischer Hof. 
United States Consul, William J. Black, Esq. 
Collections and Objects of Interest. 

Albrecht Durers Bouse (p. 102), daily 8-1 and 2-6 ; 50 pf. 

"Germaiic Museum (p. 106), daily 10-1 and 2-4 30 (in winter to 4), 1 Jl, 
4-5 pers. 3 Jt, free on Sun. (and Wed. in winter). 

Industrial Museum (p. 105): Industrial products, week-days 9-12 and 2-5, 
Sun. 10-12 (closed on Sat.); Collection of M idels and Library, week- 
days 812 and 2-6, Sun. 10-12 (closed on Sat.); adm. free. 

Municipal Library (p. 102), daily 9-12 and 3-6. 

Natural History Museum (p. 10 1), Sun. 10-12, free; other times 50 pf. 

Panorami, Rothenburgsr-Str. (PI. A, 3), all day, i.Jt; Sun. and holidays 50 pf. 

Permanent Exhibition of the Diirer Association (modern paintings), in the 
building of the Telegraph Office next the Frauenkirche (PI. 7; D, 2), 
week-days 11-3, Sun. and holidays 10-2 (closed on Sat.); adm. 80 pf. 

Permanent Industrial Echibilion (p. 105), week-days 9-12 and 2-5 (in winter 
10-12 and 2-4), Sun. 10-12; free. 

Rathhaus (p. 101), Sun. 10.30-12.30, free; at other times, fee. 

School of Industrial Art (p. 103), daily; fee. 

Principal Attractions: St. Lawrence (p. 99), Frauenkirche, especially 

the Portal (p. 99), Schbne Brunnen (p. 100), St. Sebaldus (p. 101), Burg 

(p. 103), Germanic Museum (p. 103). 

Nuremberg, Germ. Niirnberg (1148 ft.], pop. 142,500, a free 
city of the Empire down to 1806 , has since belonged to Bavaria. 

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Wagner &.Debes, Xeipzig. 

History of AH. NUREMBERG. 20. Route. 97 

There is probably no town in Germany still so mediaeval in appear- 
ance , or so suggestive of the wealth , importance , and artistic 
taste of a 'City of the Empire'. 

Nuremberg is first mentioned in history in 1050. The establishment of 
a market, the miracles wrought by the relics of St. Sebaldus, and the fre- 
quent visits of the emperors rapidly attracted new inhabitants, who at first 
settled between the castle and the river. The city thus sprang up under 
the Hohenstaufen dynasty, and the castle was frequently occupied by Con- 
rad III. and Frederick Barbarossa, two illustrious members of that family. 
The progress of the city was greatly promoted by the high privileges ac- 
corded to it by these and other emperors. The government was originally 
vested in the patrician families. These were expelled by the civic guilds 
in 1349, but only to return and obtain a firmer grasp of power the same 
year. The office of Burggrave, originally a deputy governing in the 
name of the emperor, was first held by Frederick I. (d. 1218) of the Zollern 
family under the Emp. Henry VI. These governors soon acquired in- 
dependent power, and in 1363 became 'Fiirsten', or princes ; but after, 
Frederick VI. was invested by the Emp. Sigismund with the Mark of Bran- 
denburg in 1411, they formally ceded to the town (1427) their castle, which 
was situated in front of the citadel. The constant dissensions and bitter 
feuds between the citizens and the margraves Albrecht Achilles (1449) and 
Frederick (1502) did not interfere with the continuous growth of the town, 
which at the beginning of the sixteenth century had become , like Augs- 
burg, one of the chief dep6ts of the trade between Germany, Venice, and 
the East. At this period, too, it attained its zenith of distinction in the 
sphere of art as well as of politics. 

To this period belongs most of the interesting old Domestic Archi- 
tecture which renders Nuremberg so quaint and picturesque. The general 
style of the lofty houses, with their high-peaked gables, is Gothic, but the 
ornamentation of the facades is usually in the Renaissance style. Specia 
care has also been bestowed upon the courts in the interior. 

The zeal with which the art of Scolptuke was cultivated is exem- 
plified by the numerous interesting signs and figures of saints, of the 
14-16th cent., with which the houses are embellished. Some of the finest 
are in the Konig-Str. ; on the Glockengiesserhaus; at the corner of the 
Albrecht-Durer-Platz ; opposite the Moritzkapelle; in the Obstmarkt, be- 
hind the Frauenkirche ; at the corner of the Weinmarkt (Eothes Ross); 
in theBurgstrasse; at the corner of the Bindergasse; and in the Hirschel- 
gasse. The last-named (original now in Berlin), a statue of the Virgin, 
has often been ascribed to an Italian artist on account of its beauty and 
delicacy of form. Another similar figure of Mary at the foot of the Cross, 
now in the Germanic Museum (p. 95), ranks among the finest works of its 
time, but is also by an unknown master. 

Foremost among the Nuremberg workers in stone stands Adam Krafft, 
who flourished here after 1492, and died at Schwabach in 1507. His prin- 
cipal works are the Stations on the way to St. John's Cemetery, the taste- 
ful tabernacle in St. Lawrence's, and the reliefs at the Frauenkirche, St. 
Sebalduskirche, and Aegidienkirche. Of wood-carvers the chief is Veii Stoss 
(d. 1532), who at first exercised his craft at Cracow and is therefore some- 
times, though erroneously, described as a Pole. His chef-d'ceuvre at Nurem- 
berg is in the church of St. Lawrence (p. 99). Both of these masters are 
rooted in the traditions of mediaeval art, and of conservative tendencies. The 
brass-founder Peter Vischer (d. 1529), on the other hand, hreathes the spirit 
of the Renaissance, and is endowed with versatile imagination and a deli- 
cate sense of form. His sons and Pancraz Labenwolf (&. 1563) also produced 
much meritorious work. Among the specialities of Nuremberg art in 
the 16th cent, were the casting of medals and goldsmiths' work^ the most 
celebrated die-cutters heing Ludwig Krug (at the beginning of the 16th cent.), 
Peter FIStner (d. 1546), aud Bans Lobsinger; and the most renowned gold- 
smiths Wenzel Jamnitzer (1508-85), and his son-in-law Valentin Maler. 

Painting was sedulously cultivated as early as the 14th cent., as is 
proved hy the altar-pieces in the Frauenkirche and Jakobskirche. The 
Baedeket-' ° " 7 

98 Route 20. NUREMBERG. Fortifications. 

Imhoff altar-piece of the Coronation of the Virgin in St. Lawrence's dates 
from the first half of the 15th cent., and resembles the crude productions 
of the Cologne school. In the latter half of the same century Bans Pleyden- 
wurff and Michael Wohlgemut (1434-1519) was the most prominent of Nurem- 
berg painters. In order to understand the wide-spread fame of the Nurem- 
berg school we must keep in mind that printing had recently been invented, 
engendering a taste for illustrated books, engravings, and wood-cuts ; for 
the importance of Nuremberg art lies less in the products of the paint- 
brush than in the humorous and thoughtful creations embodied by means 
of the burin and the chisel. The characteristic tendency to depth of mean- 
ing shows itself in the pictures of Albrecht Durer (1473-1528), a pupil of 
Wohlgemut, and the greatest painter whom Nuremberg has produced. 
Nuremberg itself, however, now possesses few products of his fertile 
genius; the only certified examples of his brush in his native town are 
the 'Hercules' (an early work), portraits of Emp. Charlemagne and Emp. 
Sigismund, and a Pieta, all in the Germanic Museum. His best works are 
to be seen at Vienna, Munich, and Berlin. None of Dtirer's pupils developed 
their activity to any great extent in Nuremberg itself, where, indeed, 
painting rapidly declined. On the other hand the artistic handicrafts, 
such as the engraving of medals and the manufacture of artistic cabinets, 
flourished here till far on in the 18th century, and are again practised 
with growing success at the present day. 

The principles of the Reformation found favour at Nuremberg as 
early as 1525, and in the following year Melanchthon founded the Gym- 
nasium. The discovery of the sea-route to India somewhat impaired the 
prosperity of the town; it suffered still more severely during the Thirty 
Years' War, and during the 18th cent, its decline was hastened by the 
feeble rule of the patrician families. Since 1806, however, when Nurem- 
berg became a Bavarian city, it has prospered greatly, and it is now the 
most important commercial and manufacturing town in Southern Germany. 
Hops form one of the most important staple commodities. 

The Fortifications, dating from the middle ages, form the most 
interesting feature of the town, but have unfortunately been re- 
moved at places. They consist of a rampart encircling the inner city, 
provided at intervals with round and square towers , and of a dry 
moat 35 yds. wide and 33 ft. deep. A walk round the walls will 
reveal the variety and beauty of their architectural effects. The most 
picturesque parts are between the Spittlerthor and Maxthor (early 
morning or late afternoon best light). The four round towers at the 
Neue, Spittler, Frauen, andLaufer gates received their present form 
from Georg Unger in 1555-68. 

The Pegnitz divides the old town into two nearly equal parts, the 
Lawrence and the Sebald sides, the latter being the older and more 
interesting. It is crossed by several Bridges. The single-arched 
Fleischbriicke (PI. D, 2), built in 1596-98, is an imitation of the 
Ponte Rialto at Venice. Two obelisks on the Karlsbrucke (PL C, 2), 
one with a dove and olive-branch, the other with the imperial eagle, 
are memorials of a visit of Emp. Charles VI., 'the peace-bringer', 
in 1728. The Suspension Bridge (PI. C, 2) was one of the first of its 
kind in Germany (1824). Picturesque views are obtained from it as 
well as from theflenfcer (i.e. hangman's) Foot-bridge (PI. 0, 2), near 
which are a few relics of the earlier fortifications of the 13th century. 

From the Railway Station (PI. D, E, 4) we enter the town by 
the Frauenthor in a straight direction, and in 5 min. reach the church 
of St. Lawrence ; then cross the Museums-Briicke to the Frauen- 

St. Lawrence. NUREMBERG. 20. Route. 99 

kirche, and proceed to the left, past the Schone Brunnen, to the 
Rathhaus, St. Sebald's, Diirer's statue, Diirer's house, and the Burg. 
This order is observed in the following description. 

The Gothic church of *St. Lawrence (PI. D, 3 ; Prot.), the finest 
in Nuremberg, was erected at the end of the 13th and the beginning 
of the 14th cent, on the site of a small Romanesque church. In 
1403-45 the nave was widened, and in 1439-77 the choir was rebuilt 
on a larger scale by Konrad Roritzer of Ratisbon. The whole edifice 
was carefully restored in 1824 under the superintendence of Heide- 
loff. Rich W. *Portal with numerous sculptures (1332); above it 
a superb rose window, 30 ft. in diameter. To the left of the portal 
is a modern Gothic fountain by Wanderer. The JV. Tower, with its 
roof of gilded copper, was burned down in 1865, but has since been 
re-erected in its original form. The sacristan, who lives at No. 7 
Lorenz-Platz, is generally in the church in summer. (Knock loudly 
at the N. door ; fee 40 pf . ; the printed description obtained in the 
church is inaccurate.) 

Interior. Seven of the beautiful stained-glass "Windows in the choir 
date from the 15th and 16th cent. ; the finest are the 6th to the right 
('Volkamer window'), representing the genealogy of Christ with the por- 
trait of the donor, and the 9th or 'Tucher window'. The four Evangelists 
and Apostles (after Diirer; comp. p. 162) in the 7th window are modern, 
as also the 8th ('Kaiserfenster'), put up in 18S1 in memory of the 84th 
birthday of Emp. William I. — The finest work of art in the church is the 
•CiBORinii, or receptacle for the host, in the choir, beautifully and elab- 
orately executed in stone, in the form of a tower, 65 ft. in height, and 
enriched with many sculptures of scenes from the life of Christ. The apex 
of the tower is bent like a bishop's crosier. It rests upon the three kneel- 
ing "Figures of the sculptor Adam Krafft and his two assistants, who were 
engaged in the work from 1493 to 1500. In front of the altar, suspended 
from the roof, is a curious *Work in carved wood with numerous figures, by 
Veil Stoss, representing the Salutation. The Gothic brass candelabrum in 
the choir is also noteworthy. Handsome modern pulpit and high-altar by 
Heideloff and Rotermundt (1839). The Krell Altar (end of the 15th century), 
behind the high-altar, bears the earliest known representation of the town. 
The various carved wooden altars and altar-pieces of the 15th cent, in 
the aisles repay inspection; especially the Imhoflf Altar (ca. 1420) on the 
gallery over the N. entrance. 

The Tugendbrunnen, a fountain on the N.W. side of the church, 
with numerous figures in bronze, was executed in 1589 by Benedikt 
Wurzelbauer (covered in winter). To the left of it, at the corner 
of the Karolinen-Str., is the so-called Nassauer Haus, erected in 
the Gothic style in the 14th cent, (wine -room, see p. 95). — In 
the adjoining Adler-Strasse rises the Warriors' Monument, by "Wan- 
derer and Rossner, a granite column surmounted by a figure of 
Victory (1876). — On the Pegnitz is the Museum (PI. 4; a club; 
adm. only on the introduction of a member). 

The Gothic Traueakirche or Marienkirche (PI. D, 2; Rom. 
Cath. since 1816), in the market-place, was erected in 1355-61 on 
the site of a synagogue destroyed in 1349 during the persecutions 
of the Jews. The church was restored in 1878-81 by Essenwein. 
Fine fajade. Over the portal of theW.*Portico, with its rich sculptur- 


100 Route 20. NUREMBERG. Rathhaus. 

ing, is a curious old clock, known as the 'Mannleinlaufen', constructed 
in 1506-9 by G. Heuss and Seb. Lindenast, with moving figures of 
the seven German electors (best seen at noon). The N. aisle (open 
7-10 a.m.; sacristan, Vordere Spitalhof 9) contains an *Epita- 
phium of the Pergenstorfer family of 1498, by A. Krafft, with a 
relief of the Madonna as Mother of Mercy. Adjacent is theTucher- 
sche Altar, with a winged picture on a gold ground, one of the finest 
works of the Nuremberg school in the first half of the 15th century. 
Old stained glass in the choir, with the armorial bearings of many 
Nuremberg families. 

In the Gansemarkt, behind the Frauenkirche, is a quaint foun- 
tain-figure in bronze, by Pancraz Labenwolf , called the *6anse- 
mannchen ('little goose-man'; PI. 2), a peasant carrying a goose 
under each arm. 

The *Schone Brunnen (PI. D,2), opposite the Frauenkirche, 
erected in 1385-96, by Meister Heinrich, the 'Batter', and restored 
in 1821-24, is a Gothic pyramid 63 ft. in height, adorned with nu- 
merous figures (originally painted). The *Statues below represent 
seven electors and the nine worthies (viz. Charlemagne, Godfrey 
de Bouillon, Clovis, the Christian worthies ; Judas Maccabaeus, Joshua, 
David, the Jewish worthies ; Caesar, Alexander, Hector, the pagan 
worthies); those above, Moses and the seven prophets. In the iron 
railing of the fountain, on the N.W. side, is a small movable iron 
ring, ingeniously wrought, which the travelling apprentices regard 
as the cognisance of the city. — No. 19, Hauptmarkt (PI. D, 2 ; 
tablet) , opposite the Schone Brunnen, was the residence of the 
celebrated humanist Pirkheimer (born at Eichstatt in 1470 ; died 
at Nuremberg in 1530). No. 15, adjacent, adorned with frescoes 
designed by Wanderer (1886), is the house in which Martin Behaim, 
the cosmographer (1459-1507), was born. Until the introduction of 
the Reformation the crown-jewels were exhibited annually in front 
of this house (comp. p. 107). 

The Rathhaus (PI. D, 1, 2; adm., see p. 96; entrance opposite 
the guard - house ; bell for the custodian on the first floor to the 
right), 290 ft. in length, was erected by Jakob Wolf in 1616-22 in 
the Italian Renaissance style, incorporating an earlier building of 
the 14 -15th centuries. The late -Gothic part of the building at 
the back, with a fine facade towards the Theresien-Str. and an 
interesting court, was added by Essenwein in 1885-89. 

The great hall, with its timber roof, belongs to the older part of the 
building, erected in 1340, and is adorned with badly -preserved frescoes 
designed by Diirer, representing the triumphal procession of the Emp. Max- 
imilian, Town Musicians, and Calumny (after Apelles); it also contains 
stained glass by Veil Hirschvogel, etc. On the central buttress is a mural 
painting, executed in 1613 (restored in 1824), representing an execution by 
the guillotine, proving that this instrument is not a modern invention. 
— On the wall of the staircase to the second floor is a large painting by 
Paul Bitter (1883) : The representatives of Nuremberg entering the town 
in triumphal procession with the imperial regalia in 1424. — The ceiling of 
the long corridor in the second floor is adorned with a relief in 3tucco 

St. Sebaldus. NUREMBERG. 20. Route. 101 

representing a tournament held at Nuremberg in 1446, executed by Bans 
and Heinrich Kuhn in 1621 (restored in 1891). On the 3rd floor ia the 
Municipal Picture Gallery (chiefly modern paintings). Boom I. ,/ag>er,Emp. 
Maximilian I. visiting A. Durer in 1518; Schuch, Funeral of Gustavus Adol- 
phus ; Am. Feuerbach, Battle of Amazons ; Bauer, Body of Emp. Otho III. 
being brought across the Alps. — B. II. Joachim von Sandrart, Banquet in 
the Bathhaus in 1649; Maar, The Schone Brunnen, 1424; Mayer, Interior 
of St. Sebald's. — B. III. Kreling, Magdeburgers besieged by Tilly receiv- 
ing the Sacrament; also portraits of distinguished Nurembergers. 

The tasteful Fountain in the old court is by Pancraz Labenwolf , 
1557. The gallery in the S.E. corner of the court, resting upon 
curious carved brackets, and with Gothic balustrades, is by Hans 
Behaim (1425). Under the Rathhaus are subterranean passages, 
partly fallen in, leading from the old dungeons to the deep well at 
the Burg (p. 103) and in other directions ; these may be inspected 
by the curious. 

The church of*St. Sebaldus (PI. D,2;Prot.), originally a Roman- 
esque structure of the 11th cent., restored in the Transition style at 
the beginning of the 13th cent., was converted into a Gothic church 
in 1361-77. The W. choir with the Loffelholz Chapel, the lower 
part of the towers (completed in the 15th cent.), and the nave, date 
from the 13th cent, while the present E. choir in the pure Gothic 
style was added during the later alterations. The church is now 
undergoing restoration under the direction of Hauberrisser. The 
sacristan (Burg-Str. 6) is generally in the church ; visitors knock 
at theN. side-door; donations go to the building fund. The printed 
description obtained at the church is worthless. 

Exterior. The visitor should inspect the N. Portal, or 'Bride's Boor"; 
the reliefs on the buttresses of the E. choir, representing the Passion ; the 
'Schreyer Monument' (opposite the Bathhaus), with numerous lifesize figures 
in stone, representing the Bearing of the Cross, the Entombment, and the 
Eesurrection, executed in 1492 by Adam Krafft, and the richest and most 
important of his works; the Last Judgment over the S. entrance. 

Interior. In the E. ambulatory, to the right, three reliefs by Veil 
Stoss (1449): Last Supper, Christ on the Mt. of Olives, and the Kiss 
of Judas. Above these, the 'Markgrafenfenster', a fine stained-glass window 
executed by Veit Hirschvogel in 1516, representing the Margrave Frederick 
of Ansbach and Bayreuth, with his wife and eight children ; to the left, 
a triple fresco (Christ washing the Disciples' feet, Last Supper, Christ on 
the Mt. of Olives), and a winged picture on the Tucher'sche altar, painted 
in 1513 by Hans von Kulmbach, from drawings by Biirer, probably the 
master's finest work. -Crucifix and wooden figures of the Virgin and 
St. John, over the high -altar, the latest work of Veit Stoss. High -altar 
in wood (1821) by Sotermundt and Heideloff. — ""St. Sebald's Monument 
(eight tons in weight, for which the trustees of the church paid 3145 flor- 
ins), the masterpiece of Peter Vischer, the celebrated artist in bronze, was 
completed by him with the aid of his five sons in 1519, after thirteen years' 
labour. The twelve Apostles in niches around the sarcophagus containing 
the relics of the saint are admirable; above are twelve smaller figures 
of church-fathers and prophets; below, about seventy allegorical figures of 
genii, mermaids, animals, etc. The miracles performed by the saint are 
pourtrayed in four beautiful reliefs below the sarcophagus. In the niche 
at the W. end is St. Sebaldus, and in the E. niche is the artist himself 
with apron and chisel, a beautiful statuette. Near the fine modern wooden 
pulpit (by Sotermundt; 1859) is a copy of the Pieta by Durer now in the 
Germanic Museum. The Loffelholz Chapel, W. choir, contains a Gothic font 
in bronze, of the beginning, and an altar of the middle, of the 15th century. 

102 Route 20. NUREMBERG. Town Library. 

The Parsonage of St. Sebald, on the N. side, with its fine Gothic 
*Oriel - window ('Chorlein'), dating from 1318, was once occupied 
by Melchior Pflnzing (d. 1535), provost of St. Sebald, and author of 
the 'Teuerdank', an allegorical narrative of the wooing of Mary of 
Burgundy by Emp. Maximilian I. 

Opposite St. Sebald's, on the N., is the Gothic Chapel of St. Moritz 
(PI. D, 1), transferred hither from the Hauptmarkt in 1313, and 
restored in 1829. Adjoining is the Bratwurst - Glbcklein (p. 95), 
mentioned as early as 1519. At No. 6 Halbwachsengasse, behind, 
is the Rotermundt Collection of antiquities, casts of ancientNurem- 
berg sculptures, etc. 

To the S.W. of St. Sebald's, Winkler-Str. 29, is Palm's House 
(PI. 5; C, D, 2), with the inscription: 'Here dwelt John Palm, 
bookseller, who fell a victim to the tyranny of Napoleon in 1806'. 
The patriotic Palm had published a pamphlet on the 'Degradation 
of Germany', written in a tone derogatory to France, for which the 
Emperor caused him to be condemned by a court-martial and shot 
(p. 234). — At the corner of the adjacent Augustiner-Strasse, on 
the site of an Augustinian monastery, stand the Courts of Law 
(PI. 3; C, D, 2), erected by Solger in 1877. In the hall are marble 
busts of the jurists Anselm von Feuerbach and Rud. von Holz- 
schuher ; the court of the Chamber of Commerce contains a large 
painting by A. Feuerbach: Emp. Lewis the Bavarian conferring 
privileges on the merchants of Nuremberg. 

Opposite Palm's house, over the gateway of the Stadtwage, is a 
good relief by Krafft (1497). Near this (Winkler-Strasse 20) is the 
house in which DUrer was born, with inscription. 

*Durer's Statue (PI. D, 1), erected in 1840 on the Albrecht- 
Diirer-Platz, was designed by the eminent Rauch, after Diirer's 
portrait of himself at Vienna. Some hundred paces to the N.W., 
No. 39 Albrecht-Diirer-Strasse, near the Thiergartner-Thor, is Dii- 
rer's House (PI. 1 ; C, 1), the property of the city, and marked by a 
medallion. It contains a collection of antique furniture and uten- 
sils, and also copies of Diirer's paintings. Adm., see p. 96. 

We return to theRathhaus (p. 100). Opposite, on the right side 
of the Burgstrasse, is the old Dominican monastery, containing the 
Municipal Archives on the groundfloor. The upper floor contains 
the Town Library (PI. D, 1 ; adm., see p. 96), of 70,000 vols, and 
2000 MSS., including a missal with fine miniatures by the brothers 
Glockendon, miniature-painters of Nuremberg ; also early specimens 
of typography, e.g. the Rationale of Durandus (1459), one of the 
first books printed by Gutenberg ; autographs of Luther, Melanch- 
thon, Ulrich von Hutten, Hans Sachs, etc. ; and various curiosities. 

The Burg-Strasse ascends the Burg Hill (1164 ft. ; PI. C, D, 1) 
to the N., a sandstone ro k on the N.W. side of the town. At the 
top the route forks; the left branch leads by the 'Himmelsweg' direct 
to the Kaiserburg (p. 103); that to the right leads past a Mt. of 

Kaiserburg. NUREMBERG. 20. Route. 103 

Olives (1499) to the JV. Freiung and the Pentagonal Tower ('Alt- 
Niirnberg'), the oldest building in the town. 

This tower and the Walpurgis or St. Ottmar't Chapel (restored in 
1892), situated opposite, are relics of the old Burg of the Hohenzollern 
burggraves, destroyed in the war of 1420. The tower (adm. 20 pf.) contains 
a torture-chamber with the 'Iron Virgin', a hollow figure with iron spikes 
in the interior, into which the victim was thrust, and a collection of 
antiquities. — Next this tower, on the right, is the old Granary (now a 
barrack), built by Hans Behaim the Elder in 1494-95 and named K Kaiser- 
stallung' ('imperial stables'). To the E. of this lies the Luginsland, with 
turrets at its four corners said to have been built by the townsfolk in 1367 
in order to watch the Hohenzollern-Burg. — We return to the N. Freiung 
or Landfreiung, commanding a view of the wide moat and the N. suburbs. 
On the parapet are shown two hoof-shaped impressions, which are said to 
have been left by the horse of a captive robber-knight (Eppelein von 
Gailingen) in the 16th cent. , who escaped by leaping over the moat. 
This incident gave rise to a sarcastic proverb: 'The Nurembergers hang no 
man, unless they have caught him'. — We then pass through a gate to 
the S.W. to the 3. Stadt freiung, with a view of the city and of the 'Nu- 
remberg Switzerland'. Another gateway brings us to the Vestnerthor- Thurm 
(view from the top ; 10 pf.), and farther on is the Deep Well, the depth of 
which is shown by lowering candles into it, or by reflecting the daylight 
upon the surface of the water by means of a mirror (10 pf.). — Straight 
on is the — 

*Kaiserburg, founded in the 1 1 th cent, and enlarged by Frederick 
Barbarossa in the 12th. It was restored in the Gothic style and 
fitted up as a royal residence in 1854 - 56 , and since 1866 has 
belonged in common to the Bavarian and Prussian royal families 
(ring at the gate ; fee V2-I Jt"). 

The venerable Lime Tree in the court, said to have been planted by the 
Empress Kunigunde, wife of Emp. Henry II. (1002-24), died in 1893. A 
niche in the wall contains a statue of the Saxon ambassador Olansdorf, 
who died at Nuremberg during the Thirty Years' War. The Heidenthurrn, 
by the castle-gate, contains two Romanesque chapels of the 12th cent., one 
above the other : the lower, St. Margaret's Chapel, is built over the burial- 
vault of the Burggraves; the upper, the Kaiser - Capelle , with groined 
vaulting resting on slender marble columns with Romanesque capitals, 
and pictures by Wohlgemut, Krafft, and Holbein the Elder, was used for 
divine service. In the Audience Chamber, next the Kaiser- Capelle, are 
several pictures, chiefly copies of later Italian works. Handsome old stoves 
and panelled ceilings in this and other rooms. Most of the rooms and 
particularly the new balcony on the W. side of the castle afford splendid 
views of the city and environs. — The castle-enclosure (now a royal 
garden), on the S.W. side of the castle hill, is open to the public. 

On the S.W. side of the castle is the Thiergartner Thor (PI. C, 1), 
with its square tower, beyond which, in the Burgschmiet-Str., is the 
Bronze Foundry of Prof. Lenz, with a collection of models (formerly 
Burgschmiet ; PI. C, 1). The road leads on past the Stations, consist- 
ing of seven sandstone pillars with reliefs of the Passion, and the 
Kalvarienberg, all by Krafft (now mostly replaced by copies ; originals 
in the Germanic Museum). 

The HoUschuher Chapel in St. John's Cemetery (PI. A, 1) contains a 
good Entombment with fifteen lifesize figures by A. Krafft (1507) and an 
altar by Veil Slos*. The Gothic Church of St. John (14th cent.) has an 
altar-piece by Altdorfer. — The graves in the old part of the cemetery are 
nearly all adorned with good brass-plates. In the 8th row to the S. of 
the conspicuous Miintzer tomb (1560; 23 ft. in height) is the grave of Al- 

104 Route 20. NUREMBERG. St. Jakobskirche. 

brecht Dilrer (d. 1528 ; No. 649), close to which is that of Wenzel Jamnitzer 
(d. 1585; No. 665), with a fine epitaph by Jost Amman. Farther to the 
W. lie Veit Stoss (d. 1533; No. 268) and the poet Griibel (p. 105; No. 200). 
A few rows farther on, near St. John's church, is the grave of Pavm- 
gartner (d. 1679) and a few rows still farther, that of Scmdrart the painter 
(d. 1688). Pirkheimer's tomb (No. 1414) is nearer the entrance, in the 6th 
row to the right of the Holzschuher chapel. The wife of the chief sexton 
(house to the right of St. John's) affords all information (50 pf.). 

The new Central Cemetery, also in the Johannis Suburb, to the N.W., 
has a fine portal by Hase (1879). 

On the way back to the town a visit may be paid to the Gothic 
Heiligkreuz Capelle (PI. B, 1 ; entrance Johannis-Str. 24 ; fee 30 pf.), 
built in 1390, which contains a fine altar in carved wood, with an 
architectural top and double wings painted by Wohlgemut. 

We now proceed past the Neuthor and Hallerthor to the Spittler- 
thor (PI. B, 3 ; comp. p. 98). In this neighbourhood is the Ludwig 
Station (PI. A, B, 3; for Fiirth, see p. 70), in front of which, on the 
Plarrer, a Monumental Fountain was erected in 1890 in memory of 
the opening of this, the first railway in Germany (p. 70). — In the 
Rothenburger-Str. , which diverges to the S.W. from the Plarrer, are 
the Panorama (p. 96), and the Cemetery of St. Rochus (PI. A, 3), 
with the grave of the celebrated Peter Vischer (d. 1529; No. 90, 
ninth stone on the right). The Imhof Chapel (1519) contains an in- 
teresting altar and stained-glass windows by Hirschvogel. At the 
end of the street is the Harbour of the Ludwigs-Canal (p. 76), 
370 yds. long. 

The broad Ludwigs-Str. leads from the Spittler Thor to the St. 
Jakobskirche (PI, B, C, 3), founded in 1209, TestoTed in the 14- 
15th cent., rebuilt in 1692, and restored by Heideloff in 1824. 

It contains a Gothic high-altar with winged paintings (14th cent.) and 
four figures of Apostles (six others of the series being now in the 
Germanic Museum). On the N. and E. sides of the choir and in the 
windows are the armorial bearings of Teutonic Knights. Many fine sculp- 
tures in wood and stone. At the B. end of the N. aisle is a triptych by 
Veit Stoss, restored by Burgschmiet. Stained-glass windows with the arms 
of Nuremberg families. Escutcheons of Teutonic Knights. The Dillherr 
Chapel contains a Lamentation for Christ by Veit Slots. 

Opposite are the old Deutsche Haus , or Teutonic Lodge , now 
an infantry-barrack, and the Roman Catholic Church of St. Elizabeth, 
built in 1785 as the Deutschhaus-Kirche, in the Italian baroque 
style, with a massive dome. — The Jakob-Str. leads to the E. from 
the Jakobs-Platz to the Germanic Museum (p. 106). To the N.E. 
we may pass through the Weisse Thurm ('white tower'), a relic of 
the 13th cent, fortifications, and thence cross the Hafner-Platz and 
follow the Karolinen-Str. to the church of St. Lawrence (p. 99). 

From St. Lawrence's the Lorenz-Strasse leads to the E. to the 
Marienthor and theMarien suburb. To the right is the Stadt- Theater 
(PI. D, 3). In the Peter- Vischer-Gasse, nearly opposite, are Peter 
Vischer' s House (PI. 10; No. 23) and the Gothic Church of St. Ca- 
tharine (PI. E, 2), long used by the Meistersingers as their school. 

St. Mgidius. NUREMBERG. 20. Route. 1 05 

In the Nonnengarten, the garden of the former Convent of St. Ca- 
tharine, rises the — 

Bavarian Industrial Museum (PI. E, 2, 3), a handsome build- 
ing erected in 1893-95 for the collections hitherto exhibited at 
Konig-Str. 3 (adm., see p. 96). The museum, founded in 1872, 
is to be transferred to its new quarters in 1896. — Adjoining, at 
No. 8 Marienthorgraben, is the Permanent Industrial and Commercial 
Exhibition (PI. E, 2; adm., see p. 96). 

To the N.W., beyond the island of Schutt, is the Spital-Platz 
(PI. D, 2), in the centre of which is a bronze Statue of Hans Sachs, 
by Krauser (1874). Sachs's House, in which the poet was born in 
1494, is in the adjacent Hans-Sachs-Gasse (PI. 9 ; No. 17 ; tablet). 
— On the E. side of the square is the new Synagogue (PI. D, 2), 
built in 1869-74 in the Moorish style, by Wolf. The Heiligegeist- 
Spital (PI. D, 2), on the S. side, was founded by Conrad Gross in 
1331 ; in the court are the old Heinzel Fountain and a small chapel 
built in 1459 on the model of the Holy Sepulchre. The Gothic 
Spital-Kirche or Heiligegeist-Kirche, built in 1331-41 and modernized 
in the 17th cent., was from 1424 to 1796 the depository of the im- 
perial regalia (now in Vienna; casket in the Germanic Museum, 
p. 107). 

Not far off, at the corner of the Tucher-Str. and the Neue Gasse 
(PI. E,.2), is a tasteful fountain with a bronze figure (by "Wanderer) 
of Konrad Griibel (1736-1809), a popular poet of Nuremberg ; the 
charming bronze reliefs on the pedestal refer to Griibel's poems. — 
The Rothschmiedsgasse and Judengasse lead hence to the N.W. to 
the Theresien-Platz (PI. D, 1, 2), with a monument to the navigator 
Martin Behaim(j>. 100), by Rossner (1890). — The Bindergasse (fine 
Madonna by Adam Krafft on No. 1 , to the right) and the Theresien- 
Strasse run to the W. to the Rathhaus (p. 100). In the Theresien- 
Strasse are Paumgartner's House (No. 23), with a relief of St. George 
and the dragon above the door, by Krafft; then, at the corner of the 
Tetzelgasse, the Post and Telegraph Office (1894) of the Sebaldus 
quarter; and Krafft's House (No. 7; on the right), with a fine court. 

To the N.E., above the Theresien-Platz, is the JEgiditn-Platz 
(PI. D, E, 1), on the N. side of which rises Peller's, now Eysser's, 
House (No. 23 ; PI. 6), with its rich Renaissance facade (1605) and 
fine court in the interior. It contains a magnificent old timber ceil- 
ing, and has been handsomely and tastefully fitted up and furn- 
ished by the owner, a furniture-manufacturer of Bayreuth (fee). To 
the right, in front of the Gymnasium, is a statue of Melanchthon 
by Burgschmiet. No. 13 Agidien-Platz (tablet) was the house of the 
famous printer Anton Koberger (1470-1513). 

St. JEgidius (PI. E, 1 ; key at the gymnasium), originally a Ro- 
manesque basilica, erected in 1140, and burned down in 1696, was 
rebuilt in 1711-18 in the degraded style of that period. It contains 
a Pieta by VanDyck, and at the back of the altar two reliefs in bronze 

106 Route 20. NUREMBERG. Germanic Museum. 

by the sons of P. Vischer. Adjacent is the Romanesque Eucharius 
Chapel (end of the 12th cent.), with two altars by Veit Stoss. In the 
Gothic Tetzel-Kapelle (1345) a Coronation of the Virgin in stone, 
by A. Krafft. 

To the E., in the old Landauer Kloster, is the Royal School of 
Industrial Art (PI. E, 1; adm., see p. 96), which, however, is to 
be transferred in 1896 to a new building in the Reindel-Strasse 
(PI. F, 3). The fine vaulting of the Chapel is borne by two spiral 
columns (1507). For this chapel, in 1511, Durer painted his cele- 
brated All Saints altar-piece, now at Vienna. 

We next cross the Weber-Platz with the Sieben Zeilen, i.e. seven 
rows of weavers' houses, to the Hirschelgasse (PI. E, 1), where the 
Tucher'sche Landhaus (No. 11 ; 1533-44) and Rupprecht's House 
(1534) are worth seeing. The latter contains a beautiful early-ltal. 
Renaissance hall (called 'Hirschvogelsaal' after its builder), of 1534, 
recently well restored. The figure of the Virgin on the outside is a 
cast of the original, now in Berlin (comp. p. 97). 

Retracing our steps, we cross the Weber-Platz to the Max-Thor, 
whence the Lange Gasse to the right leads to the Laufer Thor. — 
To the left is the Paniers-Platz, on the N.W. side of which is Top- 
ler's, now Petersen's, House (PI. 8; D, 1), built in 1590. 

Near this, in the house 'Zur Blume', Schildgasse 12, is the 
Natural History Museum, containing zoological, botanical, ethno- 
graphical , and anthropological collections (adm. , see p. 96). At 
No. 23, opposite, the House with the Golden Shield, decorated with 
mural paintings in 1888, the first twenty-three articles of Charles IV.'s 
Golden Bull were composed in 1356, providing amongst other points, 
that every German emperor should hold his first diet in Nuremberg. 

The *Germanic National Museum (PI. C, D, 3; entrance, Kar- 
thausergasse 7), an institution for the illustration of German histor- 
ical research, founded in 1852, is established in a suppressed Car- 
thusian Monastery, a Gothic building of the 14th cent., with a fine 
church and extensiAe cloisters. The museum was enlarged in 
1873-75 by the addition of the Augustine monastery (founded about 
1450), formerly occupying the site of the Law Courts (p. 102), but 
Temoved thence and re-erected here. Since 1866, owing to the 
energy of the late director Dr. von Essenwein (d. 1892) and the mu- 
nificence of private donors, the museum has become one of the finest 
in Germany. The objects of general interest are exhibited in 83 
rooms (some badly lighted), while others are reserved for the use of 
artists and students. Admission, see p. 96. Catalogue at the en- 
trance, 50 pf. ; the numbers correspond with the red numbers on 
the exhibits. (See plans, pp. 96, 97.) Simple refreshments in 
R. XLI1, on the groundfloor. 

The long Cloiiler Wing IX, which we enter first, contains casts of 
Roman tombstones of the l-4th cent, and of mediaeval monuments down 
to the 14th century. 

Germanic Museum NUREMBERG. 20. Route. 107 

To the left. Boom I. Prehistoric antiquities, objects from lake-dwellings, 
stone articles, funereal urns. — R. II. Prehistoric bronze antiquities, iron 
weapons and tools, etc. — III, IV. Roman antiquities; beams from the 
Roman bridge at Mainz. — V- VII. Germanic antiquities of the 4-9th 
centuries : ornaments , weapons, coffins, etc. ; No. 264 (in R. V), Greek 
epitaph of a Germanic Christian of Constantinople (3rd or 4th cent.); 
No. 258 (in R. VII), Copy of the 'Treasure of Athanarich', King of the 
Visigoths (d. 381), found at Petreosa in Roumania (original at Bucharest). 

— VIII. Recent acquisitions. — X-XIII. Stoves and stove-tiles. — 
XIV, XV. Locksmith's work. — XVI (corner-room), called the ' Wilhelms- 
halle\ from a window presented by Emp. William I. (when King of Prussia) 
in 1861, representing the foundation of the Carthusian monastery in 1381 
by Burggrave Frederick of Nuremberg, executed at Berlin from designs 
by Kreling. Original model of Luther's monument at Worms, by Rietschel. 

— Opposite, at the angle of the cloisters, is the 'Hohenzollemhalle' (PI. C), 
with four Gothic windows bearing the arms of the provinces of Prussia, 
presented by Princes Charles and Albert of Prussia, and Charles Anthony 
and Leopold of Hohenzollern. 

Cloister Wing XVII (Ludwigsgang). Casts of tombstones of the 14th 
century. — Cloisters XVIII-XX and XXV, Courts A XI and XXII, and Booms 
XXIII and XXIV (Victoria and Friedrich Willielm Building): Casts of 
sculptures of the 10-16th centuries. — The above-mentioned cloisters en- 
close the Beichshof (PI. D), containing a copy in stucco of the Roland Col- 
umn at Bremen. 

Cloisters XXVI and XX VII-XXIX (adjoining on the left): Tombstones 
of the 15-16th centuries. Fine old and modern stained glass (PI. E, five 
windows presented by the Austrian imperial house). — Rooms XXX-XXXII 
contain armour and weapons, from the 10th to the beginning of the 
16th century. 

Cloisters XXXIII-XXXV. Casts of tombstones from the 16-18th cent.; 
casts of ecclesiastical implements; book-bindings. — We then pass through 
the Chapel (XXXVIII) and enter (to the left) — 

XXXVI, formerly the Church, which contains a collection of 'Sculpture, 
chiefly of the 1516th centuries. On the N. wall: 775. Veil Stoss, Kneeling 
Madonna; s 785. Tilmann Riemenschneider, St. Elisabeth; 792, 793. School 
of Michael Pacher, SS. Leonard and Stephen; 770. Top of an altar. On the 
S. wall : 771, 772. Swabian School (early 16th cent.), SS. Gereon and Catha- 
rine. In the centre: 745. Veil Stoss- Madonna and Child. Also, 852. Silver- 
mounted casket in which the imperial jewels of the Holy Roman Empire 
were formerly kept (from the Spital-Kircbe, p. 105). Small carvings 
in ivory, alabaster, mother-of-pearl, etc. ; ecclesiastical vessels and vest- 
ments. On the S. side is a 'Mural Painting by W. von Kaulbath representing 
Emp. Otho III. visiting the tomb of Charlemagne in 1000, symbolical of 
the object of the institution to bring to light the treasures of the past. 

The Chapel (XXXVII) contains (on the left) the Nuremberg Art 
Collection: 741. Model of Labenutolfs Gansemannchen (p. 1C0); 738. 
Statue of St. Wenzel, the model of P. Vischer^s bronze statue in the cathe- 
dral of Prague; *732. Frame of the All Saints' picture from the Landauer 
Bruderkapelle, executed in 1512 from a design by Diirer, who here shows 
his genuine Renaissance tendency. On the window-wall: 736. Reliquary 
of St. Sebastian (15th cent.); 733, 734. Two 'Palmesel' (asses used on Palm 
Sunday). Back-wall: 740. Weeping Virgin, an admirable statue in wood 
from a group of the Crucifixion (aboutl500), spoiled by a coat of grey paint 
and badly placed; Veit Stoss, 742. The rosary, a circular wood -carving, 
743. Justice, 744. Coronation of the Virgin, in high relief. — In the centre: 
"739. Bronze archer (Apollo), by P. Vischer the Younger (1532). 

The Collection of Domestic Antiquities occupies RR. XXXIX-LI. 

— Room XXXIX. German and Venetian glass, porcelain, majolicas, pottery, 
etc. — XL-XLI. Domestic life of 16-18th cent., illustrated by furniture 
and utensils. In R. XL: 1034. Richly carved wardrobe (ca. lf.00); 1040. 
Large Gothic bedstead of the Fiirer family (ca. 15C0). In B. XLI: 1142. 
Bedstead in ebony with alabaster ornamentation (early 17th cent.); in the 
centre, ornamental vessels, goblets, ewers ; also 1344. Silver travelling-service, 

108 Route 20. NUREMBERG. 

adorned with agate (Augsburg; 17-18th cent.). — XLII. Antique portal 
from the monastery of Heilsbrunn (13th cent.). — Above this are Rooms 
XLIII-LI, containing Tyrolese, Swiss, and Nuremberg wainscoting of the 
16th and 17th cent.; also a mediaeval kitchen. Returning to the ground- 
floor, we turn to the left at the end of Cloister XXVI, and enter — 

HallLII. Instruments of torture. — Hall LI/I, in theS.W. part of the 
building, contains a collection of cannon. — We next ascend the open 
spiral staircase (PI. H), passing the Dantsic 'Beischlag' or balcony (PI. G), 
to the — 

Second Floor. Room LIV, fitted up by the German 'imperial' towns, 
contains a collection of costumes. — The staircase on the W. side de- 
scends to R. LV, fitted up by the German 'Standesherren', or nobles of 
the highest rank, which is occupied by a very complete historical col- 
lection of fire-arms and other weapons (16-19th cent.), including some 
magnificent specimens acquired with the Sulkowski Collection in 1889. 

— We now descend on the S. side by the 'Eeckenthurmchen' (LVI) 
to the — 

First Floor. LVII. Ordnance of 17-19th cent., tents, military ap- 
paratus, etc. — Through Gallery LVIII and Cabinet LIX, containing 
pictures of costumes (16- 18th cent.) , we reach the Galleries and Rooms 
LXLXVII, containing casts of sculptures of the 16 18th cent. (R. LXIII), 
coins (LXV), and the "Picture Gallery (Catalogue li/s Jt), unsurpassed 
for its works of the upper and lower German Schools of the loth and 16th 
centuries. R. LXII (to the right) : 7. (black numeral) In the style of Meister 
Wilhelm of Cologne, Madonna with the pea-blossom ; 2078. Stephan Lochner, 
Crucifixion, with six saints; 2080. Early Flemish School (15th cent.), Coro- 
nation of Emp. Frederick III. ; to the left, 2079. Master of the Lyversberg 
Passion, Annunciation; 2086. Victor & Hein. Diinwegge, Pieta; -2083. Hugo 
van der Goes, Cardinal Bourbon; to the right, 2090. Master of the Imhof Altar- 
piece, Pieta; to the left, 2095. A. Dttrer (?), Portrait; 2091. Hans Pleyden- 
wurff, Crucifixion. — LXVI. 2107, 2108. Hans Baldung Grien, Two nude 
allegorical female figures; Alb. Diirer, 2099. Emp. Maximilian I., no num- 
ber, Hercules (1500); 2103. H. L. Schdufelein, Crucifixion with John the 
Baptist and King David; 2100. Copy of Diirer' s All Saints picture (p. 106); 
2115. Hans Burgkmair, Madonna; 2H0, 2111. Hans Holbein the Elder, Ma- 
donna enthroned; 2105. A. Altdorfer, Crucifixion; 2119. L. Cranach the 
Elder, Luther. — LXV. 2109. B. Zeilbtom, Pieta; 2093. A. Diirer, Emperors 
Charlemagne and Sigismund (freely retouched); 2032-2094. M. Wohlgemut, 
Four wings from the Peringsdorfer altar-piece, with the legend of St. Vitus 
and saints (from the Augustine church; ca. 1490); -'2097. A. Diirer, Pieta; 
2101, 2102. Hans von Kulmbach, SS. Cosmas and Damian; 2112. Burgkmair, 
St. Sebastian and Emp. Maximilian. — LX contains chiefly Netherlandish 
works of the 17th century. Exit-wall: 2123. P. Hooch, Party; Rembrandt, 
2124. Portrait of himself (ea. 1629), 2125. St. Paul; 2122. Corn. Begas, 
Tavern-scene. In the middle of this room are various small sculptures 
in bronze (2155. Figure of a boy, 2157. Dog, 2158. Genius, all ascribed to 
Peter Vischer), lead (goldsmiths' models; 16-18th cent.), and ivory. At the 
window to the left: 2150. A number of exquisite wood-carvings attri- 
buted to P. Flotner, but really by various hands. 

LXVIII-LXX. Scientific apparatus, calendars, and maps. — LXXI- 
LXXIII. Pharmaceutical Collection (LXXII. Apothecary's shop). — Chapel 
LXXIV. Ecclesiastical Art of the 1618th centuries. — Room LXXV. An- 
tiquities of guilds. — LXXVI. Models. — Church Gallery LXXVII and 
R. LXXVIII. Commercial Museum, interesting models of ships and wag- 
gons; weights and measures. — LXXIX, LXXX. Collection of documents 
illustrative of the arts of writing and printing; MSS., incunabula, wood- 
cuts, engravings. — LXXXI (Gallery). Weaving and embroidery. — Hal I 
LXXXII (fitted up by the nobility of Mecklenburg). Musical Instruments. 

— LXXXIII. Book-bindings. 

The extensive Manufactories of Nuremberg chiefly lie outside 
the old town. The Nuremberg Machine Co's (formerly Cramer- Klett's; 

HERSBRUCK. Route 27. 109 

PI. F, 2) works are outside the Wohrder Trior. On the S. side, 
beyond the Farber-Thor , near the railway, are the United Ultra- 
marine Factories (formerly Leverkus, Zeltner, & Co. ; PI. B, C, 4) ; 
and in the suburb of Steinbuhl are Schuckert fy Co.'s dynamo- 
electric machine works. Faber's lead-pencil factory is at Stein 
(p. 26) , 6 M. from Nuremberg. The largest breweries are Hen- 
ninger's in the Maxfeld (now in the hands of a company), Tucher's 
in the Waizen-Strasse (PI. C,2), and Kurz's (J. G. Reif), Lorenz- 
Str. 6. 

The most popular pleasure-grounds at Nuremberg are the *Stadt- 
Park or Maxfeld, on the N. side (*Restaurant ; music frequently; 
tramway, see p. 96), and the *Rosenau (PI. A, B, 2, 3 ; restaurant; 
music frequently). — Pleasant excursion to Dutzendteich (p. 118; 
tramway) ; thence a beautiful walk through wood, by Falznerweiher 
(restaurant) and Schmaussenbuck (rustic inn), with its view-tower 
(20 pf.), to Mogeldorf (station ; see p. 234). — Via Fiirth to the 
Alte Veste (old fortress) and Cadolzburg, see p. 70. To the Nurem- 
berg Switzerland, see below. 

21. From Nuremberg to Eger by Sehnabelwaid. 

94 M. Railway in 51/4-61/2 hrs. (fares 12 Jl 20, 8J( 10, 5 Jl 20 pf.). 

Nuremberg, see p. 95. Soon after leaving the station the train 
diverges to the left from the lines to Ratisbon and Amberg, and 
crosses the Pegnitz- Thai by means of a long embankment and several 
bridges to (2i/ 2 M.) St. Jobst. It then skirts the hills on the N. 
side of the 4 Pegnitz-Thal, running parallel with the Amberg railway 
(p. 234) on the S. side. On the left, Schloss Platnersberg, restored 
by Heideloff. 6 M. Behringersdorf ; 8 M. Riickersdorf (3 M. to the 
N. is the Ludwigshohe, a summer-resort with view-tower) ; IOY2M. 
Lauf (Rail. Restaurant), with a chateau, on the Pegnitz (1/2 M. to 
the S. is the station of the Amberg line, p. 234) ; 1272 M. Schnaitt- 
ach, which lies 3 M. to the N. of the station, with the ruin of 
Rothenburg rising above it (a fine point of view) ; 15 M. Reichen- 
schwand, at the base of the Hansgbrgl-Berg (see below), with a 
chateau and park. 

17M.Hersbruck(1100ft; *Post; *Traube, in the market-place ; 
Rother Hahn), a prosperous little town (3800 inhab.) on the right 
bank of the Pegnitz, at the foot of the Miehelsberg, surrounded 
by hop-gardens. The station on the right bank of the Pegnitz 
(*Heissmann's Restaurant) lies on the N. side of the town, l l fa M. 
from the station on the left bank of the Pegnitz (p. 234). 

The Miehelsberg (1428 ft.) , ascended from the right bank station in 
V4 br., affords an admirable survey of the town and district. A still 
finer point of view is the °Hansg8rgl-Berg (1979 ft.), 1 hr. from Reichen- 
tchwand, or I1/2 hr. from Hersbruck via the Qalgenberg and the Bagen- 
miihle. On the top is a pavilion. 

At (2OY2M.) Hohenstadt the line turns to the N. and enters 
the narrow and tortuous Upper Pegnitz-Thal ; to the right, prettily 

110 Route 21. SCHNABELWAID. 

situated at the mouth of the Hirschbach-Thal, lies the summer-resort 
of Eschenbach, with a Sohloss and a Curhaus. We cross the Pegnitz 
twice, and pass Alfalter and Diisselbach on the left. 25 M. Vorra 
(*Krone). Then five bridges and two short tunnels. 27 M. Eup- 
prechtstegen (1184 ft.; Inn 'Zur Frankischen Schweiz, with a huge 
lime-tree), the centre of the 'Nuremberg Switzerland'. The "Cur- 
Hotel, pleasantly situated on the slope to the left, is a favourite re- 
sort in summer. 

The *Ankathal, with its beautiful woods and picturesque groups of 
rocks , affords a pleasant walk. The path then crosses a lofty plain to 
(2 hrs.) the ruin of Hohenstein, (2080 ft.), rising above the village of that 
name (Inn zur Felsburg; beer at Maier's); fine view from the wooden 
belvedere (key at the village). — Walk on the left bank of the Pegnitz 
to the (1 hr.) castle of ffartenstein, mentioned in the 'Parzival' of Wolfram 
von Eschenbach. 

Ten bridges and five tunnels (90 to 350 yds. in length) in 
rapid succession. The walk through the Pegnitz-Thal to Velden is 
interesting. 29 M. Velden, a picturesquely-situated town (Krone), 
with an ancient gate, lies l / 3 M. to the N.W. of the station. The 
valley now expands. 31*/ 2 M. Neuhaus (Rossbach's Inn, at the 
station; Wilder Mann), commanded by the watch-tower of the old 
castle of Veldenstein. 

Near the village of Krottensee (Zur Grotte), l'/2 M. to the E., is the 
' Maximilianshohle, or Windloch, a large stalactite grotto, made accessible 
in 1878 (adm. 1 pers. 75 pf., 2 pers. 1 M, etc.; guide necessary; mag- 
nesium wire 75 pf. extra). 

We cross andrecross the Pegnitz several times. 33y 2 M. Ranna; 
37 M. Michelfeld; 41 y 2 M. Pegnitz (Lamm ; Ross), a district-town 
on the Pegnitz, which rises at Lindenhart, 9 M. to the N. (dili- 
gence daily in 2% hrs. by Pottenstein to Gbssweinstein, p. 95). 
The train now ascends to (46i/ 2 M.) Schnabelwaid. 

Branch Railway to Baybeuth (11 M., in 40 min.) by (4 M.) Greussen, 
an old town in the valley of the Rothe Main, noted for its earthenware, 
and (7 M.) Neuenreuth. 11 M. Bayreulh (see p. 86). 

The train turns to the E., and near (50 M.) Engelmannsreuth 
passes through the watershed between the Pegnitz and the Nab by 
a cutting 880 yds. long. Beyond (53y 2 M.) Vorbach the Hard is 
penetrated by a tunnel of 490 yds. 

58 M. Kirchenlaibach, junction for the Neuenmarkt and Weiden 
line (p. 89). The train pursues a N.E. direction. Near (63y 2 M.) 
Immenreuth it crosses the Heidenab, and at Oberwappenost it passes 
under the watershed between the Heidenab and the Fichtelnab by 
a tunnel of 935 yds. The valley of the latter stream is crossed 
near Riglasreuth by a lofty iron viaduct. 70 M. Neusorg (1827 ft.) ; 
branch hence to (9'/ 2 M.) Fichtelbery. Near Langentheilen the 
watershed between the Nab and the Roslau is pierced by another 
long tunnel. 75 M. Waldershof (1805 ft.) ; 2 hrs. to the W. is the 
Kosseine (p. 92). — 77 M. Markt-Kedwitz (1742 ft. ; Anker, at 
the station; Weisses Ross and others, poor), a busy little town on 
the Kossein , with a Protestant church in the transition style ; 

NORDLINGEN. 22. Route. 1 1 1 

junction of the line from Hof to Wiesau (p. 134). The line now 
turns to the N.E. and follows the R5slau, which it crosses twice. 
81 l /2 M. Seussen; 8372 Arzberg; 86 M. Schimding. Before reach- 
ing (8872 M.) Muhlbach we enter Austrian territory. The train 
now follows the Eger, intersects the plateau to the S. of Eger at 
a depth of 56 ft., and, curving to the N., enters the station of 
(94 M.) Eger (see Baedekers Austria). 

22. From Nuremberg to Augsburg. 

105 M. Railway, express in 31/2-4 hrs. (fares I6V2, 11 Jf), ordinary train 
in 6 hrs. (13 Jl 60, 9 Jl, 5 Jl 80 pf ). 

The train crosses the Ludwigs-Canal immediately after quit- 
ting Nuremberg, and beyond (5 M.) Reichelsdorf the Rednitz. 

9 M. Schwabach (Engel; Rose; Stern, unpretending), an old 
town with 8190 inhabitants. The late-Gothic church of St. John, 
erected in 1469-95, contains a grand *Altar-piece with carving by 
Veit Stoss and paintings by Wohlgemut (1506) and Burer (? En- 
tombment) ; in the Rosenburg chapel are other paintings by Wohl- 
gemut, Martin Schon (Virgin in a garland of roses), Oriinewald, etc., 
and a Gothic ciborium, 42 ft. high, by A. Krafft (1505), to whom 
a monument was erected in the church in 1889. (The sacristan 
lives in the Kirch-Platz, in a small house to the left of the book- 
seller's.) The Schbne Brunnen in the market-place , erected in 
1716, was restored in 1856. 'Schwabach type' is an old German 
text now revived. The 'Articles of Schwabach' form the Protestant 
creed adopted in 1528-29. 

Near (I572M.) Roth is the old chateau of Ratibor (1535). A 
little farther on, the Swabian and Franconian Rezat unite to form 
the Rednitz. From (21 M.) Oeorgensgmiind a branch-line leads in 
25 min. to Spalt, a small town prettily situated on the Swabian 
Rezat, the birthplace of G. Spalatin (d. 1545), the friend of Luther 
and Melanchthon. On a wooded eminence to the left rises Schloss 
Sandsee, the property of Prince Wrede. 27 M. Pleinfeld, on the 
Rezat, junction of the Nuremberg and Munich railway (via, Treucht- 
lingen, p. 130). 33 M. Langlau. 

37 M. Gunzenhausen, on the Altmilhl, junction of the "Wurz- 
burg and Munich line (see p. 130). Beyond (42 M.) Kronheim the 
line reaches the Wornitz. To the right of (46 M.) Wassertriidingen 
rises the long Hesselberg. 4872 M. Auhausen. 54 M. Oettingen, 
a small town with 3200 inhab., on the Wornitz, residence of the 
Prince of Oettingen-Spielberg. Beyond (57 M.) Burrenzimmern, 
the Iff (p. 29) becomes conspicuous on the "W. The village on the 
right nearNordlingen is Wallerstein (p. 112), with a ruined castle. 

62 M. Nordlingen (1410 ft.; Hot. Kielmeyer, at the station; 
*Krone; Deutsches Haus ; Weisses Ross; Beer at the Sonne), 
formerly an imperial town, is still surrounded with walls and towers. 
Pop. 8000. In the gardens outside the station is a bronze bust of the 

112 Route 22. DONAUWORTH. From Nuremberg 

poet MeUhior Meyr (d. 1871), author of 'Erz'ahlungen aus dem Ries'. 
The Gothic *St. George's Church, erected 1428-1505, contains a fine 
late-Gothic ciborium (1511-25), a good stone pulpit of the same 
period , a curious winding staircase to the organ-loft, paintings by 
Schaufelein (Mourning for Christ, in the Baptistery) and Herlen, 
and good stained glass. Fine prospect from the tower (290 ft. in 
height), extending over the Ries with its numerous villages, of 
which 99 are said to he visible. The late-Gothic Rathhaus contains 
a large mural painting by Schaufelein (1515), of the history of Ju- 
dith and Holofernes; on the upper floor a collection of old German 
pictures (chiefly by Schaufelein and Herlen), autographs, coins, local 
antiquities, etc. (Apply to custodian on first floor.) 

During the Thirty Years' War the Imperial Generals Ferdinand of Hungary 
and the Cardinal Infanta Don Fernando gained a signal victory here over 
the Swedes under Bernhard of Weimar and Horn, 27th Aug., 1634. 

A diligence plies daily from Nordlingen via. Fessenheim to (12 M.) 
Wemding (Kreuz; Sonne), on the Dosbach, near which is the small bath 
of Wemding, with a sulphurous spring. 

Remslhal Railway from Nordlingen to Stuttgart, see R. 7. 

Feom Nokdlingen to Dombuhl, 33V2 M. (railway in 2V2-3V« nrs 0- 2'/2 M. 
Wallerstein, with a picturesque ruined castle. Marktoffingen, 1 M. to the E. 
of which lies Maihingen, formerly a convent, with the valuable library, 
armoury, and other collections of Prince Oettingen- Wallerstein. Then 
Fremdingen, Wilburgstetten. — lS'/2 M. Dinkelsbiihl ("Qoldne Rose), an old 
imperial town on the Wbrnitz , still surrounded with walls and towers 
(4481 inhab.), was the birthplace of Chr. von Schmid (d. 1854), a popular 
writer for the young, to whom a statue has been erected in the market- 
place. The late-Gothic Church of St. George (built in 1444-99), with its 
handsome ciborium and carved altars, and the Deutsche Haus (15th cent.) 
are interesting. — 22'/2M. Schopfloch; 27 M. Feuchtwangen (Post), an old town 
with a Gothic abbey-church ; 30 M. Dorfgiilingen. 33 1 /-' M. Dombuhl, see p. 26. 

67i/ 2 M. Mbttingen; to the left, the Lierheimer Schloss. Beyond 
(70 M.) Hoppingen we enter the Ries, a remarkably fertile tract, 
probably once the bed of a lake. 72 M. Harburg , a little town 
belonging to Prince Wallerstein, with a well-preserved castle, pic- 
turesquely perched on a rock. 751/2 M. Wornitzstein. The train fol- 
lows the fertile valley of the winding Wbrnitz. 

791/2 M. Donauworth (1365 ft. ; *Krebs, unpretending, R., L. & A. 
1 M 20 pf., B. 60 pf. ; Becher), an old town on the Danube, with 3733 
inhabitants. The buildings of the suppressed Benedictine Abbey of 
the Holy Cross are now the property of Prince Wallerstein. A chapel 
adjoining the abbey-church contains the sarcophagus of the ill-fated 
Mary of Brabant, consort of Duke Lewis of Bavaria, by whose order 
she was beheaded in 1256 on a groundless suspicion of infidelity. The 
fortress of Mangoldstein, where the execution took place, to the right 
near the station, was destroyed by Emp. Albert I. in 1308 and the 
ruins were removed in 1818. A tablet in the rock, bearing the 
words 'Castrum Woerth', now marks the site of the castle and a 
cross above indicates the scene of the execution. The Schellenberg 
above the station, was stormed with severe loss by Lewis of Baden 
in 1704. Its capture formed a prelude to the disastrous battle of 
Hochstadt (see next page). 











ij-Atila i a ^u-Sjebant. ^ Ji Hunchaim {RegeTts H£ 

to Augsburg. AUGSBURG. 22. Route. 1 1 3 

Feom Donauwokth to Ned-Offingen, 271/2 M., railway in l'/s hr. (to 
XJlm in 3 hrs.). The line skirts the N. side of the town , turns to the 
S.W., and traverses the valley of the tortuous Danube. 5 M. Tapfheim; 
9 M. Blenheim, or Blindheim; 12 M. Hdchstadt. Each of the last two names 
recalls more than one fiercely contested battle. Here in 1083 Guelph I. of 
Bavaria was defeated and deprived of his duchy by Emp. Henry IV. In 
1703 Elector Max Emanuel of Bavaria and Marshal Villars gained a victory 
at Hochstadt over the Imperial troops under Count Styrum; but the 
Elector and Marshal Tallard were signally defeated, at Blenheim, by Prince 
Eugene and the Duke of Marlborough, 13th Aug., 1704. Nearly a century 
later, on 19th June, 1800, the Austrians under Kray engaged the French 
under Moreau at Hochstadt. — ll 1 /* M. Steinheim. — 17 M. Dillingen (*Bay- 
rischer Ho/; * Stern; "Deutscher Kaiser, unpretending), a thriving town of 
5770 inhab., which has belonged to Bavaria since 1802, was formerly the 
seat of a university, suppressed in 1804. The old chateau once belonged 
to the bishops of Augsburg. — 19 M. lauingen, a busy town of 3845 
inhab., the residence during the middle ages of the Bavarian dukes of 
Pfalz-Neuburg, whose burial-vault is below the Roman Catholic church. 
The isolated Hof-Thurm, 180 ft. high, in sixteen stories, was erected in 
1478. A bronze statue of the celebrated scholar Alberlus Magnus (1193- 
1280), a native of Lauingen, was erected in the market-place in 1881. — 
22'/s M. Gundelflngen , a small town on the Brenz , with the ruins of the 
castle of Hohen-Gundelflngen, destroyed during the Thirty Years 1 War. The 
line turns towards the S., crosses the Danube, and joins the Ulm and 
Augsburg line (p. 133) at (27i/ 8 M.) Neu-Offtngen. 

From Donauworth to Ingolstadt and Ratisbon, see R. 24. 

The train crosses the Danube, and then the Schmutter. Stations 
Baumenheim, Mertingen, Nordendorf (right, the chateau of Count 
Fischler-Treuberg), Meitingen (right, on the height, the castle of 
Markt, once a Roman fort, the property of Prince Fugger), Lang- 
weid, Oersthofen, and Oberhausen (to Vim, see p. 133). We cross 
the Wertach, near its union with the Lech. 

105 M. Augsburg. — Hetels. *Dbei Mohben (PI. a; C, 4), Maximilian- 
Six., R., L., & A. from 3, B. 1, D. 3 Jl, omn. 70 pf., one of the oldest 
hostelries in Germany, but lately rebuilt. "Kaisebhof (PI. i ; B, 4), Halder- 
Str., with frequented restaurant ; *Goldne Teaube (PI. b ; C, 4) Maximilian- 
Str., R. D/2 Jl, D. 1JI 20 pf., B. 70 pf.; 'Baybischee Hop (PI. d; B, 4), 
Dbei Kkonen (PI. e ; B, 4), with garden, both in the Babnhof-Str. ; Weisses 
Lamm (PI. c; B, 3), Ludwig-Str., R. 2-3 Jl, B. 70 pf., good cuisine; Moheen- 
kopf (PI. f; C, 4), Predigerberg ; Eisenhut (PI. g; C, 3), Obstmarkt, R. 
l-l'/s Jl. — Restaurants and Cafes. 'Bailway Restaurant ; "Kaiser/iof, see 
above ; 'Kernstock, 8teingasse, D. 1 Jl 20 pf. ; * Restaurant in the Stadt- 
Oarten; Augusta and Stbtter, in the Fugger- Str. ; Mussbeck, Bavaria, in 
the Maximilian-Str. — Wine. * Metzler-Hofmann (Griines ffaut), in the 
St-Anna-Str. ; Lamberger zur Weiberschnle, Bei der Metzg (C, 182) ; Eisenhut, 
see above; Rathskeller, Eisenberg (C, 323). — Beeb. Hering, at the Schmidt- 
berg; Kohleis (Reichskrone), Burgergasschen. 

Baths. OWsche Badeanstalt , Baumgartner-Str. , outside the Rothe 
Thor (PI. C, 6; cold, warm, and vapour baths); Augustvsbad, Kreuz-Str. ; 
Grilnwald, at the Katzenstadel (F, 152). Municipal Swimming Bath (PI. D, 6); 
Swimming School (PI. A, 3). 

Post & Telegraph Office (PI. B, 3, 4), Grottenau, at the corner of the 

Cabs. Drive ('A hr.), 1-2 pers. 50 pf., 3 pers. 60 pf.; from the station 
20 pf. more. At night (10 to 6) double fares. Each box of 56lbs. 20 pf. 

Tramways (comp. Plan) : from the Ludwigs-Platz (Perlach ; PI. C, 4) 
to Oberhausen 10 pf., to the Ulrichs-Platz 10 pf., the railway-station 10 pf., 
Pfersee 15 pf., Goggingen (p. 118) 20 pf. ; from the Metz-Platz to Lech- 
hausen 10 pf. 

BaEDEKEB's S ftarinanv St.h Kdit. g 

114 Route 22. AUGSBURG. Cathedral. 

Augsburg (1340 ft.), with 75,523 inhab. (1/3 Prot.), the Roman 
Augusta Vindelicorum , situated at the confluence of the Wertach 
and the Lech, is one of the most important towns in S. Germany. 
Its abundant water-power, utilised by canals traversing the town, 
has given rise to various industries (weaving, cotton-spinning, etc., 
chiefly outside the town). 

In the middle ages (from 1268) Augsburg was a free imperial city, and 
the great centre of the traffic between N. Europe, Italy, and the Levant. 
It reached the height of its prosperity in the 15th and 16th centuries, 
and several of its citizens enjoyed princely wealth and power. Three 
daughters of Augsburgers were married to princes: Clara von Detten to 
Elector Frederick the Victorious of the Palatinate; Agnes Bernauer, the 
beautiful daughter of a barber, to Duke Albert III. of Bavaria (p. 236) ; 
and Philippina Welser to Archduke Ferdinand of Austria. Bartholomew 
Welser, another citizen, fitted out a squadron to take possession 
of Venezuela, which had been assigned to him as a pledge by Emp. 
Charles V. The Fugger family raised themselves within a century from 
the condition of poor weavers to that of the wealthiest merchants at 
Augsburg, or perhaps in Europe. They were the Rothschilds of their age, 
and like them ennobled; and they frequently replenished the exhausted 
coffers of the emperors Maximilian I. and Charles V. A separate quarter of 
Augsburg, founded by Joh. Jacob Fugger 'the Rich' in 1519, is still called 
the Fuggerei (p. 115), closed by its own gates, and consisting of fifty- 
three small houses, tenanted at a merely nominal rent by indigent Roman 
Catholic citizens. — At Augsburg Charles V. held his famous diets; that of 
1530, at which the Protestant princes presented to the Emperor and the 
estates the ' Augsburg Confession', a reformed creed framed by Melanchthon; 
that of 1548, at which the 'Interim' was issued ; and that of 1555, by which 
a religious peace was concluded. The delivery of the Confession took 
place in a hall of the episcopal palace, which is now a royal residence. 

The present appearance of Augsburg still recalls its ancient 
importance. Most of the houses are in the Renaissance style of the 
16th and 17th cent., and several are still adorned with well-pre- 
served frescoes. Those of greatest historical interest are indicated 
by tablets. The old fortifications have been removed, and handsome 
new streets erected on their site (comp. p. 118). 

The principal street is the handsome, broad Maximilians-Strasse 
(PI. C, 4; between the Maximilians-Platz and the Ludwigs-Platz), 
with its continuation, the busy Karolinen-Straase (PI. C, 3). At the 
N. end of the latter rises the Cathedral (PI. B, 0, 3), an irregular 
Gothic pile, originally a Romanesque basilica, begun in 995, con- 
secrated in 1006, and altered 1321-1431. It now consists of a nave 
with low vaulting, borne by square pillars, and double aisles separated 
by slender round columns with foliage-capitals. TheN. and S. portals 
of the E. choir, with sculptures of the 14th cent., are particularly fine. 

The W. choir contains a very ancient episcopal throne and an ancient 
Gothic altar in bronze. In the nave hangs a fine bronze candelabrum of 
the 14th century. The richly carved Gothic pulpit and the high-altar in 
the E. choir are modern. The bronze doors of the S. aisle, dating from 
about 1050, contain representations of Adam and Eve, the Serpent, Cen- 
taurs, etc., in thirty- five sections. Fine stained glass, ancient and modern; 
the S. Romanesque windows of the nave (ilth cent.) are among the oldest 
in existence. The altar-pieces of the first four side-altars are by Bolbein 
the Elder (1493) ; the other altar-pieces in the ambulatory of the choir are 
by Zeilblom, Amberger, Wohlgemut, BurgJtmair, and others. On the back 
wall of the N. aisle are portraits of all the bishops from 596 to the present 

Rathhaus. AUGSBURG. 22. Route. 115 

day. The choir-chapels, containing the tombs of many bishops, are sep- 
arated from the choir by tasteful iron screens. The fine cloisters on the 
N. side (late-Gothic, 1474-1510) contain tombstones, some of them very old. 

To the W. of the cathedral, in the Frohnhof, with its handsome 
War Monument by Zumbusch, is the Royal Palace (PI. B, 3), now 
government-offices ; to the E., in the Karolinen-Platz, the Episcopal 
Palace (PI. C, 3). 

On the right, in the Karolinen-Str., is the Riedinger House, 
the handsome court of which is fitted up as a winter garden. At the 
S. end of the street is the Ludwigs-Platz (PI. C, 4 ; usually called 
'Eiermarkt' or 'Perlach'), the busiest part of the town, in the centre 
of which rises the Fountain of Augustus, the founder of the city, 
whose statue was cast by the Dutch master Gerhardt in 1594. On 
the right is the Exchange; on the left the Perlach-Thurm, a clock- 
tower, erected in 1063 as a watch-tower, heightened in 1615, with 
a fine view from the top. — The Barfusserkirche (PI. C, 4; Prot.), 
to the E. of the Perlach-Thurm, contains pictures of the 17th and 
18th cent, and an excellent organ. — The Jacober-Strasse, the E. 
continuation of the Barfiissergasse, is still one of the most med- 
iaeval streets in existence. Near it is the Fuggerei (p. 114). — In 
the 'Vordere Lech' is the house, in which Holbein the Elder (p. 117) 
lived and Holbein the Younger was born. 

The *Bathhaus (PI. A, 4; bell in the vestibule to the right, in 
the middle ; in summer the keeper is usually in the hall upstairs), 
a handsome Renaissance edifice, was erected in 1615-20 by Elias 
Holl. On the gable in front is a large pine-cone in bronze, the 
heraldic emblem of the city. The lower vestibule contains an eagle, 
with gilded beak and claws (1606), and busts of Roman emperors 
from Caesar to Otho; on the back-wall is a bust of Emp. Frederick III., 
who commanded the Bavarian troops in the war of 1870-71. An 
antechamber on the first floor, borne by eight columns of red marble, 
has a fine wooden ceiling and a statue of Chr. von Schmid (d. 1854 ; 
see p. 112), the educational writer. On the second floor is the 
*' Golden Hall', 118 by 62 ft., and 54 ft. in height, one of the finest 
halls in Germany, with rococo decorations in the Italian style. The 
adjoining Furstenzimmer also have fine wooden ceilings , wall- 
panelling, artistic stoves, and a few pictures, casts, flags, etc. 

To the S.W., in the Ludwigs-Platz, opens the Philippine- 
Welser-Strasse, in which a Statue of Joh. Jac. Fugger (1516-1575) 
was erected in 1858. To the E. of the monument is the handsome 
house in which Philippina Welser lived from 1530 to 1550. To the 
W. is the Maximilians-Museum (PI. B, C, 4), a Renaissance edifice 
of the 16th cent., containing the collections of the Historical and 
Natural History Society (daily, except Sat. afternoon, 10-1 and 2-5- 
Oct.-March, 10-12 and 2-4; tickets, 50 pf. each). On the ground; 
floor are Roman antiquities from the neighbourhood of Augsburg; 
on the first floor the medieeval collections, including sculptures, 


116 Routed. AUGSBURG. St. Vlrich. 

wood-carvings, seals, coins, drawings, etc. The pictures include 
portraits by Amberger, and an Adoration of the Magi by Qumpolt 
Giltlinger, a rare contemporary of Holbein. The natural history 
department embraces valuable collections of zoological botany, 
mineralogy, palaeontology, ethnography, etc. 

In the neighbouring St. Anna-Strasse is the church of St. Anna 
(PI. B, 4; Prot.), built in 1472-1510 in the late-Gothic style, -with 
a central part altered to the Renaissance style. 

Iq the interior are an altar-piece (Jesus receiving little children) and 
portraits of Luther and Elector John Frederick of Saxony, by Cranach; the 
Wise and Foolish Virgins, by Amberger; Feeding of the four thousand, by 
Rotlenhammer ; Portrait of the Patrician von Oestreicher, by Van Dycktf); 
Christ in Hell, by Burgkmair, etc. To the left of the altar is a fine relief 
in stone of the Raising of Lazarus (16th cent.). The paintings on the 
wings of the large organ are by Burgkmair, those on the small altar are 
attributed to Holbein the Younger. At the W. end is the rich Italian Re- 
naissance burial-chapel of the Fugger family, built by Jacob Fugger the 
Rich (p. 114). Numerous tombstones in the cloisters. 

We return hence to the Maximilians- Strasse, where there are 
two fountains, the Mercury and the Hercules, by Adr. de Vries, 
erected in 1599 and 1602. — On the right is the long Fuggerhaus 
(PI. C, 4), the property of Prince Fugger-Babenhausen, adorned 
with modern frescoes by F. Wagner, illustrating the history of the 
town and the Fugger family. 

Subjects of these scenes (from left to right): 1. Emp. Rudolph of Haps- 
burg confirms the municipal privileges of Augsburg (1273); 2. Emp. Lewis 
the Bavarian takes Augsburg under his protection (1315) ; 3. Jacob Fugger 
founds the Fuggerei (1519) ; 4. Emp. Maximilian I. holding his court at Augsburg 
(1500) ; 5. Anthony Fugger interceding for the town with Charles V. (1547). 
Friezes with allegorical groups of children form a kind of frame to these 
paintings. Between the windows of the first floor are the armorial bearings 
of distinguished families of Augsburg. Overthe principal portal is a Madonna. 

The office of the Fugger estates ('Dom'anenkanzlei', at the back 
of the Fuggerhaus, in the Zeugplatz, entered from the Apotheker- 
gasschen) contains the so-called * Fugger Bath Rooms, two sumptuous 
apartments in the Italian style (1570-72), now used for the meetings 
and exhibitions of the Augsburg Art Union (open Sun., Mon., Tues., 
10-4 ; at other times on application to the keeper). Opposite is the 
Arsenal (PI. O, 4), an imposing edifice -with a facade by Elias Holl 
(p. 115 ; 1602). Above the portal, which bears the inscription 'pacis 
firmamento, belli instrumento' , is a bronze group, by Reichel, of 
St. Michael smiting Satan (1607). 

At the S. end of the Maximilians-Strasse are the two churches 
of St. TJlrich (PI. C, 5), one Protestant, the other, the *Church of 
St. Vlrich and St. Afra, Roman Catholic. The lofty nave of the 
latter was erected in 1467-99, and in 1500 the foundation of the 
choir was laid by Emp. Maximilian I. The tasteful pentagonal porch 
of the N. portal was added in 1881. The tower (305 ft.), completed 
in 1594, commands a fine view (adm. 20 pf.). 

Interior (always open). The nave and aisles are shut off by a highly 
elaborate iron 'Screen, of the 16th cent., which when seen from the choir 
produces a striking effect of perspective. The Fugger Chapel, between 

Picture Gallery. AUGSBURG. 22. Route. 117 

the 2nd and 3rd pillar on the left, with its fine iron railing of 156,8 
contains the "Tomb of Hans Fugger (1589), a marble sarcophagus with 
recumbent figure by A. Colins of Malines; also an altar with fine early- 
German carvings (14th cent.), recently erected. In the chapel of St. Bar- 
tholomew (left aisle) is a Roman sarcophagus, said to be that of St. Afra. 
The three handsome 'Renaissance altars date from 1604. Below that 
to the right is a vault with the marble sarcophagus of Bishop Ulrich 
(10th cent.), patron of the see of Augsburg. Finely carved confessionals of 
the beginning of the 17th century. In the nave is a Crucifixion in bronze 
by Reichel and Neidhardt, cast at the beginning of the 17th century. 
The 16th cent, paintings above the choir-stalls represent the foundation 
of the choir and the procession of the emperor and estates. 

To the W. of the Hercules Fountain opens the Katharinen- 
Strasse, in which is situated the * Picture Gallery, in the old 
monastery of St. Catharine (PI. C, 4; open daily from 9 to 1, and for 
strangers at other times ; fee ^-l Jl; catalogue l'/2«^i out of date). 
The collection, founded in 1836, consists of over 700 paintings 
from the suppressed churches and convents of Augsburg, the con- 
vents of Kaisheim and Schonfeld, the Boissere"e and "Wallerstein 
cabinets, and the old galleries of Diisseldorf, Mannheim, and Zwei- 
brucken. It is chiefly interesting for its early German masters, in 
particular the works of Hans Holbein the Elder and H. Burgkmair, 
whose names mark the zenith of art in Augsburg (beginning of 
16th cent.). Good photographs sold by the attendant. Director, 
Herr von Huber. 

Vestibule. Four paintings representing the legend of St. Nicholas 
of Cusa and SS. Jerome and Ambrose, by a Tyrolese Master of about 1480 
(Michael Bans Pacher t). — Room I. In the centre, marble bust of the 
younger Holbein after his portrait of himself at Bale, executed by Lossow. 
16-27. Cycle of paintings belonging to the old convent of St. Catharine, 
relating to an indulgence granted to its inmates ; the seven principal churches 
of Rome are represented; above, Scenes from the Passion. 16-18. Holbein 
the Elder, Basilica of S. Maria Maggiore (1499); Burgkmair, 19. Basilica 
of St. Peter (1501), 20-22. S. Giovanni in Laterano (1502) ; 23. L. F. (?), 
SS. Lorenzo and Sebastian (1502); 24. Burgkmair, S. Croce (1501); 25-27. 
Holbein the Elder^S. Paolo fuori (ca. 1501); 42, 43. Wohlgemut, Ascension 
and Crucifixion ; ulrich Apt, 47-49. Christ on the Cross and the two malefac- 
tors, 50,51. (grisaille) Annunciation; 52,53. Burgkmair, Emperor Henry II. 
and St. George (1519) ; 59. Qiltlinger (comp. p. 116), Adoration of the Magi ; 
'79-82. ZeUblom, Legend of St. Valentine ; 84-86. Holbein the Elder, Triptych, 
Transfiguration, Feeding of the four thousand, Healing of the demoniac 
(1502); 87. The Same, Passion. — Room II. Netherlands schools. 99. Aart 
de Qelder, Garland; 109. Schellinckt, Sea-piece; 113. M. Saeerts, Concert; 
103. O. Schalcken, Mocking of Christ; 118. Van Dyck (?), Portrait of a marine 
painter; 97. Snyders, Bear -hunt; 121. Cuyp, Pastoral scene; 143. Pieter 
Lastman (teacher of Rembrandt), Ulysses and Nausicaa (1619); 205, 206. 
Fan Dyck, Sketches (grisaille) for engravings ; 169. Kneller (after Van Dyck), 
Queen Henrietta Maria; 164. Rubens, Arabs fighting with crocodiles (studio- 
piece). — Room III., chiefly Italian artists. 426. Roialba Carriera, Head 
of a child; 424. S. Bourdon, Idyl; 372. Ribera, St. Sebastian; 266. Millet, 
Classical landscape. Second division: 265. Tintoretto, Christ at the house 
of Mary and Martha; 296. Fr. Zurbaran, St. Francis. Third division: 382. 
Jacopo de" Barbari, Still -life (1504); "388. Parmigianino, Madonna and 
Child, with a monk; 383. Imitator of Leonardo da Vinci, Head of a girl; 
287. Qian Pietrino, Mary Magdalen. Fourth division: 304. J. A. Koch, St. 
George and the dragon, in a heroic landscape. Last wall : 271. Fr. Torbido, 
Transfiguration. — In the five Cabinets are many excellent small pictures. 
I. 538. Adr. van Oslade, Portrait of himself; 631. Jan van Os, Flowers. — 

118 Route 23. NEUMARKT. 

II. 548. /. van Ostade, Peasant's hut; '120. Jan Sieen, Merry party; 635. 
B. Ouyp, Circumcision of Christ. - III. 601. Hobbema, ^ Sylvan path Wd. 
Philip Wouwerman, Hawking: 100, 569, 584, "586. Van Goyen Landscapes^ 
565. Pynacker, A wanderer; 628. Poelenburg, Waterfall. - IJ- "• c ™ ™* 
(Ae £M«r, Pharaoh and his host overwhelmed in the Bed &ea, 44-4b. 
Burgkmair, Christ on the Cross and the two malefactors (1019); no numDer, 
B. Strigel, Isaiah and Zachariah; '2. ^JWor/«r, Angel-choirs in a church 
with the Holy Family in front. - V. Bolbein the Elder, 674. Legend of 
St. Ulrich; 676. Beheading of St. Catharine (1512); 683-685, _ Crucifixion, 
Descent from the Cross, Entombment; 6-8. Burgkmair ', Christ and Mary 
enthroned, with saints (1507) ; 673,675. Bolbein the Elder, .Madonna, St. Anna 
and the Infant Christ, Crucifixion of St. Peter; »»rer,<m, Virgin with the 
pink (1516), 669. The Virgin as mediatrix (1497); 696. Barthel Beham, 
Portrait (1535) ; 672. North German Master of about 1520, Portrait of a woman. 

The new W. quarters near tie railway-station (comp. p. 114) 
contain several handsome buildings: in the Fugger-Strasse the 
Courts of Law (PI. B, 4; built 1871-75) and the Theatre (Pi- B, 3 ; 
built 1876-77); in the Schazler-Strasse the Municipal Library 
(PI. B, 3, 4; built 1893), with upwards of 150,000 vols.; and in 
the Haider- Strasse the Gymnastic Hall and the Corn Market (PI. B,4). 

On the E. side of the town extends the public Park , at the 
upper end of which aTe the large water-works in the Lech called 
the 'Ablass', for conveying water to the town (* Restaurant). Ad- 
jacent are the Water Works for supplying the town with drinking- 
water. — In the Wertach-Thal, 2i/ 2 M. to the S.W. (tramway, see 
p. 113), is Gbggingen (Dr. Hessing's Curanstalt), with a palm- 
house, summer-theatre, concerts, etc. 
From Augsburg to Munich, see R. 26. 

23. From Nuremberg to Ratisbon. 

62 M. Railway in 2i/4-5 3 A hrs. (fares 9 M 30, 6 M 60, or 8 Jl 10, 5 M 40, 
3 Jl 50 pf.). — From Nuremberg to Ratisbon by Schwandorf, see R. 41 and 
p. 134 ; from Ratisbon to Linz, see R. 42. 

Nuremberg, see p. 95. The line at first runs through wood. 2 M. 
Butzendteich (*Restaurant Dutzendteich ; *Waldlust), a favourite 
resort of the Nurembergers (tramway to Nuremberg, see p. 96). At 
(7 1 /" M.) Feucht branch -lines diverge E. to Altdorf, and W. to 
Wendelstein. From (10 M.) Ochenbruck, a pleasant walk into the 
romantic Schwarzach-Thal, l!/ 2 M. to the W., by Schwarzenbruck. 
I6Y2 M. Postbauer. The line crosses the Ludwigs-Canal. 

221/2 M. Neumarkt in der Oberpfalz (1385 ft.; Gans; Egner, 
near the station), a prettily-situated town of 5080 inhab., on the 
Sulz, with chalybeate and sulphureous springs. Observe the Gothic 
Church and the 15th cent. Rathhaus. The Schloss contains the law- 
courts. Fine views from the (1 M.) Mariahilfberg (1918 ft.) and 
the (3 M.) ruins of Wolfstein (1905 ft.). — Branch-lines to Frey- 
stadt and Beilngries. 

The line traverses the broad Sulzthal and enters a wooded and 
hilly region. Beyond (29 M.) Deining it crosses the Laber near 
its source. 35 M. Seubersdorf; 39V2 M. Parsberg , picturesquely 

RATISBON. 23. Route. 119 

situated on the slope of a hill, which is crowned by an old chateau, 
now the district tribunal. The church contains a late-Gothic font 
of the 15th century. 43 M. Mausheim. 

Near (46 M.) Beratzhausen the train enters the valley of the 
Schwarze Laber, wild and romantic at places, passes Laber, Deuerling, 
and Eichhofen, describes a wide circuit towards the E., and enters the 
pleasant Ndbthal. Near (56 M.) Etterzhausen, much visited fromRatis- 
bon, is the 'Robbers' Cave', a lofty dome-shaped cavern in the rock. 

The line follows the slope on the right bank of the Nab, 
crosses the Danube near (60 M.) Prtifening, above the influx of 
the Nab, and reaches — 

62 M. Ratisbon. — Hotels. Goldenes Kreuz (PI. a ; B, 2), Haidplatz, 
R., L., & A. 2-3, B. 1, D. 3 Jt; "Gruner Kranz (PI. d; C, 3), Obermunster- 
Str., B., L., & A. lV*-2>/2, D. 2«/2«#; "Maximilian (PI. c; D, 4), near the 
station, with restaurant and garden; "National (PI. e; D, 4), 4 Weiden- 
hof (R. 1 Jt 20 pf.-2 Jt), Aohneb, *Karmelitenbrau, all in the Maximilian- 
Str. ; Weisser Hahn (PI. d; D, 2), near the bridge. 

Restaurants. "Rail. Restaurant; "Maximilian, near the station, with 
concert -garden; Neuei Haul, Bismarck -Platz; Caf 4 - Restaurant Central, 
Pfauengasse ; Weitse Lilie, near the station ; Ouldengarten, outside the 
Jakohsthor; Wurstkiiche, quaint, below the bridge (open 6-11 a.m.). — 
Schillflsch and Scheidfisch, or Waller, are good kinds of fish. 

Wine. Diem, Ludwig-Str.; Mann, Plauengasse, beside the cathedral. — 
Beer. At the Bitchofthof, Domplatz; Obermunsterbrauerei, Obermiinster- 
Str.; Weitset Brauhaus, Schwarze Baren-Str. ; Jesuitenbrau, Obermiinster- 
gasse; Xarmelitenbrda and Bochsteller, Maximilian-Str. ; P/aller, Ludwigs- 
Str. ; at the Katharinenspital, in Stadt-am-Hof, to the left of the bridge. 

Post Office at the station and in the Dom-Platz. — Telegraph Office, 

Cabs. To or from the station, one-horse cab (1-2 pers.) 60, two- 
horse 80 pf. (3 4 pers. 1 Jt); in the town, one-horse cab, '/< hr. 50 pf., 
V2 hr. 1 Jt, two-horse 1 Jt or 2 Jt. To the Walhalla, one-horse, 1-2 pers. 
5 Jt, 3 pers. 6V2 Jt, two-horse, 1-2 pers. 5V2 Jt, 3-4 pers. 6V2, 5 pers. 7 Jt. 
(The hirer should insist on being driven up to the Walhalla, as the 
drivers are apt to stop at the foot of the hill.) 

Steam Tramway from Stadt am Hof (p. 124) to Donaustauf, 57* Jt, in 
35 min.; fare 75 or 45 pf., return 1 Jt 10 pf. or 75 pf. 5 it starts close to 
the bridge on the left bank, 10 min. from the railway-station. 

Steamboat to Donaustauf (Walhalla) from the TJntere Wohrd by the 
lower bridge (PI. D. 2), in July and Aug. thrice; in June, Sept., and 
Oct. twice daily in Vz hr. (back in l-i'A hr.); return-fare 1st cl. 1 Jt 20 pf., 
2nd cl. 80 pf. 

Baths. Otto-Bad, Keppler-Str. and Fischmarkt. — River-baths (20 pf.) 
at the Obere and the Untere Wohrd. 

Ratisbon, Germ. Regensburg (1116 ft. ~), situated at the con- 
fluence of the Danube and Regen, with 37,936 inhab. (6000 Prot.), 
the Castra Regina of the Romans, the Celtic Ratisbona, and since 
the 8th cent, the seat of an episcopal see founded by St. Boniface, 
was from the 11th to the 15th cent, one of the most flourishing 
and populous cities of S. Germany. At an early period it was a free 
town of the Empire, and from 1663 to 1806 the permanent seat of 
the Imperial Diet. By the Peace of Luneville it was adjudged to 
the Primate Dalberg ; and in 1810 it became Bavarian, after the 
disastrous defeat of the Austrians beneath its walls the preceding 
year, when part of the town had been reduced to ashes. 

120 Route 23. RATISBON. Cathedral. 

Some of the numerous mediaeval houses still retain the armorial 
bearings of their ancient owners, and several still possess their 
towers of defence, a reminiscence of early German civic life now 
preserved at Ratisbon alone. Of these the Goldene Thurm in the 
Wahlen-Strasse is the most conspicuous, near which, in the Wat- 
markt, is a tower with a relief said to be a portrait of Emp. Henry I. 
Observe also the Ooliath, the ancestral seat of the powerful Thun- 
dorffer family, opposite the bridge, restored in 1883 ; the so-called 
Romerthurm, adjoining the ancient 'Herzogsburg' in the Kornmarkt; 
and the tower of the 'Golden Cross' hotel. Ratisbon is one of the 
earliest homes of art in Germany, and so far back as the late Carlo- 
vingian period possessed many interesting buildings. 

Of Roman Buildings there are still a few relics. Thus the remains 
of the Porta Praetoria in the street 'Unter den Schwibbbgen', opposite 
No. F, 112, on the ~8. side of the Bischofshof (PI. D, 2). Parts of the old 
Soman walls were found during building operations, but have been covered 
in again. The foundations of a Roman building to the S. of the railway- 
station were excavated in 1885. During the construction of the railway- 
station in 1870-74 a large Roman and Merovingian burial-ground was 
discovered; the objects found there are now in the Roman museum in 
St. Ulrich's (p. 121). 

The "Cathedral (PI. D, 2) of St. Peter was begun by Bishop Leo 
Thundorffer on the site of an earlier edifice in 1275, and completed 
during the following centuries (down to 1534), with the exception 
of the towers. The symmetrical proportions of the interior recall 
Strassburg Cathedral. Peculiarities of construction are that the 
transept does not project beyond the sides of the aisles , and that 
the choir is destitute of the ambulatory and chapels usual in Gothic 
churches. The W. facade, with the chief portal and a curious 
triangular *Porch, is of the 15th century. A gallery, with open stone 
balustrade, is carried round the roof, and affords a good survey of 
the town. On the N. side of the transept rises the Eselsthurm, or 
Asses' Tower, containing a winding inclined plane. The elegant open 
Towers were completed in 1859-69 by Denunger ; and a slender 
wooden spire, coated with zinc, has been raised above the centre 
of the transept. Length of interior 306 ft., breadth 125 ft. ; nave 
132 ft. high. (Admission 5-10 a.m. ; the sacristan's house is Dom- 
garten, F, 125, at the back of the choir; enter by the gate on the 
S. side.) 

Interior. The nave contains a monument in bronze erected in 1598 
to Bishop Philip William, Duke of Bavaria. In a niche in the N. aisle, 
partly concealed from view, is the monument of the Primate Prince Dal- 
berg (d. 1817), designed by Canova, and executed in white marble. On 
the N. side of the choir the 'Monument of Margaretha Tucher in bronze, 
by P. Vischer (1521), representing Christ with the sisters of Lazarus. On 
the opposite wall of the choir is a marble relief in memory of Bishop 
Herberstein (d. 1663), representing Christ feeding the five thousand. Ad- 
jacent, the altar- tomb of Bishop Wittmann (d. 1833). The high -altar, 
presented in 1785 by the Prince-Bishop Count Fugger, is entirely of silver ; 
adjoining it is the elegant "Ciborium, 56 ft. in height, with numerous 
statuettes, partly executed by Roritzer in 1493. On the S. side of the choir 
are two other modern monuments to bishops, by Eberhard; near them a 
well 66 ft. in depth, with an elegant covering sculptured in stone, executed 

Rathhaus. RATISBON. 23. Route. 121 

in 1S01 by the cathedral-architect Wolfgang Eoritzer, who was beheaded 
in 1514, for 'rebellion against the imperial authority 1 . The aisles contain 
five altars with handsome Gothic canopies and modern pictures. The finest 
of these is in the N. aisle, with statues of Emp. Frederick II. and the 
Empress Cunigunde. Late-Gothic pulpit of 1482. An elegant open gallery 
runs round the interior of the church below the windows. The treasury 
-contains old and costly crucifixes, reliquaries, and other valuables. 

The "Cloisters on the N. side of the cathedral are shown by the sacris- 
tan. The central hall contains beautifully -sculptured windows of the 
16th cent. ; the pavement is formed by the tombstones of canons and patri- 
cians of RatisbOn. Adjoining this hall on the E. is the Romanesque All 
Saints'' Chapel, erected in 1164, with the remains of early frescoes and an 
interesting antique altar. On the N. side of the cloisters is the Old Cathedral 
(St. Stephens), a very early building in the circular style, with four re- 
cesses in the sides. The altar in the apse, a block of stone partly hol- 
lowed out, with elegant little round-arched windows, in which relics are 
said once to have been kept, is evidently of great antiquity. 

Just beyond the cathedral is St. TJlrich, or the Alte Pfarre, a 
curious but elegant church in the transition-style of the first half 
of the 13th century. It now contains the older collections of the 
Historical Society (see below), prehistoric and Roman , including 
several sarcophagi and over thirty inscriptions. The gallery contains 
the bronzes and other smaller antiquities (adm. daily 8-6, 50 pf., 
Sun. 9-12, 20 pf.; catalogue 30 pf.). — To the N.E., beyond the 
cathedral-garden, lies the church of Niedermunster, of early found- 
ation but entirely rebuilt in the baroque style. Adjoining is the 
Bishops' Palace, occupying part of the old convent of St. Erhard. 
Thejinteresting little Crypt of St. Erhard, in the Niedermiinstergasse, 
behind the church, dates from the 11th century. In the Kall- 
miinzergasse is the handsome new Roman Catholic Vereinshaus 
St. Erhard, with a fine Gothic hall ('Dollinger - Saal') On the 
upper floor are the archives, library, coins, drawings, seals, weapons, 
pictures, etc., belonging to the Historical Society (adm. on appli- 
cation to the custodian in St. Ulrich's church). 

In the Old Kornmarkt (now the Moltke-Platz ; PI. D, 3), to the 
S.E. of the cathedral, are the Herzogshof (now the Forestry bureau) 
and the Rdmerthurm or Heidenthurm (p. 118). On the S. side is the 
Alte Kapelle, originally a Romanesque church with a Gothic choir, 
restored in the 18th cent, in the baroque style. Opposite, to the E., 
is the little Karmelitenkirche (1641-60), in the Ital. baroque style. 
On the Minoriten-Platz rises the Gothic Minoritenkirche, built early 
in the 14th cent., with a fine lofty choir. Part of it is now a military 
gymnasium, and the adjacent monastery is now a barrack. 

From the cathedral we pass through the Kramgasse to the W. 
to the Rathhaus (PI. C, 2), a gloomy, irregular pile, partly erected 
in the 14th cent, and partly after 1660. The Imperial Diet met here 
from 1663 to 1806. Observe the facade towards the Rathhaus-Platz, 
■with an elegant bow-window and a fine portal. Cards of admission 
at the police guard-room (50 pf. each). 

The great Imperial Sail contains what is groundlessly called the im- 
perial throne, covered with leather and studded with brass nails. The 

122 Route 23. KATISBON. St. Emmeram. 

walls are hung with tapestry. The stained-glass-^windows exhibit the ar- 
morial hearings of Emperors Charles V. and Matthias. In the Fiirslen- 
kollegium is preserved tapestry of the 14-15th cent. : JSneas and Dido, 
Coronation of Esther, Contest of the virtues and the vices; also embroidery 
of the same period ('the heart's joys and sorrows'); tapestry of the 15- 17th 
cent, (mythological and hunting scenes). The Jfebemimmer (entrance under 
the gallery of the Imperial Hall) contains old flags, portraits, views of Ra- 
tishon (1725) and Nuremberg (1637), etc. In the Model Room are eighty- 
eight models of buildings in Batisbon, antiquities, etc. Subterranean dun- 
geons aud a torture-chamber are also shown. 

Farther to the "W. is the Haidplatz (PI. 0, 2), in which is the hotel 
l Zum Ooldnen Kreuz' (PI. a). The massive tower on the E. side of the 
hotel bears a medallion-portrait of Don John of Austria (modern). 

This celebrated general, a natural son of the Emp. Charles V. and 
the beautiful Barbara Blumberger, was born at Ratisbon on 25th Feb., 
1547. The Emperor lodged, during the Diet of 1546, at the 'Golden Cross', 
then the house of Bernard Kraft auf der Haid, but that Don John was 
born here is a fiction. 

Going hence through the Ludwig-Str. to the Arnulf-Platz, and 
turning to the left, past the Neue Haus with the Theatre (PI. B, 2), 
we reach the church of the old Benedictine Abbey of St. Jakob, usually 
called the Schottenkirche (PL B, 3), the abbey having originally 
belonged to Scottish or Irish monks. The famous Romanesque portal 
is adorned with curious sculptured figures of men and animals, per- 
haps symbolical of the victory of Christianity over paganism. The 
church, a Romanesque basilica of the latter half of the 12th cent., 
containing columns with interesting old capitals, has lately been 
restored. The old monastery is now a seminary for priests. — In 
the vicinity, outside the Jakobsthor, is a Gothic Column of 1459 
with scriptural scenes and statues of saints, restored in 1855. 

To the E. of the Jakobskirche is the Bismarck-Piatz (PI. B, 3), 
with pleasure-grounds, on the S.E. side of which rises the large 
Gothic Dominikanerkirche. The Gesandten-Str. (PI. B, C, 3), with 
its handsome houses, leads straight on to the E. to the Neupfarr- 
Platz, passing the Prot. Dreieinigkeitskirche. In the adjoining court 
a number of interesting tombstones are built into the wall. Farther 
on the house of Herr Schwarz (0, 93) contains the Collections of 
the Natural History Society (adm. on the 1st and 3rd San. of each 
month, 10-12). 

The Bereiterweg leads to the S. from the Bismarck-Platz, passing 
the Prdsidialgebaude (PI. 4), on the right, and the Old Gymnasium 
(PI. 3), on the left, to the ^Egidibn-Platz (PI. B, 3), where are 
situated the Rom. Oath. Krankenhaus and the Gothic Aegidienkirche 
(13th cent.), recently restored. The Marschall-Str. to the left leads 
thence past the Regierungsgebaude to the Emmebams-Platz (PI. C, 3), 
embellished with a statue of Bishop Joh. Mich. Sailer (d. 1832), in 
bronze, by Widnmann, erected by Ludwig I. in 1868. 

The old Benedictine Abbey of St. Emmeram (PI. 0, 3, 4), one of 
the oldest in Germany, was founded in the 7th cent., and suppressed 
in 1803. The Romanesque church, with two choirs and a crypt, 
dates from the 11th cent., and was restored early in last century in 

Obermunster. RATISBON. 23. Route. 123 

a degraded style. (The sacristan's house is to the right of the 
church, C, 152.) 

The entrance is from the Emmerams-Platz , through a double door, 
above which are faded frescoes. Between the doors is a relief of Christ 
bearing the Cross (1611). On the wall to the right are blind arches resting 
upon columns; to the left in the garden is the isolated church-tower, 
adorned with statues (16th cent.). The porch adjoining the church-door con- 
tains an ancient stone seat, known as the Heimichs Siuhl, because the 
Emp. Henry II. is supposed to have sat On the wall to the right 
is the tombstone of the historian Aventin (d. 1534). The principal altar- 
piece is a painting by Sandrart (1666), the martyrdom of St. Emmeram ; 
in the pavement in front of the altar a slab bearing the imperial crown 
denotes the tombs of Emp. Arnulph (d. 899) and Emp. Lewis the Child 
(d. 911). The aisles contain some interesting ancient sculptures; in the 
left aisle: monuments of Empress TJta, wife of Arnulph (13th cent.); Count 
Warmund von Wasserburg (d. 1010); Dukes Arnulph (d. 937) and Henry 
(d. 995) of Bavaria; and St. Aurelia (d. 1027), daughter of Hugh Capet, 
erected in 1335. This aisle also contains the altar of the martyred Maxi- 
mianus, with his relics; and a cabinet (opened by the sacristan) with relics 
of SS. Emmeram and Wolfgang, reliquaries, ecclesiastical antiquities, etc. 
In the right aisle: monuments of St. Wolfgang (d. 994; beneath an iron 
grating), Bishop Tuto, chancellor under Arnulph, and St. Emmeram ; also 
the altar of St. Calcedonius with his relics. In the vaulted treasury are 
a handsome sarcophagus, hewn at Ratisbon in 1423 and containing the 
relics of St. Emmeram, and other curiosities. Below the W. choir is a 
crypt of the year 1052, restored in 1878. 

The fine old Cloisters on the S. side of the church (13th and 
14th cent.) are enclosed by the extensive abbey-buildings, which 
have been the residence of the Princes of Thurn and Taxis since 
1812. The way to the cloisters (open daily, 11-12) is to the right 
of the church, past the Reitbahn, or riding-school (with sculptures 
by Schwanthaler) ; then through a portal to the left into the large 
court with the old Kaiserbrunnen (with figure said to represent 
Emp. Arnulph) ; and again to the left to a door with a glass roof, 
where we find the porter (fee). In the centre of the cloisters is the 
modern Chapel, adorned with stained glass ; in the choir is a statue 
of Christ by Dannecker (p. 11); the crypt contains the family burial- 
vault. At the end of the E. wing of the cloisters is a fine iron gate, 
said to date from the 11th century. 

The adjacent abbey-church of Obermunster (PI. C, 3), an 11th 
cent, basilica resembling St. Emmeram's, contains some old frescoes 
and tombs. The convent is now an episcopal school for boys. — 
We may return hence to the cathedral via the Neupfarr-Platz, 
to the N., in which is the Prot. Neupfarrkirche. 

Outside the Petersthor (PI. D, 4 ; now pulled down), in the An- 
lagen, or pleasure-grounds, laid out on the site of the old ramparts, 
is the Prediger-Saule, or 'preacher's column', with reliefs of the 13th 
or 14th cent, (restored in 1858). In the vicinity is a small circular 
temple, erected in 1808, with a bust of Kepler, the astronomer, 
who died here in 1630 whilst on a journey. The Anlagen contain 
several other monuments. The Royal Villa in the Gothic style, on 
an old bastion at the lower end of the town, near the Ostenthor 
(PI. E, 2), commands an extensive view. 

1 24 Route 23. RATISBON. 

A stone bridge over the Danube, 380 yds. in length, built in 
the 12th cent., connects Ratisbon with Stadt am Hof, a suburb on 
the opposite bank, which was almost entirely burned down by the 
Austrians in 1809. Below Stadt am Hof the Regen empties its tur- 
bid water into the Danube. 

Pleasant walk through Stadt am Hof to the Dreifaltigkeitsberg and the 
P/4 hr.) Seidenplantage (Restaurant; fine view, best by evening light). 

To the Walhalla, a most attractive excursion; there and back 
in about 3hrs. (steam-tramway, steamboat, or carriage, see p. 119). 
The Walhalla-Bahn traverses Stadt am Hof, crosses the Regen, 
and intersects the railway (p. 134; passenger-station) at the station 
of Walhalla-Strasse. Thence it crosses the plain of the Danube, 
via Schwabelweis and Tegernheim, to (6 3 / 4 M.) Donaustauf or Stauf 
(1068 ft. ; Restaurant zur Walhalla, at the upper end). On a lime- 
stone rock above the long village rise the ruins of the castle of Stauf 
(1385 ft.), destroyed by the Swedes in 1634, with pleasure-grounds 
(view finer than from the Walhalla). 

Two routes ascend from the upper end of Donaustauf to the (20-25 min.) 
Walhalla; one immediately to the left (at first a carriage-road, then as- 
cending steps and by a footpath to the right, past the house of the custo- 
dian), approaching the Walhalla from the back, and preferable for the 
view suddenly disclosed. The other, a footpath, ascends direct to the 
grand flight of 250 steps by which the edifice is approached from the 
Danube. The sculptures in the S. tympanum are only seen to advantage 
from the upper part of the flight. The best general view is obtained 
from the opposite bank of the Danube. — Travellers arriving by steamer 
do not enter the village, but follow the first road to the right, and then 
either ascend to the left through the grounds to the route first described, 
or go on at the foot of the hill to the flight of steps. 

The *Walhalla (i.e. 'Hall of the Chosen', the Paradise of the an- 
cient Germanic tribes), a German 'Temple of Fame', stands very con- 
spicuously on a hill planted with oaks and laid out with walks, 
280 ft. above the Danube (1348 ft. above the sea -level). This 
magnificent edifice, founded by King Lewis I. in 1830, and designed 
by Klenze, was completed in 1842. Admission daily from April 1st 
to Sept. 1st, 8-12 and 1-7; in March and Sept. 8-12 and 1-6, in 
Oct. 8-12 and 1-5; other months 9-12 and 1-4 (free). 

The Exterior (246 ft. long, 115 ft. broad), surrounded by fifty -two 
fluted columns, a fine example of the purest Doric order, closely re- 
sembling the Parthenon at Athens, is massively constructed of unpolished 
grey marble (most of it quarried at the TJntersberg; some of the blocks 
about fifteen tons in weight). The Pediments both in front and at the 
back contain groups in marble: S., towards the Danube, Germania, re- 
gaining her liberty after the battle of Leipsic; N. the 'Hermannschlacht', 
or Battle of Arminius, both by Schwanlhaler (d. 1848). The roof is of iron, 
covered with plates of copper. 

The Interior , of the Ionic order, consists of a superb hall 180 ft. long, 
50 ft. broad, and 56 ft. high, with richly decorated and gilded ceiling, and 
lighted from above. The pavement is of marble-mosaic. The lateral walls 
are divided into six sections by means of projecting buttresses, two on each 
side, and are lined with marble. The beams of the ceiling are supported 
by 14 painted Walkyries (warrior-virgins of the ancient German Paradise), 
by Schwanthaler. Around the entire hall runs a frieze, executed by Wagner, 
representing in 8 sections the history and life of the Germanic race down 
to the introduction of Christianity. Above the cornice are 64 marble 

KELHEIM. 24. Route. 125 

tablets bearing the names of famous Germans of whom no portrait could 
be obtained. The busts are arranged chronologically (beginning on the 
left side by the entrance) in groups, separated by six admirable '"Victories 
by Ranch (the finest of which is that in the middle of the left side). At 
the farther extremity is the 'opisthodomos', separated from the principal 
hall by two Ionic columns; in front of it is a seated marble statue of 
King Lewis I., by F. von Miller (1890). The general effect of the interior 
is grand and impressive, although the association of classical Greek arch- 
itecture with an ancient barbarian Paradise and modern German celeb- 
rities may appear somewhat incongruous. — The "Busts, 101 in number, 
represent celebrated Germans who were deemed worthy by the illustrious 
founder to grace his temple of fame. Among them are the emperors Henry 
the Fowler, Fred. Barbarossa, and Rudolph of Hapsburg; also Gutenberg, 
Diirer, Luther, Wallenstein, Fred, the Great, Bliicher, Schwarzenberg, and 
Radetzky ; Lessing, Mozart, Beethoven, Kant, Schiller, Goethe, etc. 

*View of the dark slopes of the Bavarian Forest; below flows 
the Danube ; beyond it the fertile plain of Straubing ; right, Donau- 
stauf and Ratisbon ; left, in clear weather, the snow-capped Alps. 

From Ratisbon to the "Befreiungshalle, at Kelheim, see below. 

24. From Ratisbon to Donau worth (and Augsburg). 

Railway to (18'/2 M.) Kelheim, l-l'/s hr. (fares 2 Jl 30, 1 Jt 70, 1 JH 
5 pf.); to (46 M.) Ingolstadt, 2'/ 2 -3 hrs. (fares 6 Jl, 4 Jl, 2 Jt 60 pf.) 1 ; to 
(78 >/i M.) DonauwSrth, 4-6 hrs. (fares 10 Jl 30, 6 Jl 90, 4 Jl 50 pf.); to 
(87'/2 M.) Augsburg, 5 hrs. (fares 11 Jl 30, 7 Jl 50, 4 Jl 80 pf.). 

The line passes under the Nuremberg and Ratisbon railway 
at (2M.)Priifening (p. 119) and crosses the Danube, which is here 
flanked by the spurs of the Franconian Jura. 4 M. Sinzing, at the 
mouth of the Schwarze Laber (branch-line to Ailing, with large 
paper-mills). Then on the left bank of the Danube; pretty scen- 
ery. Opposite (9 M.) Oundelshausen lies Oberndorf, where Count 
Palatine Otho of Wittelsbach, the murderer of the German Emperor 
Philip (p. 78), was overtaken and slain in 1208. Farther on is 
Abbach (*Curhaus), the birthplace of Emp. Henry the Saint (972), 
with sulphur-baths, a new church, and a ruined castle. We then 
cross the Danube to (12 M.) Abbach; the station is 2 M. from the 
village. The train skirts the Teufelsfelsen , where many Roman 
coins were found during the construction of the railway in 1873. 
The Befreiungshalle is visible to the left. On the Ringberg are 
well-defined traces of an extensive Roman camp. — 1572 M. Saal. 

To Kelheim (3 M.), branch-railway in 14 minutes. The terminus lies on 
the right bank of the Danube, which is crossed by a fine new bridge. On 
the left bank are the government-offices, in an old Schloss of the Dukes 
of Bavaria; in the garden are the remains of a Roman watch-tower. 

Kelheim (1150 ft. ; " Ehrenthaller , at the Donauthor; RiehVs Inn, Hater I, 
Lang, restaurants with gardens and view: carr. with one horse to the 
Befreiungshalle and back to the station, fi/» hr., 3 Jl) is a busy little 
town (3400 inhab.) with partly preserved walls and gates, at the influx of 
the AllmUhl, and through it of the Ludwigs-Canal (p. 75) into the Danube. 
The market is adorned with statues of Lewis I. and Maximilian II. by 
Haltig. The late-Gothic Church (1468), lately restored and adorned with 
polychrome painting, contains altars of white Kelheim limestone. The fine 
group (Coronation of the Virgin) on the high-altar is by Obermeyer; on 
the altar to the left is a Pieta by Veit Stoss, on that to the right a St. Anna 
by Knabl. The choir-frescoes are from drawings by Prof. Klein of Vienna. 

1 26 Route 24. ALTMUHL-THAL. From Ratisbon 

The "Befreiungshalle ('Hall of Liberation'; 1480 ft), on the Michaels- 
berg, to the W. of the town, a magnificent classical edifice, designed by 
Gartner and Klenze, was founded by Lewis I. in 1842, and inaugurated on 
18th Oct., 1863, the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Leipsic. A rotunda, 
191 ft. in height, is borne by a substruction 23 ft. high, and is reached by 
a flight of 84 steps. On the exterior are 18 colossal female figures, emble- 
matical of different German provinces ; in front of, and below these, 
18 candelabra ; on the coping above the external arcade, 18 trophies. The 
interior , which is entirely lined with coloured marble , contains '34 Vic- 
tories in Carrara marble by Schwanthaler ; between these are 17 bronze 
shields made of the metal of captured French guns, bearing names of vic- 
tories. Above the arcades are the names of 16 German generals on white 
marble tablets ; higher up , the names of 18 captured fortresses. Below 
these is a gallery borne by 72 granite columns, 20 ft. in height, with bases 
and capitals of white marble. The richly-fretted dome , 70 ft. in height 
and 105 ft. in width, is lighted by a cupola 19 ft. in diameter. Opposite 
the portal is a staircase (opened by the custodian; fee) ascending to the 
inner gallery, which affords a good survey of the interior (fine echo). A 
narrow staircase leads thence to the outer gallery, where a view of the 
valleys of the Danube and Altmiihl is enjoyed. — Admission daily 8-10 
and 2-6 o'clock (in winter 10-12 and 2-4). The custodian lives in a house 
a short distance to the left. 

Pleasant excursion from Kelheim up the Altmuhl-Thal to (IO1/2 M.) 
Riedenburg (carr., in l 3 /4 hr., 6 jtt, with two horses 9JI). The road follows 
the left bank of the Altmiihl, skirting a bare slope, with Neu-Kelheim 
and the extensive Kelheim Quarries, and passes Oronsdorf and (2V2 M.) 
Oberau. To the right, halfway up the hill, is the Schullerloch, a large cavern 
affording a fine view of the valleys of the Altmiihl and the Danube (Re- 
staurant). [Pedestrians should follow the road to the Befreiungshalle on the 
right bank of the Altmiihl, as far as the first kilometre-stone, and take 
the path to the right, skirting the wood, to the Schottenhof, above which, at 
the Hesselberger in the An, is a ferry to the Schullerloch. Or they may follow 
the right bank to Bchellneck, Alt-Essing and Neu-Essing.] 4Vs M. Neu-Essing 
(Graf's Brewery), commanded by the ruin of Randeck. 7>/z M. Nusshausen 
(Brewery); to the right, on a precipitous and isolated rock, the chateau of 
Prunn. To the left diverges a footpath to the Klamm, a mass of rock towering 
amid the woods on the hillside to the right, and affording a good survey 
of the Altmuhl-Thal (direct and shady footpath hence to Riedenburg). — 
IOV2 M. Riedenburg (Post; Riemhofer) possesses three castles (Rosenbtirg, 
Rabenstein, and Tachenstein), situated on rocky spurs, which appear to close 
up the valley. To the left opens the pretty Schambach-Thal. 

The Valley of the Danube between Kelheim and (3M.) Weltenburg is very 
picturesque. The barren and rugged rocks , the gorges and summits of 
which are wooded, rise abruptly from the river to a height of 300-400 ft. 
Each of the more conspicuous rocks is named from some fanciful resem- 
blance or from some legend , such as the Three Brothers , Maiden , Peter 
and Paul, Pulpit, Napoleon , etc. The Benedictine Abbey of Weltenburg-, 
founded by Duke Thassilo of Bavaria in 775 and rebuilt in the 18th cent., 
lies at the foot of a strongly-fortified Roman station. The present church 
is a neat rococo structure. The best plan is to take the train to stat. 
Thaldorf, walk thence to the (3 M.) village and 0/2 M.) abbey of Wel- 
tenburg ('Restaurant), or direct to the latter (3 M.); then descend the 
river in a small boat (1-6 pers. to Traunthal 2, to Kelheim 3 Jl) to the 
monastery (^KlosterF) of Traunthal, romantically situated on the left bank 
(pleasant garden - restaurant) , whence a walk of 20 min. through wood 
brings us to the Befreiungshalle. A good forest-path (red marks) leads in 
1 hr. from the Befreiungshalle to the bank of the Danube opposite Welten- 
burg (ferry). Three so-called 'Roman Walls', probably of pre-Roman origin, 
cross the ridge between the valleys of the Danube and the Altmiihl; one 
of them is upwards of 2 M. long. 

The line quits the Danube and Tuns to the S.W. through a 
■wooded and hilly district to the valley of the Hopfenbach. 20 M. 

to Donauworth. ABENSBERG. 2d. Route. 127 

Thaldorf. Then through the N. part of the Holledau, a hop-growing 
district. — 25 M. Abensberg (1213 ft. ; Kuchelbauer), a smalltown 
on the Abensfluss, with an old castle (now containing the local court 
of justice) and an interesting Carmelite church in the Gothic style, 
was the birthplace of the Bavarian historian Johann Thurmayer, 
surnamed Aventinus, to whom a monument has been erected in 
front of the Schloss. Napoleon defeated Archduke Charles here in 
1809. To the S. are the pilgrimage - church of Allersdorf and the 
Romanesque abbey-church of Biburg (1125-50). 

From Abensberg a road leads to the N.W. to (4'/2 M.) Eining, on the 
Danube, near which are the interesting remains of the Roman frontier- 
station of Abusina , the chief Roman military post in Bavaria. [Eining is 
6 M. from Neustadt (see below), from which it may be reached by a foot- 
path via Clogging, a village with a strong sulphur-spring and an old Roman- 
esque church-portal.] The Romans recognised the importance of this spot 
as the junction of the military roads connecting the Danube territories with 
the Rhine and with Gaul, and as soon as they had conquered the district 
(B. C. 15) they established a station here, which they maintained, with 
three interruptions, down to the end of their sway (5th cent.). The re- 
mains, excavated since 1879, include a great part of the S. castrum, a bath, 
with a hypocaust in still usable condition under the floor, and the bath- 
keeper's house. A guide may be obtained at the parsonage, where some 
of the objects found here are preserved; but most of them are in the col- 
lection of the Historical Society at Landshut. 

From Eining (Inn ; better, Stipberger's Brewery, in Hienheim, opposite) 
we may ascend the Danube by boat to (5 M.) Weltenburg (1-6 pers. 5 M, 
each addit. pers. 60 pf.) and Kelheim. Haderfleck ('Locus Hadriani'), on the 
left bank, marks the end of the timet Romanus ( Teu/ehmauer, Pfahlrain), 
a frontier-rampart with towers, constructed about 100 A.D. to protect the 
Roman Empire against the incursions of the Germans, and extending from 
the Danube, past Weissenburg am Sand (p. 131), to Wiesbaden, on the 
Rhine (comp. p. 27). — Pleasant walk from Hienheim across the Teufels- 
mauer, through the Hienheimer Forett, with its huge oaks, and past Schlolt 
to the Klamm and (3 ] /2 hrs.) Riedenbwg or (3 hrs.) Neu-Esting in the Alt- 
miihl-Thal (p. 126). 

About 8^2 M. to the S.E. of Abensberg (diligence daily in l»/ 4 hr.) lies 
Bohr (Inn), with an interesting abbey-church in an elaborate baroque style. 

Beyond (28!/2 M-) Neustadt an der Donau (1165 ft.) the country 
becomes natter. The train skirts the extensive forest of Durribuch. 
33Y2 M. Munchsmiinster, on the llm, formerly a Benedictine abbey. 
37V2 M. Vohburg (village on the Danube, 3 M. to the N.E.) ; 41 M. 
Manching. • — 46 M. Ingolstadt (p. 132). 

Fkom Ingolstadt to Adgsbues, 41 M., railway In 2 hrs. The scenery 
is monotonous, the line running at first along the E. margin of the Doncm- 
moos (see below). 3'/2 M. Zuchering; 1572 M. Schrobenhausen, a town on 
the Paar, with a late-Gothic brick church of the 15th cent. ; 22 M. Raders- 
dorf. Near (25'/2 M.) Aichach, to the N.E., is the ruined castle of Wittels- 
baeh, the ancestral seat of the reigning house of Bavaria, destroyed in 
1209, with an obelisk erected in 1832. 32 M. Dasing; 37 M. Friedberg, an 
ancient little town on the Ach, with a modern church, decorated with 
frescoes by F. Wagner; 38'/2 M. Hochzoll (p. 133). The train then crosses 
the tech and reaches Augsburg (p. 113). 

The railway to Donauworth traverses the Donaumoos , an 
extensive marshy district , partly drained and rendered cultivable 
during the last century. 52 M. Weichering ; 55 M. Bohrenfeld, with 
a royal stud. 

128 Route 25. ROTHENBURG. 

58 M. Neuburg (1410 ft. ; Post), a pleasant town -with 7500 
inhab., on the slope of a hill rising from the Danube. The older 
part of the large Schlosa of the Dukes of Pfalz-Neuburg is now a bar- 
rack. The W. wing, in the Renaissance style, added by Elector Otho 
Henry in 1538, contains the district archives. Fine vaulted gateway 
and two rooms with rich timber ceilings. The Historical Society 
possesses four large pieces of tapestry of the 16th century. The 
Hofkirche, adjoining the chateau, contains a valuable collection of 
ecclesiastical vestments. Herr Grasegger has a collection of antiq- 
uities found in the duchy of Neuburg. The town-library and the 
old throne-room in the town-hall are also interesting. 

The line now traverses a uninteresting district, running 1-3 M. 
from the right bank of the Danube. From (62 M.) Vnterhausen 
Count ATCO-Stepperg's chateau of Stepperg is seen in the distance 
to the right , on the wooded left bank of the river. Farther on is 
Bertholdsheim, the large Schloss of Count Dumoulin. 66 M. Burg- 
heim; 71 M. Rain, where Tilly, at the age of 73, was mortally 
wounded in 1632 while defending the passage of the Lech against 
Gustaphus Adolphus. The line crosses the Lech to stat. Qender- 
kingen, joins the Augsburg Railway, and crosses the Danube to — 

78V2 M. Donauworti (p. 112). 

25. From Frankfort to Munich by Ansbach and 

253 M. Railway in 10-137:! hrs.; fares 31 Jl, 21 Jl 80 pf., 14 Jl, ex- 
press 38 Jl, 26 M 80, 18 Jl 90 pf. 

As far as Wurzburg, see R. 14. The Ansbach line here turns to 
the S. ; to the right the Marienberg. 83 M. Sanderau, on the S.E. 
side of the town. Near (85 M.) Heidingsfeld, once a fortified town, 
of which the church-tower alone is visible (interesting relief in the 
church by T. Riemenschneider : Mourning for Christ), we cross the 
Main. (The Heidelberg line diverges to the right , see p. 70.) — 
89 M. Winterhausen ; 91 M. Oossmannsdorf. — 94 M. Ochsenfurt 
(545 ft. ; *Schnecke), with a Gothic church surmounted by a Roman- 
esque tower ; opposite, the late-Gothic chapel of St. Michael (1440), 
with a fine portal. The old fortifications, with their numerous towers, 
are well preserved. — At (97 M.) Marktbreit, with its old watch- 
towers, we quit the Main and approach the W. slopes of the Steiger 
Wald. 104M. Herrnbergtheim; IO81/2M. Uffenheim; 112M. Ermetz- 
hofen. — l^^M. Steinach (*Goldenes Kreuz, unpretending). 

Branch Eailway from Steinach via Harlershofen in 40 min. to (7 II.) 
Rothenburg on the Tauber (1550 ft.; * Hirsch, Schmiedgasse, R. 2, D.2JI, B. 
(30 pf., charming view irom the windows overlooking the Taubergrund; 
Bar, Tl.lJl; Lamm; beer at DickhauFs, HachteVs, and .Beci's; wine at the 
Eisenltuf), a charming mediaeval town (7000 inhab.), with red-tiled, gabled 
houses and well-preserved fortifications. As in Nuremberg the churches 
are Gothic , the secular buildings Renaissance. Rothenburg is already 
spoken of as a town in a document of 942, and from 1274 to 1803 it was 
a free city of the Empire. In the 14th and 15th cent, it was an energetic 

to Munich. ROTHENBURG. 25. Route. 129 

member of the Franconian League, in 1525 it joined the insurgent peas- 
antry, and in 1543 embraced the Reformation. During the Thirty Years' 
War the town was repeatedly besieged and taken. 

A visit of 4-5 hrs. suffices for a visit to the chief points of interest. 
From the railway- station we walk to (5 min.) the Roder-Thor, the E. 
entrance of the town, and thence to (5 min.) the Market. In front of 
us is the broad Herrengasse; to the left diverges the Obere Schmied- 
gasse, containing the so-called Haus des Baumeisters (No. 343), of 1596, with 
its handsome facade adorned with Caryatides and its interesting court. 
At the beginning" of the Herrengasse (see below), to the left, is the Foun- 
tain of St. George, erected in 1606, beyond which is the Gewerbehalle, with 
a small collection of antiquities (ring). To the right rises the handsome 
"Rathhaus, the older part of which is in the Gothic style, with a tower 
230 ft. high, while the later is a beautiful Renaissance structure of 1578, 
with a projecting rustica portico and balcony (of 1681), an oriel, and an 
elaborate spiral staircase. The staircase in the interior of the older build- 
ing ascends to a vestibule with a fine timber-roof supported by Ionic col- 
umns. Beyond this is the spacious Court Room (now 'Kaisersaal'), in which 
an annual festival commemorates the capture of the town by Tilly in 1631. 
(A picture by Schuch in the Council Room, on the upper floor of the new 
Rathhaus, refers to the same event.) In the cellars are torture-chambers 
and dungeons, where, among others, the burgomaster Toppler, accused ot 
treason , perished in 1408. The court contains an antique Renaissance 
portal. The tower (193 steps) commands a splendid view of the town and 
the Tauber-Thal. 

The neighbouring church of St. James (Jakobskirche), with its two tow- 
ers and a choir at each end, built in 1373-1471, is remarkable for its fine 
proportions and the purity of its style (restored in 1851). It contains three 
fine carved wooden altars : the "Altar of the Holy Blood, dating from 1478 
(an early work of T. Riemenschneider) ; the Virgin's Altar, of 1495; and 
the *High Altar of 'the twelve messengers', with wings painted by Fritz 
Herlen (1466). The beautiful stained-glass windows of the choir date from 
the end of the 14th cent, and were restored in 1856. The sacristan lives 
opposite the E. choir (fee 50 pf.). The Toppler Chapel, to the S. of the 
church, contains the tomb of the above-mentioned burgomaster. Adjoin- 
ing the W. choir is a handsome Renaissance house with an oriel, now 
the parsonage. In the street passing below the W. choir is the entrance 
to the Chapel of the Holy Blood, with old sculptures and paintings by Her- 
len, Wohlgemut, and others. The Gymnasium, in the Kirchplatz, was built 
in 1589-91. 

From the passage under the W. choir of the Jakobskirche we proceed 
straight towards the N. to the KUngen-Thor and the small Gothic Church of 
St. Wolfgang, of 1473-83, the N. side of which forms part of the town-wall. 
— A pleasant promenade outside the wall leads to the left to (6-8 min.) 
the gate of the grounds laid out on a hill once occupied by a Castle of the 
Hohenstaufen (fine view of the town and of the deep Tauber-Thal). Below 
it is the Toppler schlosschen, which once belonged to the unfortunate Bur- 
gomaster Toppler (see above). We now return through the Burgthor to 
the Herren-Strasse, which leads to the market (see above), and contains 
the early-Gothic Franciscan. Church (keys kept by the sacristan) and sev- 
eral houses of patricians of Rothenburg, including the StaudVsche Haus 
(No. 16, on the left), with a curious old court. The house No. 48 also has 
a fine court. 

The Schmiedgasse (see above) and its prolongation the Spifalgasse lead 
past the Leper Hospital (now a pawnbroker's), the Gothic Church of St. John 
(R. C), with the Johanniterhof (now district offices), and theSpilal (1570-76), 
with its quaint court, to the Spitalthor, a fortified gateway with a circular 
bastion (1542). — The following walk (ca. 1 hr.) affords charming views 
Of the town. Turning to the right outside the gate, and after 200 paces 
following the narrow path which leads straight from the tower by the 
edge of the fields, we reach the Essigkrug, a hill commanding a good view 
of the town from the S. side. We then descend into the Tauber-Thal, 
where we reach in succession the Wildbad (Hotel; garden -restaurant), 

Baedeker's S. Germany. 8th Edit. 9 

130 Route 25. ANSBACH. From Frankfort 

with a cold sulphur-spring, the late-Gothic Cooolzeller Kirche (E. C. ; shut), 
and the old bridge over the Tauber (1330), with its double row of arches 
(beyond the bridge two forest-inns). We continue to follow the Tauber- 
Thal to the Topplertchlotschen (see above) and the old village of Dellwang 
(Inn, wine), with a very fine carved "Altar, and return to the Klingenthor 
by a bridge across the Tauber. 

Diligence daily in 2>/2 hrs. from Eothenburg to (11 M.) Creglingen 
(*Lamm). The adjacent Hergottskapelle ('/ihr.) contains a celebrated carved 
"Altar (uncoloured) by Tilman Riemenschneider. (The old road to Creg- 
lingen commands , near Sehwarzeribronn , a charming survey of Rothen- 
burg.) From Creglingen diligence thrice daily in 2 ! /2 hrs. to (11 SI.) Wei- 
kersheirn (p. 26). — A diligence also runs from Eothenburg daily in 3 hrs. 
to (13 M.) Roth am See (p. 26), and in 3 hrs. via Schillings/first (Bremer) 
to (121/a M.) Dombiihl (p. 26). — Carriage from Eothenburg to (10 M.) 
Schrozberg (p. 26) in 2 hrs. 

118i/ 4 M. Burgbernheim ; ll/ 2 M. to the S.W. lies Wildbad (an 
unpretending little watering-place). At (124 M.) Oberdachstetten we 
enter the valley of the Franconian Rezat. The Petersberg (1660 ft.), 
visible to the left, may be ascended hence in l-li/ 4 hr. (view). — 
128 M. Rosenbach; 131 M. Lehrberg. 

136 M. Ansbacb. (1325 ft. ; Stem, with restaurant and garden ; 
Zirkel, unpretending; Joh. Wedel; Krone; Benkhers, 8. Wedel's, 
and Konig's Wine Rooms), with 14,267 inhab. (2000 Rom. Cath.), 
on the Rezat , is the capital of Central Franconia. It is surrounded 
by park-like woods. The Schloss, built in the Italian Renaissance 
style in 1713-32 and once the seat of the Margraves of Brandenburg- 
Ansbach, is a veritable treasure-house of baroque and rococo art, 
both of which are seen at their best in the elegant equipment of 
the 22 state apartments. The picture-gallery is also interesting, 
especially that section of it which illustrates the history of the Hohen- 
zollerns. In front of the Schloss stands Halbig's bronze statue of 
the poet Aug. von Platen (&. 1835). The house in which he was born, 
in the Platen-Strasse, is indicated by a tablet with an inscription, 
above which is an old coat-of-arms (1696), an eagle gazing at the 
sun, with the motto, l Phoebo auspice surgit'. The Hofgarten near 
the Palace, a well-kept park with a double avenue of lime-trees, 
contains a pavilion with modern frescoes, an orangery (Restaurant, 
plain), a monument to the poet I/z(d. 1796), and another marking the 
spot where Caspar Hauser was assassinated , with the inscription : 
i Hic occultus occulto occisus 14. Dec. 1833'. Caspar Hauser's 
tombstone in the churchyard is inscribed , 'Hie jacet Casparus 
Hauser aenigma sui temporis, ignota nativitas, occulta mors 1833.' 
It is believed that this ill-fated youth was a victim, throughout his 
life and in his death, to the unscrupulous ambition of some noble 
family to whose dignities he was the lawful heir. 

The finest church is the Protestant *Oumbertuskirche, with three 
Gothic W. towers (1483-93 and 1597) and a late-Gothic choir (1523). 

The choir, known as the 'Schwanritterkapelle', contains stone monu- 
ments of knights of the Order of the Swan, transferred in 1825 from a 
now partly walled-up chapel of St. George, which the Elector Albert 
Achilles meant to make the central point of the order in S. Germany. 
The chief of these is the High Altar, erected by Albert Achilles in 1485 

to Munich. PAPPENHEIM. 25. Route. 131 

and restored at the instance of Emp. Frederick III., with carvings and 
paintings of the school of Wohlgcmut. On the walls are scutcheons of 
Knights of the Swan and the old banners used at the funerals of the 
Margraves. The stained glass dates from the 15-16th centuries. 

On the N. side of the church is the Hofkanzlei, now law-courts, 
a handsome gabled edifice of 1563. — In the Obere Markt is the 
Protestant *St. Johannislcircke, a Gothic structure of the 15th cent., 
with two towers of unequal height. Below the choir is the burial- 
vault of the Margraves, originally constructed in 1660. — Between 
the two churches is the old Landhaus (now a druggist's), a Renais- 
sance edifice of 1531. Adjacent is a fountain with a statue of Mar- 
grave George the Pious (d. 1543), who introduced the Reformation 
into Franconia. — The collections of the Historical Society (in a 
wing of the chateau), the new Municipal Museum, and the china 
and glass collections of //err Hirsch (on the Promenade) are all 
interesting. Near the station are the Slaughter House and a large 
factory of preserved food for the army. — Favourite resorts are 
Drechsel's Garten (reached in 20 min. from the Schloss by crossing 
the Schlosshriicke and ascending the Schlossgasse), with a fine view 
of the town and environs (cafe-restaurant), and the Tivoli Restau- 
rant, with a garden. Near the Rezat is a large Bathing Establishment. 

From Ansbach to Eeilibronn and Nuremberg, see p. 26; to Crailsheim 
and Stuttgart, see p. 26; to Rothenburg (via. Steinach), see p. 128. 

142 M. Winterschneidbach. — 146 M. Triesdorf, a former chateau 
of the Margraves, with a fine park. About 3 M. to the N.E. is 
Eschenbach, birthplace of the poet Wolfram von Eschenbach (d. 1228), 
with a monument to him. — 149i/ 2 M. Altenmuhr, on the Altmiihl. — 
152^/2 M. Gunzenhausen, junction for Augsburg and Nuremberg 
(R. 22). The line crosses the Altmiihl and follows its valley to Eich- 
statt. — 158 M. Windsfeld; 162y 2 M. Berolzheim; 165 M. Wettels- 
heim. — I671/2M. Treuchtlingen, junction of the line from Munich 
to Nuremberg, which runs hence via Gronhard, Weissenburg am 
Sand , and Ellingen to Pleinfeld, and there joins the Augsburg 
and Nuremherg line (p. 111). 

The Altmiihl is crossed twice. — 171 M. Pappenheim (1330 ft. ; 
*Eisenbahn-Hotel ; Deutsches Haus ; Krone"), charmingly situated, is 
commanded by the extensive ruins of a castle of the ancient counts 
of that name. The massive Roman Tower, 100 ft. in height, com- 
mands a beautiful view. The town contains two chateaux of Count 
Pappenheim, one of them a fine modern building by Klenze (1820). 

Beyond a tunnel the line crosses and recrosses the Altmiihl. To 
the S. of (175 M.) Solnhofen are extensive slate- quarries, once 
worked by the Romans, where upwards of 3000 workmen are employed. 
The slate, used for lithographing purposes, table-slabs, etc., is largely 
exported. Numerous fossils. 

A long tunnel. Then (179 M.) Dollnstein, a small and old town, 
still surrounded by walls. Below it, on the left bank of the Altmiihl, 
rises the conspicuous, serrated Burgstein. Farther on is the pretty 


132 Bowie 25. INGOLSTADT. 

village of Ober-Eichstatt. The line quits the valley of the Altmiihl 
and reaches the (185'/2M.) station of Eichstatt, situated in a cutting, 
whence a narrow-gauge branch-line runs in 25 min. to (4 M.) — 

Eichstatt (1270 ft. ; Schwarzer Adler ; Schwarzer Bar), an old 
town with 7475 inhab., seat of an ancient episcopal see founded in 
740 by St. Willibald, a companion of St. Boniface. In the Resi- 
denz-Platz are a ' Mariensaule' of 1777, 60 ft. high, with a gilded 
figure of the Virgin, and the handsome Law Courts, formerly 
the residence of the archbishops. The Cathedral, begun in 1042, 
with Romanesque towers and the choir of St. Willibald in the 
transition-style, Gothic nave and E. choir of 1365-96, has recently 
been tastefully painted. It contains the monument of St. Willibald 
with his statue, and tombstones of bishops. Good relief (1396) on 
the N. Portal (Death of Mary), and fine stained glass in the choir. 
Beautiful cloisters with Romanesque columns. The fountain in the 
market-place is adorned with an admirable bronze statue of St. Willi- 
bald (1695). The Walpurgiskirche, containing the tomb of St. Wal- 
purgis, from which a 'miraculous oil' exudes, is visited by numerous 
pilgrims on 1st May (St. Walpurgis' Day). The barrel- vaulting of 
the Jesuits' Church (1640) is fine. — Above the town rises the dilap- 
idated Willibaldsburg, the residence of the bishops down to 1730; 
the tower commands a striking view, best in the evening (apply to 
the castellan). The well is 295 ft. deep. On the Blumenberg, to 
the N.W. , numerous rare fossils (pterodactyl, archseopterix) have 
been found. 

The line traverses a hilly and wooded tract by means of deep 
cuttings. 188'/2 M. Adelschlag ; 11/2 nr - thence is Pfunz, above the 
Altmiihl, with extensive remains of the Roman fort of Vetonianis, 
recently excavated. 193 M. Tauberfeld ; 198 M. Oaimersheim. 

200 M. Local Station of Ingolstadt (*WittelsbacherHof, R.IV4- 
2J(, B. 70 pf . ; Adler; *Bar, moderate), with 17,600 inhab., a 
strongly fortified town on the Danube, once the seat of a famous 
university, founded in 1472 by Duke Lewis the Rich, and transferred 
to Landshut in 1800 and to Munich in 1826 (p. 151). At the end 
of the 16th cent, it was attended by 4000 students. The Jesuits' 
College, founded in 1555, was the first established in Germany. The 
town was besieged by Gustavus Adolphus in 1632, while his antag- 
onist Tilly lay mortally wounded within its walls (see p. 123). The 
French General Moreau took the place in 1800 after a siege of three 
months, and dismantled the fortifications, but they have been recon- 
structed since 1827. On the right bank of the Danube are strong 
et es-de-pont with round towers of solid masonry and the Redoubt 
Tilly. — The Gothic Frauenkirche of 1439, with two massive towers 
in front, contains the tomb of Dr. Eck (d. 1543), the opponent of 
Luther, and monuments to Tilly , who was buried at Alt - Oetting 
(p. 233). and the Bavarian General Mercy, who fell at Allersheim 
in 1645. 

GUNZBURG. 23. Route. 133 

The line skirts the glacis, crosses the Danube (to the right is 
the tete-de-pont), and reaches the (202'/2 M.) Central Station of 
Ingolstadt (*Dintler's Inn, plain), 2 M. from the town, with which 
it is connected by tramway (20 pf.). 

Railway to Donauworth, Augsburg, and Ratisbon, see R. 24. 

Stations Oberstimm , Reichertshofen, Wolnzach, and (221 M.) 
Pfaffenhofen (a busy place with 3000 inhab., on the/im). The line 
follows the Ilm as far as (225 M.) Reichertshausen, beyond which it 
reaches the Olon, an affluent of the Amper. 230 M. Petershausen ; 
23572 M. Rohrmoos. Then down the Amper-Thal, crossing the river, 
to (2411/2 M.) Dachau (1328 ft. ; Zieglerbrdu), a small town with 
4000inhab., commanding a splendid view of the plain and the Alps. 
The railway intersects the extensive Dachauer Moos, crosses the 
Wilrm at (246 M.) Attach, skirts the extensive Park of Nymphen- 
burg, and reaches — 

253 M. Munich (p. 137). 

26. From Stuttgart to Munich. 

149 M. Railway in 5-9 hrs. (fares 19JST 30, 13JSJ 30, 8JI 60 pf.; ex- 
press 12M 10, IbJl 70, 8M 30 pf.). 

From Stuttgart to (58^2 M.) Vim, seeR. 8. The line here crosses 
the Danube, and enters the Bavarian dominions, to which Neu-Ulm 
belongs. Q&i/zBurlafingen. Near (67 M.~)Nersingen the town and ab- 
bey oiElchingen are seen on the opposite bank, the heights of which 
were occupied by the Austrians under Laudon, 14th Oct., 1805, but 
were stormed by the French under Ney. From this victory the marshal 
derived his title of Due d'Elchingen(comp. p. 28). 69 1 / 2 M..Leipftei7n. 

74 M. Gunzburg (Bar), the Rom. Ountia, a town with numer- 
ous towers, lies picturesquely on a hill, at the confluence of the 
Giinz and Danube. Pop. 4100. The Schloss was erected by Margrave 
Charles, son of Archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol and PhilippinaWelser 
(p. 114). We next notice a range of wooded hills to the right, 
crowned by the castles of Reisensburg and Landestrost (the latter 
almost entirely removed). 79 M. Neu-Offingen is the junction for 
Donauworth (p. 113) and Ratisbon (p. 128). 

The train quits the Danube. Near Offingen it crosses the Mindel. 
83 M. Burgau, with 2200 inhab. and an old chateau. 85 M. Jet- 
tingen; 89 M. Oabelbach. The country becomes flatter. On a hill to 
the left is the small chateau of Zusameck. Stations Dinkelscherben 
(where we cross the Zusarn), Mbdishofen (beyond it across the Schmut- 
ter), Oessertshausen, Diedorf, Westheim. 109 M. Oberhausen is the 
junction of the Nuremberg line (p. 113). The train then crosses 
the Wertach and reaches (IIOV2 M.) Augsburg (p. 113). 

Beyond Augsburg (to the right, the Protestant Cemetery) the line 
crosses the Lech and traverses a sterile plain. 113Y2 M. Hochzoll, 
junction for Ingolstadt (p. 127). To the left lies the small town of 
Friedberg (p. 127). The Lech is now quitted. Stations Mering, Alt- 

1 34 Route 27. "WEIDEN. From Leipsic 

hegnenberg (with chateau), Haspelmoor, Nannhofen, Maisach, Olching 
(where the Amper, the discharge of the Ammersee, is crossed), Loch- 
hausen. The Dachauer Moos is then traversed. At (14472 M.) Pasing 
the train crosses the Wurm, by which the Lake of Starnberg is 
drained. Near Munich the park and palace of Nymphenburg (p. 194) 
are seen on the left; then the Marsfeld, or military drilling-ground. 
149 M. Munich, see R. 28. 

27. From Leipsic to Munich via Hof and Ratisbon. 

296 M. Railway in &/ t -l&/i hrs. (express fares 44 Jl 20, 31 Jl 70 pf., 
24 Jl). This route is quicker than that by Eger (comp. Baedeker's Northern 

From Leipsic to (103 M.) Hof, see R. 16. Beyond Hof the line 
traverses a hilly district, running near the winding Saale. 108 M. 
Oberkotzau , junction for Eger (p. 73) to the left, and Nuremberg 
(p. 73) to the right. IIO1/2 M. Martinlamitz ; 115 M. Kirchenlamitz 
(1834 ft.; I1/4 hr. to the W. rises the Epprechtstein, p. 91). 118 M. 
Marktleuthen, where the train crosses the Eger. 12272 M. Roslau 
(1916 ft. ; diligence twice daily in l l / t hr. to Weissenstadt, p. 91). 
At (125 M.) Holenbrunn (1846 ft.) a branch-line diverges to (2'/ 2 M.) 
Wunsiedel (p. 91). At Unterthblau we cross the valley of the Ros- 
lau by a viaduct 115 ft. high. — 130 M. Markt - Redwilz (Rail. 
Restaurant), a busy little town on the Kossein, junction of the 
Nuremberg- Eger lino (p. 111). 136 M. Oroschlattengrun. 

139 M. Wiesau (1736 ft.; Rail. Restaurant), with a chalybeate 
spring (Konig Otto-Bad), junction for Eger (p. 73). — 146 M. Reulh. 
Then through the valley of the Fichtelnab to (15072 M.) Windisch- 
Eschenbach and (15672 M.) Neustadt an der Waldnab (branch-line 
to Waldthum and Vohenstrauss). 

160 M. Weiden (1300 ft.; *Posf), a pleasant little town (5820 
inhab.), junction for Bayreuth (p. 89) and Neukirchen (p. 235). 
— 163 M. Rothenstadt. At (165 M.) Luhe (1270 ft.) the Heidenab 
and Waldnab unite to form the Nab. 171 M. Wernberg (to the left 
the village, with an old castle); 175 M. Pfreimd; 17872 M. Nab- 
burg ; 185 M. Irrenlohe (junction for Nuremberg, see p. 235). The 
train now crosses the Nab to (188 M.) Sehwandorf (1204 ft. ; Bar ; 
Kloster; Pfalzerhof), a prettily situated little town (4840 inhab.), 
the junction for Furth and Prague (R. 41). 

192 M. Klardorf. From (197 M.) Haidhof a branch-line runs 
to the rail-factory of Maximilianshutte , 1 74 M. to the W. ; 272 M. 
to the W. is Burglengenfeld, with a picturesque ruined castle. — To 
the right beyond (19872 M.) Ponholz rises Schloss Birkensee. Near 
(204 M.) Regenstauf the Regen is crossed. 209 M. Wutzlhofen. On 
the right Ratisbon with its cathedral , and on the left the Walhalla 
come in sight. Beyond (211 M.) Walhallastrasse (p. 124) the train 
crosses the Danube by an iron bridge, 700 yds. long. 

213 M. Ratisbon, see p. 119. 

to Munich. LANDSHUT. 27. Route. 1 35 

The Munich line traverses an uninteresting district. Stations 
Obertraubling (to Passau, see R. 42), Kofering, Hagelstadt, and 
Eggmuhl, where the French under Davoust (Prince d'Eckmiihl) de- 
feated the Austrians, 22nd April , 1809. The Orosse Laber is now 
crossed. Stations Steinrain, (238 M.) Neufahrn, on the Kleine 
Laber (branch by Qeiselhoring to Straubing, see p. 236), Ergolds- 
bach, and Mirskofen. 

252 M. Landshut (1290 ft. ; *Kronprinz, R, L., & A. H/ 4 -2 Jl, 
B. 70pf., D.IJl; Draxlmeier, R.I-IV2, B. 30-50pf. ; Bernlochner ; 
Drei Mohren ; "Rail. Restaurant; omn. from the station to the town, 
IY2M., 20 pf.), withl8,870inhab., a pleasant town with wide streets 
and gabled houses, lies picturesquely on the Jsar, which forms an 
island within the town. The quarter on this island is called Zwischen 
den Brucken. The chief attractions are in the broad main street, 
named the 'Altstadt'. The three principal churches, St. Martin's 
(about 1392-1495), St. Jodocus (1338-68), and the Holy Ghost or 
Hospital Church (1407-61) are fine structures in brick, adorned with 
sculpturing in stone. The lofty tower of St. Martin's is 462 ft. in 
height. Among the numerous tombstones on the outer walls of this 
church is (on the S. side, protected by a railing) that of Stetthamrrier 
(Hans der Steinmetz, d. 1432), the builder of this church and the 
Hospital Church, with his bust and a half-length figure of the 
Saviour. The late-Gothic pulpit, of limestone, dates from 1422. 
Beautiful late-Gothic high-altar (1424), the back of which is also 
interesting. The lofty choir-windows contain modern stained glass. 
— The Post Office (formerly House of the Estates) is decorated 
with old frescoes of the sovereigns of Bavaria from Otho I. to Maxi- 
milian I. — The New Palace (1536-43), begun by German, and 
completed by Italian architects , exhibits features both of the Ger- 
man and Italian Renaissance. Its columned court and fine upper 
rooms, with beautiful friezes, are among the best Renaissance works 
in Germany. (Custodian in the portal, to the right.) Some of the 
rooms contain an instructive collection of industrial models, estab- 
lished by Dr. Gehring (Sun. , 10-1 ; at other times a fee). — The 
Rathhaus, originally erected in 1446, has been entirely restored. 
New facade, 1860-61. The late-Gothic *Council Chamber (apply at 
the Registry Office on the first floor), with its fine timber ceiling 
and chimney-pieces, is adorned with a huge mural painting in tem- 
pera, by Seitz, Spiess, and other artists, of the marriage of George 
the Rich. In front of the Rathhaus stands a bronze Statue of Maxi- 
milian II., by Bernhard (1868). The university of Ingolstadt was 
transferred to Landshut in 1800, and thence to Munich in 1826. A 
statue of the founder, Duke Lewis the Rich (d. 1479), has been 
erected in front of the government-buildings. — In the suburb of 
the St. Nicola, to the N.W., is a "War Monument for 1870-71. 

"Burg Landshut or Trausnitz (1530 ft.), an old castle rising above the 
town, formerly the residence of the Dukes of Lower Bavaria, begun by Duke 
Lud wig of Kelheim in 1204, was frequently altered, and has suffered greatly 

136 Route 27. FREISING. 

from the ravages of time. The pleasantest approach to it is through the 
Hofgarten with its pretty promenades. The Chapel (1304-31), which lately 
underwent thorough renovation, is the only part remaining of the original 
structure. The balustrades, decorated with stone figures, the large relief 
of the Annunciation, the mural paintings of the altar-recess, and the cibo- 
rium (1471) are worthy of notice. Some of the apartments are finely painted 
in the Renaissance style (1576-80), and others contain handsome wooden 
ceilings and panelling. The mural paintings on the 'Fools' Staircase 1 , re- 
presenting scenes from Italian comedies , deserve inspection. The upper 
floor has been sumptuously fitted up for the reception of the King of Ba- 
varia (adm. on application to the Archivist, Dr. Jorg, in the castle). In 
the court is a well, surmounted by a fine wrought-iron framework ; the 
pails in bronze (executed, according to the inscription, in 1558) are now 
kept inside the castle. Conradin, the last of the Hohenstaufen, was born 
at the neighbouring castle of Wolfstein (now a ruin) in 1252 and spent a 
great part of his childhood at the Trausnitz. The best descent is afforded 
by the flight of steps leading to the Heiglkeller (upper town). — Beyond 
the Trausnitz lies the village of Berg, separated from (l'/4 M.) Landshut by 
the Hofgarten. — From the garden-restaurant on the (l>/4 M.) Klausenberg, 
a fine view is obtained of the town, the castle, and the valley. 

From Landshut to Landau, 28 M., railway in 2 hrs., the shortest 
route from Munich to Eisenstein, Pilsen, and Prague. The train follows 
the left bank of the liar. Stations Altheim, Ahrein, WSrth, Loiching, (18 M.) 
Dingolfing , an old town on the right bank of the Isar. Then across a 
tract of moorland to Gottfrieding, Schwaigen, Piltting, and Landau (p. 244). 

A railway also runs from Landshut, via (8 M.) Geisenhausen, (14M.) Vils- 
biburg, and (20'/2 M.) Egglkofen, to (24'/2 M.) Neumarkt an der Rott (p. 244). 

The railway ascends the -valley of the Isar. 257*/2 M. Oiindlkofen ; 
to the left, Schloss Kronwinkel. 259 M. Bruckberg, with a small 
chateau to the right of the line; then on the right Schloss Isareck. 
The Amper is crossed. 264 M. Moosburg, a very ancient town on 
the Isar ; the Romanesque church contains a fine old carved altar. 
In clear weather the Alps soon become visible. 268 M. Langenbach. 

274y 2 M. Freising (*Ettenhofer ; Zur Eisenbahn, unpretending; 
omn. into the town 20 pf.), a town with 9485 inhab., on the Isar, 
and partly on a hill (Domberg), has been the seat of an episcopal 
see ("now Munich - Freising) from the 8th cent, to the present day. 
Otho von Freising, the historian, grandson of Emp. Henry IV., was 
bishop here from 1137 to 1158 (statue in theDomhof). The Roman- 
esque CaifteeZroJ(1161-1205), with its two towers and double aisles, 
was marred by internal alterations in the 17th century. Observe the 
late-Romanesque portal (partly disfigured) and the curious quad- 
ruple crypt, the vaulting of which rests on short round and polygonal 
columns, with rich capitals. In the raised vestibule, to the left on 
entering, are statuettes of Frederick Barbarossa and his wife Be- 
atrix (?), of 1161. Gothic choir-stalls. The cloisters contain 
some fine tombstones. The Church of St. Benedict, connected 
withtbe cathedral by cloisters, contains a fine old and two modern 
stained-glass windows. The Clerical Seminary, opposite the cathe- 
dral, contains early German paintings , sculptures, etc. — To the 
W. lies (20 min.) the loftily-situated Weihenstephan , formerly an 
abbey, now an agricultural college and brewery. 

Next stations Neufahrn, Lohhof, (288 M.) Schleissheim (p. 194), 
Feldmoching, (293Y2 M.) Schwimmschule, and (296 M.) Munich. 

Ge o gr apK. insult vo n. 

Wagner ADebes.Letpsif 


28. Munich. 

Railway Stations. 1. Central Railway Station (PI. C, 4; 'Restaurant), 
a large building erected in 1876-84, forming a terminus for most of the 
lines. The omnibuses of the larger hotels meet the trains here P/4-1 Jf). 
— 2. Starnberg Station (PI. B, 4), to the N. of the Central Station, for 
the trains to Starnberg, Murnau-Partenkirchen, and Penzberg. — 3, 4. 
Southern Station (PI. B, 9) and Eastern Station (PI. I, 7, 8), supplementary 
stations of the Rosenheim and Simbach lines, without importance for the 
ordinary tourist. — 5. Isarthal Railway Station (PI. B, 10, 11), for the local 
line to Wolfratshausen (p. 194). — Porter from the station to a cab , 20 pf. 
up to 110 lbs., 40 pf. up to 220 lbs.; into the town, small articles 20 pf., 
trunk under 110 lbs. 40 pf., under 220 lbs. 80 pf. — Cab from the station 
to the town with one horse, 1-2 pers. 50, 3 pers. 60 pf. ; with 2 horses, 1-4 pers., 
1 JU ; from 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. double fare and 20 pf. extra for waiting. Small 
articles of luggage free, trunks under 55 lbs. 20 pf., above 55 lbs. 40 pf. 

Hotels (often full in the season). *Viee Jaheeszeiten (Four Seasons ; 
PI. a; F, 4, 5), Maximilian -Strasse 4, R., L., & A. 4-7 Jl, B. 1 Jl 20, D. 
at 1 p.m. 4, at 5 p.m. 472, omn. 1 Jl; "Grand Hotel Continental (PI. e; 
D, 3, 4), Otto-Str. 6; 'Bayrischer Hof (Bavarian Hotel; PI. b, E 4), 
Promenade -Platz 19, R., L., & A. 5-6 UST, B. 1 Jl- 30 pf., D. at 1 p.m. 31/2, 
at5p.m. fr/zJl; 'Hotel Bellevue (PI. c;C,4), Karls-Platz 25, R.,L.,&A. 
from 5, D. 4, B. 1 Jl ; 'Rheinischer Hop (PI. d; C, 4, 5), Bayer-Str., near 
the Central Station, R., L., & A. from 4 Jl, B. 1 Jl 20 pf.; «Dom-H6tel 
(H6t. Detzer; PI. e, E 5), Kauflnger-Str. 23, R., L., & A. 3'/2, B. 1, D. 3, 
pens. 5-7 Jl, omn. 70 pf.; 'Englischek Hop (PI. f; E, 5), Diener-Str. 11, 
R., L..&A. from IJl, B. 1JI 20 pf., T>.3i/ 2 Jl; Hotel Leinfelder (PI. g; 
D, 4), Karls-Platz 1, R., L., & A. 2"/2-3 Jl, B. 80 pf., D. 3 Jl; 'Marienbad 
(PI. h; D, 3), Barer-Str. 11 and 20, with a large garden and baths, R., L., 
& A. 31/2-5, B. l ] /4, D. 3-4, pens, in winter 7 Jl. — Second-class: "Hotel 
Maximilian (PI. i; F, 5), Maximilian-Str. 44, R. & L. 3-3V2, B. 1 Jl;*M.&x. 
Emanuel (PI. k ; E, 4), Promenade-Platz, R. & L. 2-3 Jl, B. 80 pf. ; 'Kaiser- 
hop (PI. p ; C, 4), Schiitzen-Str. 12, R., L., & A. 11,2-3, D. 21/2 Jl, B. 80 pf. ; 
Deutscheb Kaisee (PI. r; C, 4), "Hot. National (Simraen; PI. a, B 4), 
'BahnhofHot. Stecher, all three in the Arnulf-Str., near the Central Station 
(N. exit, to the left), R. from I1/2 Jl ; 'Hot. de 1'Europe (PI. 1 ; C, 4, 5), 
"Hot. Neusigl (PI. q ; C, 5), Frankischer Hop, all three in the Senefelder- 
Str., near the Central Station (S. exit, to the right); 'Grand Hot. Grun- 
wald (PI. w; C, 4), Dachauer-Str. 3, near the Central Station, R. from 
l'/« Jl; Hot. Horl (PI. v; C, 4), moderate, Bahnhofs-Platz ; Hot. Stachds 
(PI. m ; C, 5), Karls-Platz 24, R., L., & A. from 2 Jl, B. 80 pf. ; Oberpol- 
lingkr (PI. n, D 5; p. 138), Neuhauser-Str. 41, commercial; Bamberger 
Hop (PI. o, D 5; p. 141), Neuhauser-Str. 26; Hot. Achatz (PI. u, D 4; 
p. 141), with garden, H6t. Schnoll ^formerly Abenthum; Pl...t, D 4), both 
in the Maximilians-Platz ; Trefleb's Hotel, Sonnen-Str. 21; Ostebbeichi- 
scheb Hof (Pl.d;B,5), Wittelsbacher Hof, Post, all in the Bayer-Str. ; 
Schweizer Hop (PI. x ; C, 4), Louisen-Str. IV2; Hot. Keonprinz (PI. z ; C, 5), 
Zweig-Str. 10, R. 2-2i/ 2 Jl, B. 70 pf., all near the Central Station. — Hdtels 
Garnis. 'Wolff (PI. b; C, 4), Arnulf-Str. 3, at the Central Station (N. 
side) ; Gassner (PI. c ; C, 5), Bayer-Str. 37, at the station (S. side) ; 'Roth 
(PI. 8; F, 5), Neuthurm-Str. 5, R. & L. 2'/2 Jl; Rotal, Karls-Platz 21. — 
Pensions. Fuchs, Bellevue, both at Brienner-Str. 8 (6-8 Jl per day) ; Finckh, 
Brienner-Str. 46; Wallenberg, Brienner-Str. 47; Glocker, Maximilian-Str. 5 ; 
Seller, Karl-Str. 10; Frau Rath Stremel, Jager-Str. 15; Fontana, Maximi- 
lians-Platz 2; Kreitmayr, Maximilians-Platz 12; Reindel-Belleville, Fiirsten- 
Str. 9; Vincenti, Kaulbach-Str. 40; Cortin-Gehr, Kaulbach-Str. 47; Dttmler- 
Haus, Leopold-Str. 21; Forluna, Kanal-Str. 46a; Bluhm-Piquet, Max-Joseph- 
Str. i; Hoffmann, Luisen-Str. 38; Burger, Luisen-Str. 42f; Scheidemann, 
Adalbert-Str. 48; Frau Geret, Bluthen-Str. 8; Pens. North, Schnorr-Str. 9; 
Frau Dr. M. Fischer, Wittelsbacher-Platz 2; Quisisana, Washeim, Theresien- 
Str. 30 and 34; Bauer, Theresien-Str. 100; Neumann, Schelling-Str. 87; 
Hursach, Schelling-Str. 62; Quistorp, Schelling-Str. 78; Spangenberg, Schel- 
ling-Str. 85 (Fiirstenhaus); Mme.Borel, Schbnfeld-Str. 11. 

138 Route 28. MUNICH. Cafes. 

Restaurants at the Kaiserhof, Deuticher Kaiser, Griinwald, Oberpollinger, 
Bamberger Hof, Achate, Schndll, Treflei; Roth, and other hotels (see p. 137); 
at most of the wine and beer houses (see below); at the cafe's Lvitpold, 
Maximilian, de VOptra, Victoria, Heck, Giiela, and Gatteig (see below). 
Also: Hof-Thealer, Max-Josephs-Platz; Eberlbrau (handsome rooms), Karls- 
thor; Isarluit (p. 141), on the Isar island, pleasant on warm evenings 
Englisches . Gafi , Otto-Str. 16; Paul, Gartner-Platz. The usual hour for 
dinner is 12-1, for supper 6-8. 

Wine Saloons (also restaurants) : "Schleich, Brienner-Str. 6, D. 12-3 p.m. 
1M; "Restaurant Francais, Brienner-Str. 8, D. from 3 UK; "Rathskeller 
(p. 189); "Eberspacher, in the Kunstgewerbehaus (p. 188), Pfandhaus-Str. 7, 
and Kauflnger-Str. 15; "Grodemange, Maximilian-Str. 23 ; "Junemann ( Eckel), 
Burg-Str. 17; "Kurtz, Augustiner-Str. 1; Qillitzer, Prielmayer-Str. 18; El- 
sdsser Weinstube, in the Hot. Schnbll (see above) ; Rildesheimer Weinstube, 
Karmeliter-Str.; Durkheimer, Frauen-Platz (Palatinate wines); WOrville, 
Marien-Platz 21 ; Neuner, Herzogspital-Str. 20 ; Michel, Rosen-Str. 11, Hun- 
garian wines ; Veltliner Weinhalle , Luitpold-Str. 5 ; Sladt Patrat (Greek 
wines), Maximilians-Platz 14; Continental Bodega (Spanish wines; cold 
dishes), Neuhauser-Str. 12; Italienische Weinstube, Kapellen-Str. 5. 

Beer. The Hofbrduhaus , in the Platzl (PI. F, 5), famous among Ba- 
varian beer-houses, and one of the sights of Munich, is always crowded by 
persons of all classes. In the vicinity (with Hofbrau beer) : Platzl, Re- 
gensburger Wurstkiiche, Niirnberger Wurstkiiche , all in the Munz-Str. ; Or- 
lando di Lasso, Platzl 4; Zur Scholaslica, Lederergasse 25; Franzitkaner, 
Residenz-Str. 9; BUrgerbrau, Kauflnger-Str. 6; Pschorr, Spatenbrdu, and 
Augutliner, in the Neuhauser-Str. ; Deutsche! Haus, Sophien-Str. la; Niirn- 
berger Braltcurstgldckl, Frauen-Platz 9; Lohengrin, Tiirken-Str. 50; Stern- 
ecker, Metzgerbrdu, in the Thai ; Hackerbrau, Eberlbrau, Sendlinger-Str. ; 
Cafe" Bock, outside the Isarthor, etc., etc. — The large 'Bierkeller' outside 
the gates also attract numerous visitors in summer ; they generally po sses 
gardens and fair restaurants. Hofbrdukeller (PI. H, 6), Wiener-Str., nears 
the Maximilianeum ; Ldwenbr&ukeller (PI. B, 2; p. 141), Stiglmayer-Platz, 
with a terraced garden and a large concert-room, often crowded ; Franzis- 
kanerkeller (PI. G, H), Hoch-Str. 7, with view-terrace; MUnchner Kindl- 
keller (PI. G, 7; p. 141), Rosenheimer-Str. 15, with large concert-room; 
Burgerliches Brduhaus (PI. G, H, 7; p. 141), Rosenheimer-Str. 99 ; Sternecker- 
keller (PI. G, 6. 7), these on the right bank of thelsar (p. 192) ; Augustiner- 
keller (PI. A, B, 3), Arnulf-Str.; Spatenbrdukeller (PI. A, 5), Bayer-Str. 109; 
Hackerkeller (PI. A, 4), Bayer-Str. 34; Bavariakeller (PI. A, 5), Theresienhohe. 
— In the cellars and breweries the beer is served only in large earthenware 
mugs holding a litre ('Mass'), but in the restaurants the glasses or mugs 
contain i/z litre only ('eine Quart' = >/4 litre). The following kinds of beer 
are drunk in spring only : Salvcitor (strong), at the Zacherl- Keller, Au suburb 
(p. 192), for about a week from the Sun. before 19th March; Bock (first 
introduced from Eimbeck in the 16th cent.), usually in May, and at the 
festival of Corpus Christi in June, at the Hofbrduhaus, etc. 

Cafes (most, with the exception of those already mentioned among 
the restaurants, closed in the evening). "Luitpold, Brienner-Str. 8, with 
English and other newspapers; Maximilian, de VOpira, Victoria (with 
garden), all in the Maximilian-Str.; Prinz-Regent, Prinz-Regenten-Str.; 
Putscher, Lutz, Heck (Arkaden-Cafi), in the arcades of the Hof-Garten, 
seats outside in summer; Gisela, Fursten-Str. 2; Central, Brienner-Str.; 
Borsen-Cafe , Maffei-Str. ; Wittelsbach, Banner, Probst, and Karlsthor, near 
the Karlsthor; Royal, Karls-Platz 21; Impirial, Schiitzen-Str. la, outside 
the Karls-Thor; Union, Herzogspital-Str. 12; Schelling, Schelling-Str. 56, 
near the New Pinakothek; Mikado, Miiller-Str. 3a; Tiirkisch - Arabischet 
Cafe 1 , Rumford-Str. 2 ; Neptun, Stcinsdorfer-Str. 31, near the Ludwigs-Briicke 
(p. 192); Gasteig, Innere Wiener-Str. 31, etc. 

Confectioners. RottenhSfer, Residenz-Str. 26 ; Brienner Bdckerei, Odeons- 
Platz 1; Eyerich, Theatiner-Str. ; Hof, Promenaden-Platz 6; Bernhardt 
Theresien-Str. 25. ' 

Key to the Flan of Munich. 

Academy of Art. . F, 1 
„ of Science D, 5 

Alte Hof E, 5 

Anatomie C,r6 

Archiepis. Palace . E, 4 

Art Union F, 3 

Bank, Bav E, 4 

Bavaria A, 7 

Blind Asylum . . . F, 2 
Botan. Garden . . C, 3,4 
Bronze Foundry . . B, 1 
Cadets, Corps of. . A, 2 

Southern .C,D,7,8 

— , new C, 8 

— , Northern .... D, 1 
Chem. Laboratory C, 3, 4 


(Court-) Chapel F, 4 

St. Anna G, 4 

Auer (Maria- 
hilf ) Kirche . . F, 8 

Basilica C, 3 

Carmelites .... D, 4 
Frauenkirche . . E, 5 
Heiliggeist .... E, 5 

St. John D, 6 

Ludwigskirche . F, 2 
St. Mark's (Prot.) E, 3 
St. Matthew's 

(Prot.) C, 5 

St. Michael's . . . D, 5 

St. Peter's .... E, 5 

Theatine Ch. . . E, 4 

Civic Arsenal . . . E, 6 

Clinical Inst. D, 5, C, 6 

Colosseum D, 7 


Residence . . . F, 3 
Corn Hall ... D, E, 6 
Crystal Palace . . . C, 4 
Deaconess Institute D, 1 

Exchange E, 4 

Exhibition Building C, 3 
Feldherrnhalle . . E, 4 
General Hospital . C, 6 
Georgianum .... F, 1 
Glyptothek . C, D, 2, 3 

Buildings. . . . G, 5 
Herzog Max Burg . D, 4 
Hofbrauhaus .... F, 5 
Hospital of St. 

Elizabeth .... C, 6 
Hygienic Institute . B, 6 
Industrial Art 

School C, 2 

IndustrialExhibitionD, 4 

Isarthor F, 6 

Karlsthor .... D, 4, 5 
Law Courts . . . C, D, 4 

Library F, 2 

Lotzbeck Collection D, 3 
Lunatic Asylum . . H, 8 
Mary Column . . . E, 5 
Maximilianeum . . H, 5 
Max-Joseph Inst. . F, 1 
Military Hospital . A, 1 
„ School . . A, 2 
Ministry of Finances F, 3 
„ of For- 
eign Affairs E, 4 
„ of the In- 
terior . . . E, 4 

Mint F, 4, 5 

Deroy , Schel- 
ling, Rumford, 
Fraunhofer . F, G, 5 
Elector Maximi- 
lian I E, 3 

— Max Emanuel E, 4 
Gabelsherger . . D, 4 
Gaertner,Klenze E,6,7 

Goethe D, 4 

King Lewis I. . . E, 3 

„ Max I. . . . E, 4 
„ Max II. . . G, 5 

Liebig D, 4 

Nussbaum .... C, 6 

Schiller E, 3 

Senefelder .... D, 6 
Gluck, Kreit- 
mayr, Orlando E, 4 
National Museum F, G, 5 

Obelisk D, 3 

Odeon E, 3 

Duke Max .... E, 3 

— Ludwig . . G, H, 6 
Prince Luitpold . E, 3 
Prince Ludwig 

Ferdinand . . . E, 8 

Wittelsbach . . . E, 3 

Panoramas. . A, 5, D, 1, 

Pathological Inst. . C, 6 


Inst C, 6 

Physiological Inst. C, 6 
Pinakothek, Old . D, 2 

— , New D, 2 

Police Office .... E, 5 
Polytechnic School D, 2 
Post Office .... E, 4, 5 
Priests' Seminary . F, 2 

Propylsea C, 3 

Railway Station, 

Central C 

Rathhaus, Old . . . E 

— , New E 

Reichsbank . . . . F 
Riding School. . . . Fi 
Royal Palace . E, F 

— Stables f! 

Schack's Picture 
Gallery . . . 

Museum . . . 
Schiissel, Passage 

Siegesthor F, 

Slaughter House. . B 

Standehaus E 

Synagogue D 

Telegraph Office . C 
Hof-Theater. . . F 
Residenz-Theat. . F 
Gartner -Platz- 

Theater . . . . E 
Volks-Theater C, D 

Turnhalle B 

University F, 

VeterinarySchool F, G 
War Office. . . . F, 2, 
Four Seasons F, 4, 

Bavaria E 

Bellevue C 

RheinischerHof 0,4. 
Continental . D, 3 
Englischer Hof. E 
Leinfelder . . . 
Marienbad . . 
Maximilian . . 
Max-Emanuel . l'Europe C, 4 

m Stachus 

n Oberpollinger . . D 
Bamberger Hof D 
Kaiserhof . . . . C 

Neusigl C. 

Deutscher Kaiser C 

Roth F 

Schnoll D. 

Achatz D 

v Horl C 

w Griinwald . . . . C 
x Schweizer Hof . C 
y Dom-H6tel . . D, E 
z Kronprinz . . . . C 

a National B 

* Wolff C, 

c Gassner C. 

d Oester. Hof. . . B. 

140 Route 28. MUNICH. Cabs. 

Baths. Maximiliansbad (PI. F, 5), Kanal-Str. 19, with swimming-bath ; 
Kaiser -Wilhelm- Bad, Lindwurm-Str. 70, with garden and restaurant; Ba- 
variabad, Tiirken-Str. 68b; Centralbad (PI. C, I), Lammer-Str. 3; Marien- 
bad (seep. 137); Gitelabad, Muller-Str. 29, 30; Wbstermayr, Miiller-Str. 45, 
with swimming-baths. — Baths in the Wiirm, at Schwabing (p. 152), to 
the N.E. of the terminus of the tramway-line mentioned below : 'Ungerer, 
with garden, etc. ; Germania-Bad. Also at Gem, at the terminus of the 
Hymphenburg steam-tramway. 

Cabs. (Droschke, a one-horse vehicle, for 2-3 pers. only; Fiaker, with 
two horses.) One-horse : V« hr., 1-2 pers. 50, 3 pers. 60pf.; >/2 hr. 1 •& or 1 M 
20 pf. ; 3 / 4 hr. 1 Jl 50 or 1 Jl 80 pf. ; 1 hr. 2 „# or 2 UP 40 pf. ; l'A hr. 21/2 
or3J(; ly 2 hr. 3 *0 or 3 Jl 6Q pf. ; 2 hrs. 4 Jl or 4 Jl 80 pf. ; 3 hrs. 5 Jl 
60 or 6 Jl 80 pf. ; each additional '/< hr. 40 or 50 pf. — Two-horse : »/ 4 hr., 
1-4 pers. 1 Jl, 5-6 pers. 1 Jl 10 pf. ; 1/2 hr. 2Jor2^ 20 pf. ; »/ 4 hr. 2 UP 
50 or 2 Jl 80 pf. ; 1 hr. 3 ^ or 3 M 40 pf. ; l'A hr. 3 US? 70 or 4 Jl 20 pf. ; 
l'/a hr. 4 U0 40 pf. or 5 ^!; 2 hrs. 5 Jl 80 or 6 Ulf 80 pf. ; 3 hrs. 8 Jl 60 or 

9 Jl 80 pf. ; each 'A hr. additional 70 or 80 pf. — Tariff for drives 
to the following places, for a Droichke with 1-2 pers., and a Fiaker 
with 1-4 pers. respectively: the Bavaria 1 Jl or 1 Jl 80 pf. ; Chinese 
Tower 70 pf. or l'/ 2 ,#; Brunnthal 80 pf. or i Jl 80; Bogenhausen 
1 or 2 Jl; Kleinhesselohe 1 Jl or 2 US? 20 pf. ; Nymphenburg 2 u!f or 3 Jf 
60 pf. If the carriage is used in returning, the return-drive is paid for 
by time. — The fare for the first 'A hr. must be paid in full, however 
short the drive; for less than 5 min. of an additional 'A hr., 10 or 20 pf. 
only is paid. From dusk till 10 p.m., 10 pf. per 'A hr. is charged for 
the lamps. From 10 p.m. to 6a.m. double fares, also from the stations 
after 9 p.m. double fares and 20 pf. extra as waiting-money. Luggage up to 
551bs., 20 pf., above 55 lbs., 40 pf. ; small articles free. 

Steam Tramway from the Arnulf-Str. (N. side of the Central Railway 
Station; PI. B, 4), via. Neuhausen and the villas of Neu-WitteUbach, to 
Nymphenburg (p. 194), every hour in the morning, every */2 hr. in the after- 
noon (on Sun. every 10 min.), in 25 min. (fare 20 pf.). 

Tramways (with system of correspondence - tickets ; 1 or 2 sections 

10 pf., each addit. section 5 pf.). The first cars start at 7 a.m., the last 
at 10 and 11.30 p.m. — 1. Ring Line: From the Central Station (PI. C, 4) 
by the Sendlingerthor-Platz (PI. D, 6), Iaarthor-Platz (PI. F, 6), Maxi- 
milian Monument (PI. G, 5), Gallerie-Str. (PI. F, 3), Ludwig-Str., There- 
sien-Str., and Augusten-Str. (PI. C, 1-3), back to the Central Station, (red 
lamps, etc.). — 2. From Schwabing (p. 152) by the Ludwigs-Str., Maximi- 
lians-Platz (PI. E, D, 4), Bayer-Str., and Theresienhohe, to the Landi- 
berger-Strasse (PI. A, 4, 5; green). — 3. From Neiihausen (to the N.W. of 
PI. A, 1, 2) by the Nymphenburger-Str., Dachauer-Str., Central Station, 
Bayer -Str. , Promenaden-Platz (PI. F, 4), and Barer-Str. (Old and New 
Pinakothek) to the Hermann-Strasse (to the N.E. of PI. E, 1; white; yellow 
board on cars going towards the Pinakothek). — 4. From the Ho/Theater 
(PI. F, 4) by the Maximilians-Str., Johannes-Platz (PI. H, I, 6), the East 
Railway Station (PI. I, 7, 8), Orleans-Str., and Rosenheimer-Str., to the 
Ludwigs-Brilcke (PI. G, 6, 7; white). — 5. From the Arnulf-Straste (PI. B, 
4) by the Bayer-Str., Karlsthor, Marien-Platz (PI. E, 5), and Ludwigs- 
Brucke to the Wiener- Strasse (PI. H, 6; yellow). — 6. From the Karls- 
Platz (PI. C, 5) by the Sendlingerthor-Platz (PI. D, 6) and the Lindwurm- 
Str. to the Sendlingerberg (to the S.W. of PI. A, 8; blue). — 7. From the 
Frauen-Strasse (PI. E, 6) by the Reichenbad-Briicke (PI. E, 8) to the Frei- 
bad-Slrasse (PI. E, 10; green). — 8. From the Bahnhof - Platz (PI. C, 4) 
by the Goethe-Str., Kapuziner-Str. (PI. C, 8), and Wittelsbacher-Brucke 
to Giesing (PI. E, 10). — 9. Electric tramway from the Fdrbergraben (PI. 
E, 5) by the Sendlinger-Strasse, the Thalkirchner-Str. (S. cemeteries), and 
South Railway Station to the Isarthal Railway Station (PL B, 10, 11). 

Post Office in the Max-Joseph- Platz (PI. E, 4, 5; poste restante); also 
at the Central Railway Station. Branch- offices at Thekla-Str. 3, Zwei- 
briicken-Str. 37, Theresien-Str. 31 and 43, Neuhauser-Str. 51 (Old Academy), 
Adalbert-Str. 9, Leopold-Str. 62 (Schwabing), etc. Offices, open from 8 a.m. 
to 8 p.m.; on Sun. and holidays, 8-9, 11-12, & 5-7. — Telegraph Office 

Theatres. MUNICH. 25. Route. 141 

(PI. C, 4) at Bahnhof-Platz 1; also at the General Post Office, and at the 
three first-mentioned branch post-offices. — Telephone Offices at the tele- 
graph office, at the Central Station, and at the post-offices. 

Tourist Agents. Schenler Jk Co. (agent for B. Gaze & Son), Prome- 
nade-Platz 5. — Private Intelligence Of/ice, Kaulbachstr. 47. 

Porters. For an errand of '/s M. within the city with 33 lbs. of luggage 
20 pf., each addit. '/» M. 10 pf. ; for a message without luggage 10 pf. per 
6 minutes. The porter should give a counter-check. 

Theatres. "Hof- und National-Theater (PI. F, 4 ; p. 148), performances al- 
most daily (closed in July). Ordinary charges for operas: dress-circle (bal- 
kon) 4-6 Jl, parquet (i.e. reserved seats in the parterre or pit) 4-5 Jl, par- 
quet standing-place 3-4 Jl, pit 1 Jl 40 pf. - 1 Jl 60 pf. (charges much higher 
at the Wagner Performances in Aug. and Sept. : dress-circle 15-25 Jl, Erster 
Rang or gallery above the dress-circle 10-16, Zweiter Rang 6-10 Jl, etc.). 
Charges for plays: parquet 2-3'/2 Jl; dress-circle 3'/2-4 Jl; pit 2 Jl. Per- 
formances usually begin at 7 p.m. (long operas at 6 p.m.). Performances 
at reduced prices are given occasionally. Box-office open 9-1 and 5-5.30 
o'clock ; entrance in the Maximilians-Str. ; booking-fee for next day 30 pf. ; 
tickets also sold at the Kiosque in the Maximilians-Platz, adjoining the 
Herzog- Max -Burg (PI. D, 4; open 8-6; fee 10 pf.). — * Resident - Theater 
(PI. F, 4; p. 148), where plays are performed on Sundays, Tuesdays, and 
Saturdays : parquet and pit-boxes 3'/2-4 Jl (prices raised in Aug. & Sept.). 
Tickets at the box-office of the Hof- Theater and at the Kiosque (see above). 
Performances begin at 7 p.m. — Gdrtner-Platz Theatre (PI. E, 7; p. 192), 
for comedies, operettas, and ballet : front-row of first gallery 3'/2, parquet 
2JI. Tickets at the box-office (see above), at the Kiosque, and at Haber's 
music-shop, Marien-Platz 3. Performances begin at 7.30 p.m. — Volks- 
Theater (PI. C, D, 5; p. 191), Sonnen-Str. 5 (entr. in the Josephspital-Str.), 
for farces, popular pieces, and operettas; reserved seat 1 Jl. Performances 
at 8 p.m. — Marionette Theatre, Mars-Str. 13, on Sun. afternoons in winter. 
— Variety Theatres (with restaurants) : * Kit's Colosseum (PI. D, 7), Colos- 
seum-Str. 2; 'Blumensale (PI. D, 7), Blumen-S(r. 29; Monachia, Herzog- 
Wilhelm-Str., near the Karlsthor. 

Concerts. Lbwenbraukeller (p. 133; military band almost every evening 
in summer); Isarlust (p. 156); Miinchener Kindl- Keller (p. 138); Biirger- 
Itches Brauhaut (p. 138) ; Achatz (p. 137); Oberpollinger, Bamberger Hof {p. 137; 
popular songs; for men only); Volkigarten at Nymphenburg (p. 194). — 
High-class concerts in winter at the Odeon (PI. E, 3; p. 150) and in the 
Museum, Promenade-Str. (PI. E, 4). 

military Band daily at 12 at the guard-house, Marien-Platz (PI. E, 5; 
p. 189), and on Tues., Thurs., Sat., and Sun. in front of the Feldherrnhalle 
(PI. E, 4; p. 131) at the same hour. In summer also every Wed. evening, 
5-6, in the Hofgarten, and on Sat. evenings near the Chinese tower in the 
English Garden at the same hour (p. 193). 

Church Festivals. Music at the Court Church of St. Michael (p. 190) on 
Sun. at high mass, 9 a.m. ; on the Sundays of Advent and Lent, and during 
Passion Week, vocal only; on Holy Thursday and Good Friday at 7 p.m. 
a grand Miserere (by Allegri, etc.), when the church is illuminated by 
a cross composed of 800 flames ; military mass with military music in the 
same church at 11 (only when the court is present). — Church-music in the 
Frauenkirche (p. 189) at 9, in the Allerheiligenkirche (p. 148; only when 
the court is present) at 11 a.m. — On Corpus Christi Day (2nd Thurs. after 
Pentecost) a great procession, shared in by the court and the chief officials, 
wends from the Frauenkirche through the chief streets of the city. — 
On the days of All Saints and All Souls (Nov. 1st & 2nd) the Cemeteries 
are decorated with flowers, etc., and the Royal Vaults in the Hofkirche, 
Frauenkirche, and Theatinerkirche are open to the public. 

Popular Festivals. During the Carnival large public masked balls 
('Redouten') are held in Kil's Colosseum (see above), the Blumensale, the 
Centralsale, Neuturm- Str., the Miinchener Kindl-Keller, the Lbwenbrau- 
keller (p. 138), and other resorts. On the first Sun. of May and the third 
Sun. of Oct. a Duli, or fair, is held at the suburb of Haidhausen (p. 157). 
On Whitsunday there is a Church-Fair ('Kirchweih') at Grosshesselohe 

142 Route 28. MUNICH. Collection). 

(p. 193). The so-called Magdalen Festival takes place at Nymphenburg 
(p. 191) from July 22nd to July 29th. On the Sun. after July 25th (Day f 
St. James) there is a Dull at An (p. 192). The October Festival, founded 
by King Lewis I. in 1810 and celebrated on the Theresienwiese (p. 191) 
from the end of Sept. to the middle of Oct., attracts large crowds of 
peasants from Upper Bavaria; it includes an agricultural show, horse- 
races, etc. The so-called Metzgersprung ('Butchers' Festival') takes place 
in the Marien-Platz (p. 189) on Carnival Monday every third year. The 
Schiifflertanz ('Coopers' Dance') is celebrated every seven years. 

Collections, etc. (adm. free unless the contrary is stated): — 
Academy of Science (p. 190), palaeontological, mineralogical, and zoologi- 
cal collections, Sun. 10-12, Wed. and Sat. 2-4 (in winter Sun. & Sat. 
only) ; at other times for a fee. 
Anatomical and Pathological Collections (p. 191), on week-days, 12-2 (adm. 
by ticket, 50 pf., obtained in the Academy, Neuhauser-Str., between 
10 & 12). 
Antiquarium (in the New Pinakothek, p. 179), Tues. and Sat., 8-12; in 

winter, Tues. only, 10-12. 
Arco-Zinneberg Collection of Antlers (p. 157), daily on application (fee). 
Artenal and Military Museum (p. 187), in summer, Tues. and Frid. 9-12 
and 3-5, and Sun. 9-12, free; on Mon. and Thurs. 9-12 and 3-5, 1 Jl. 
Art Exhibition of the Miinchener Kunstlergenosttnschaft at the Exhibition 
Building (p. 184) daily 9-5, Nov. to Feb. 9-4, adm. 50 pf. — 'Annual 
Exhibition of the same society in the Crystal Palace (p. 187), from 
1st June to 31st Oct., daily 9-6, 1 Jl. — "International Exhibition of 
the Verein Bildender Kilnstler (the so-called»'iSe<:ess>o»'), at the Exhibition 
building in the Prinz-Kegenten-Str. (PI. F, 3; p. 149), daily from 1st June 
to 31st Oct., 9-6; 1 Jl. — Other exhibitions : Wimmer & Co., Brienner- 
Str. 3; Neumann, Maximilians -Str. 33; Fleischmann , Maximilians- 
Str. 2, etc. 
Art Union or Kunstverein (p. 149) daily (except Sat.), 10-6. Strangers are 
admitted gratis once, on application to the secretary (first floor), or 
when introduced by a member; ticket for four weeks 2 Jl. 
'Bavaria and Suhmeshalle (p. 191), 9-12 and 2-7, in winter 10-12 and 2-4; 

adm. 40 pf. p« 

Botanical Garden (p. 187), week-days, 8-6; palm-house on Mon. & Thurs., 

2-5, with guide; closed on Saturdays and Sundays. 
Bronze Foundry (p. 186), week-days 1-6, Sun. 12-2, adm. 40 pf. 
Cabinet of Coins (at the Academy, p. 190), by special permission. 
Cabinet of Drawings (Old Pinakothek, p. 172), Tues., Frid., 9-1. 
Cabinet of Engravings (Old Pinakothek, p. 172), in summer, Mon. & Thurs. 

9-12, Tues. & Frid. 9-1 ; in winter, Tues. & Frid. 9-1. 
Cabinet of Natural History (p. 190), see Academy of Science. 
Cabinet of Vases (p. 173), in the Old Pinakothek, 9-1, daily except Wed. & 

Sat. (in winter, Sun., Tues., and Thurs.). 
Collection of Fossils (p. 190), see Academy of Science. 
'Festsaalbau, see Palace. 

Frauen-Kirche, N. tower (p. 189), daily, tickets from the sacristan 40 pf. 
Glass-Painting, Brienner-Str. 33 ; show-room daily, 9-12 & 3-5. 
"Glyptothek (p. 180), free on Mon. and Frid. 8-12 and 2-4, Wed. 8-12 (in winter 
Mon. and Frid. 9-2, Wed. 9-1). On other days at the same hours 1 Jl. 
Closed during the 'October Festival' (see above). 
Hof-Thealer (p. 148), arrangements of the interior, Mon., Wed., Sat. at 2 

p.m. precisely; 50 pf. 
Hofwagenbwg (.Royal Coach Houses; p. 148), week-days 9-12 and 2-4, Sun. 

and holidays 9-12 (50 pf.); Wed., 2-4, free. 
Kaulbach Museum (p. 150), daily, 2-4. 

Kunstgewerbehaus (p. 188), Pfandhaus-Str. 7, exhibition and sale of art- 
industrial objects, week-days 8-7, Sun. and holidays 11-1, free. 
Kunstverein, see Art Union. 
'Library (p. 150), for readers on week-days, 91 (Sat. 8-12); for visitors 

(Cimelien'), in summer, daily, 9-12; fee V2-I Jl. 
Lotzbeck's Collection (p. 158), Tues. and Frid. 9-3; fee 50 pf. 

Mary. MUNICH. 28. Route. 143 

Maillinger Collection (p. 192), Sun., Toes., & Frid., 9-1. 
Maximilian eum (collection of modern historical paintings, p. 156), in sum- 
mer, Wed. and Sat. 10-12. 
Mayer's Collection of Eccletiastical Ornaments, Stiglmayer-Platz, daily. 
Minerals, Collection of, see Academy of Science. 
'Museum, Bavarian National (p. 153), daily, May to Sept. 9-3, Oct. to April 
10-2; closed on Mon.; gratis on Sun. and Thurs.; on other days 1 Jl. 
Museum of the City of Munich, Historical (p. 192), Sun., Mon., & Thurs., 9-1. 
Museum, Ethnographical (p. 149), Wed. and Sun., 9-12: in winter. Sun. 

only, 10-12. 
Museum of Plaster Casts (p. 149), Mon., Wed., Thurs., and Sat., 3-5, in 

winter 2-4. 
"Nibelungen Booms (p. 147), in the Palace, see below. 
Observatory (p. 193), Tues. & Frid., 8-11 & 2-5. 

Palace (p. 145) : Kaiserzimmer (p. 146), Trierzimmer (p. 146), Papslzimmer 

(p. 146), "Festsaalbau (p. 147), and "Nibelungen Saloons (p. 147) daily at 

11 a.m. precisely, except Sun. ; tickets 1 Jl (obtained at the approach 

to the broad flight of steps, to the left in the passage, by Herzog 

Christofs-Stein, a little before 11 a.m.). The Odyssey Saloons are at 

present closed. The "Treasury (p. 146; June to Sept., Tues. and Frid., 

9-11 a.m.) and the "Seiche Capelle (p. 146; Mon. & Thurs., 9-11 a.m.) 

are shown by tickets, which are issued between 9 and 10.30 a.m. at 

the Grottenhof, adjoining the Gensdarmes 1 Guard-room (2 Jl). 

Panoramas. In the Theresien-Str. (PI. D, 1; p. 180): Emp. Constantine 

entering Rome in 312, by Buhlmann and Wagner; daily from 9 till 

dusk, 1 Jl. — On the Theresienhohe (PI. A, 5): The Battle of Orleans, 

by Diemer and Nisle (adm. 1 Jl). 

St. Peter's Church, tower (p. 189), daily, tickets from attendant, 40 pf. 

"Pinakothek, Old (p. 158), Sun., Tues., Wed., and Frid. 9-3 (in winter 9-2); 

Mon. and Thurs. 9-5 (in winter 9-4); closed on Saturday. 
"Pinakothek, New (p. 173), Sun., Tues., Thurs., Sat., 8-12 and 2-4 (in winter 

10-2); porcelain-paintings, same days and hours. 
"Porcelain Paintings (New Pinakothek, p. 174), see above. 
Rathhaus, New (p. 189) : admission to the council-rooms 2-3 (Sun. 10-12), 

on application to the custodian (fee). 
"Beiche Capelle (p. 146), in the Palace (see above). 
"Schack Picture Gallery (p. 184), daily 2-5, in winter 2-4. 
Schwanthaler Museum (p. 191), Mon., Wed., Frid., 9-2 ; at other times, adm. 

35 pf. 
Slaughter Houses and Cattle Market (p. 191), week-days 8-5, Sun. 10-2 ; 

tickets at the restaurant (20 pf.). 
Synagogue (p. 190), daily, except Sat., 9-12 and 2-4 (40 pf.). 
Treasury (p. 146), in the Festsaalbau, see Palace. 

Churches. The Frauenkirche (p. 189) is open all day (best seen 12-4), 
the Thealinerkirche (p. 149) and Auerkirche all day except ll-l, the Basilica 
(p. 187) except 12-1, and the Ludwigskirche (p. 151) except 12-2. The Court 
Church of St. Michael (p. 190) is closed after 11 a.m. The Allerheiligen- 
Hofkirche (p. 148; entr. usually from the Brunnenhof) is shown by tickets 
(20 pf.) obtained in the Sacristy after midday (in July, Aug., & Sept. after 
10.30 a.m.). 

Diary (summer). Daily: Botanical Garden 8-6, clo'ed on Sun.; Kunst- 
gewerbehaus 8-7, Sun. and holidays 11-1; Old Pinakothek 9-3 (Mon., Thurs., 
9-5), exc. Sat.; Library 9-12, exc. Sun.; Pictures of the Kunstverein 10-6, 
exc. Sat. ; Bronze Foundry 1-6, Sun. 12-2; Palace at 11, exc. Sun.; National 
Museum 9-2, exc. Mon.; New Rathhaus 2-3, Sun. 10-12; Schack's Gallery 2-5 ; 
Anatomical collections 12-2 ; Panoramas, from 9 a.m. ; Exhibition of Art in 
the Kunstausstellungs-Gebaude 9-5 (Sun. & holidays 9-1), in the Crystal 
Palace 9-6, in the Prinz-Begenten-Str. ('Secession') 9-6; Bavaria and 
Ruhmeshalle 9-12 and 2-7 ; Eaulbach Museum 2-4, exc. Sun. ; Hofwagenburg 
9-12 and 2-4, Sun. 9-12. 

Sundays: Military and Church Music, see p. 141. New Pinakothek 
and porcelain - paintings 8-12, 2-4. Cabinet of Vases 9-1. Ethnographical 
Museum 9-1. Maillinger Collection 9-1. City of Munich Museum 9-1. 

144 Route 28. MUNICH. History. 

Military Museum 9-12. Mineralogical and Palseontological Collections 10-12. 
— Mondays : Glyptothek 8-12 and 2-4. Reiche Capelle 9-11. Cabinet of 
Engravings 9-12. Military Museum 9-12 and 3-5. Cabinet of Vases 9-1. 
Munich Museum 9-1. Schwanthaler Museum 9-2 (see p. 191). Hof-Theater 
(interior) 2. Plaster Casts 3-5. — Tuesdays : New Pinakothek and porcelain- 
paintings 8-12, 2-4. Observatory 8-11 and 2-5. Treasury 9-11. Military 
Museum 9-12 and 3-5. Cabinets of Drawings and Engravings 9-1. Cabinet 
of Vases 9-1. Antiquarium 8-12. Maillinger Collection 9-1. Lotzbeck 
Collection 9-3. — Wednesdays : Glyptothek 8-12. Maximilianeum 10-12. 
Museum of Casts 3-5. Mineralog. and Palseont. Collections 2-4. Hof- 
Theater (interior) 2. Schwanthaler Museum 9-2. Ethnograph. Museum 9-1. 
Military music in the Hofgarten 5-6. — Thursdays : New Pinakothek and 
porcelain-paintings 8-12, 2-4. Cabinet of Engravings 9-1. Reiche Capelle 
9-11. Military Museum 9-12 and 3-5. Cab. of Vases 9-1. Munich Museum 
9-1. Plaster Costs 3-5. — Fridays: Treasury 9-11. Glyptothek 8-12, 2-4. 
Drawings and Engravings 9-1. Schwanthaler Museum 9-2. Maillinger Col- 
lection 9-1. Observatory 8-11 and 2-5. Military Museum 9-12 and 3-5. 
Lotzbeck Collection 9-3. — Saturdays : Old Pinakothek closed. New 
Pinakothek and porcelain-paintings 8-12, 2-4. Maximilianeum 10-12. Museum 
of Casts 3-5. Mineralog. and Palseont. Collections 2-4. Antiquarium 8-12. 
Hof-Theater (interior) 2. Military music, at the Chinese Tower in the 
Engl. Garden 5-6. — A "Drive (nacres see p. 140) in the English Garden 
(p. 193) or in the Gasteig Grounds (p. 157), is recommended after a morning 
of sight-seeing; also excursions by the Isarthal railway (p. 194) or on the 
Starnberger See (p. 195). 

Greatest Attractions: Old Pinakothek (p. 158), New Pinakothek 
(p. 173), National Museum (p. 153), Basilica (p. 187), Palace (p. 145), Glypto- 
thek (p. 180), Schack Gallery (p. 184). 

English Church Service in the Odeon (p. 150) at 11 a.m. and 3.30 p.m. 
(in winter 3 p.m.). 

British Minister Resident: V. A. W. Drummond, Esq., Barer-Str. 15, 
11-2; Consul, John 8. Smith, Esq., Barer-Str. 14, 11-1. — American 
Consul: Ralph Steiner, Esq. 

Munich (1703 ft.), the capital of Bavaria, with 350,600 inhab. 
(incl. 6100 Jews and a garrison of 9300 men), lies on the S. side 
of a sterile plain, 50 sq. M. in area, chiefly on the left bank of the 
Isar, -which emerges from a narrow gorge (10 M. long) about 4i/ 2 M. 
above the city. The lofty situation of the city and its proximity to 
the Alps render it liable to sudden changes of temperature, against 
which visitors should guard, especially towards evening. The high 
mountains, about 25 M. to the S. of the city, become very distinct 
after a thunder-storm or on the approach of bad weather. 

History. Munich was founded by Henry the Lion, who constructed a 
bridge over the Isar, a custom-house, a mint, and a salt-depot on the site of 
the present city in 1158. The land is said to have belonged to the monks 
of Schaftlarn or Tegernsee, whence the name of Forum ad Monachos, Muniha, 
or Munich. Under the Wittelsbach princes the town prospered. Otho the 
Illustrious (d. 1253) transferred his residence to Munich, and his son Lewis the 
Severe built the Alte Hof (p. 134). Emp. Lewis the Bavarian almost entirely 
re-erected the city, which was loyally attached to him, after a fire in 1327 (his 
tomb in the Frauenkirche, see p. 163). Duke Albert V. (1550-73) founded the 
Library and the Kunstkammer, to which the Antiquarium, cabinet of coins, 
and part of the National Museum owe their origin. Elector Maximilian I. 
(1597-1651) erected the Arsenal, the Old Palace, and the Mariensaule (p. 162). 
In 1631 Gustavus Adolphus pat I a lengthened visit to the city. Elector Maxi- 
milian III. Joseph founded the Academy (p. 190) in 1757, and his successor 
Charles Theodore of the Palatinate removed the old fortifications. King 
Maximilian I. Joseph (d. 1825) contributed materially to the improvement 
of the city by the dissolution of the religious houses and the erection of 

Alte Residenz. MUNICH. 28. Route. 145 

new buildings, but for its modern magnificence Munich is chiefly indebted to 
his son Lewis I. (d. 1868). That monarch, who even before his accession Lad 
purchased several valuable works of art (e.g. the iEgina Marbles, the so-called 
Ilioneus) and attracted Cornelius and other artists to Munich, raised the city 
during his reign of 23 years (ending in 1848) to the foremost rank as a school of 
German art. Klenze (d. 1864) was chiefly instrumental in carrying out the 
architectural plans of the monarch, and he was ably seconded by Gartner, 
Ohlmuller, and Ziebland. The indefatigable Schwanthaler (d. 1848) provided 
the plastic embellishment, and Cornelius (d. 1867) and his pupils enlivened 
the walls with paintings of a monumental character. The harmony of 
this period, however, was soon disturbed by a difference between Corne- 
lius and Klenze, and when the king showed that his sympathies were 
with the latter, Cornelius removed to Berlin. As Kaulbach (d. 1874) also 
for the last ten years of his life worked chiefly at Berlin, and Schwind 
(d. 1871) at the Wartburg , the glory of Munich as an art-centre began 
to pale. The decline, however, was transient ; for while Munich has lately 
produced nothing of the first rank in architecture or sculpture, it has 
maintained its position as a leading school of painting, though under 
completely altered conditions. The elder Munich artists were distinguished 
for their accuracy of drawing and composition, and prided themselves on 
having revived the romantic style of art ; the latest generation, under the 
lead of Karl Piloty (1826-1886), on the contrary, has fixed its attention 
chiefly on the study of colouring, and bestows the utmost care upon tech- 
nical perfection of finish. 

The Max- Joseph-Platz (PI. E, 4), the centre of the city and 
its traffic, situated between the old quarters and the new, is adorned 
with the ^Monument of King Max Joseph (d. 1825), erected by the 
city on the 25th anniversary of that monarch's accession, modelled by 
Ranch of Berlin, and cast in bronze by Stiglmayer. The colossal statue 
in a sitting posture rests on a pedestal adorned with reliefs emble- 
matical of Agriculture, Art, Constitution, and Religious Toleration. 

The N. side of the Max- Joseph-Platz is bounded by the royal 
Palace (PI. E, F, 4), which consists of three parts : on the S. side 
towards the Platz the Kbnigsbau , N. towards the Hofgarten the 
Festsaalbau, and between these the Alte Residenz, or old palace, 
facing the Residenz-Str. 

The Alte Residenz, built by Hans Reifenstuel in 1596-1619, 
under Elector Maximilian I., comprises four courts, Kaiserhof, 
Kiichenhof, Brunnenhof, and Kapellenhof (i. e. courts of the em- 
peror, kitchen, fountain, and chapel). The simple facade is embel- 
lished with two handsome bronze doors and a bronze statue of the 
Virgin by Hans Krumper. By the door to the right we enter the 
Kapellenhof. The passage thence to the Brunnenhof contains 'Duke 
Christopher's Stone' (an inscription on the wall). A staircase to the 
left ascends to the Hercules Saloon , where visitors to the palace 
assemble at 11 o'clock sharp (comp. p. 143). To the right of the 
Kapellenhof is the Orottenhof, with a small garden and a fantastic 
shell-grotto ; in the centre a bronze Perseus, after B. Cellini. From 
the S.E. corner a passage leads to a larger court, with fountain- 
figures of Neptune, etc., from which the Nibelungen Saloons in the 
Konigsbau are entered (p. 147). The Brunnenhof, to the E. of the 
Kapellenhof, is embellished with a statue of Otho of Wittelsbach 
and other figures in bronze by P. Candid. The Allerheiligenkirche 

Baedeker's S. Germanv. 8th Rflit 10 

146 Route 28. 


Alte Resident. 

(p. 148) adjoins this court on the E. ; to the S. a passage leads to 
the Hof-Theater (p. 148). 

The apartments of the Ahe Besidenz are sumptuously fitted up 
in 17th cent, style. Visitors are first conducted to the Kaiserzimmeb. 
or Reichen Zimmeb, which include the Ante-Room, with a portrait 
of King Lewis II. by Piloty ; the Audience Chamber, with twelve 
Roman emperors by an unknown "Venetian painter; the Throne 
Room, occupied in 1809 by Napoleon I. ; the Qreen Gallery, con- 
taining Italian and Dutch pictures of little value ; the Bed Chamber, 
with a richly-gilded bed ; the Mirror Cabinet, with valuable crystal ; 


the Miniature Cabinet, with miniatures. — The Tbiekzimmeb, (for 
royal guests) and the Papstzimmeb , occupied in 1782 by Pope 
Pius VI., with furniture, tapestry, etc., of the 17th and 18th cent., 
are now usually shown after the visit to the Festsaalbau (p. 147). 

The 'Treasury (admission , see p. 143) contains jewels and precious 
trinkets, including the Bavarian 'Hausdiamant', a magnificent blue dia- 
mond, and the 'pearl of the Palatinate', half black; goblets, orders, regalia, 
including the Bohemian crown of Frederick V. of the Palatinate, captured 
at Prague in 1620, and the crowns of Emp. Henry II. ('the Saint') and his 
wife Cunigunde, of the year 1010 5 group of St. George and the Dragon, 
with the knight in chased gold, the dragon of jasper, and the whole 
adorned with diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and pearls; model of Trajan's 
Column, executed by the goldsmith Valadier (1763-83) ; violin of tortoise-shell 

The *Reiehe Gapelle (adm., see p. 143) contains costly objects in gold 
and silver, many of them of high artistic worth; two miniature altars by. 

Festsaalbau. MUNICH. 28. Route. 147 

Benv. Cellini (?), the enamelled pocket-altar of Mary Queen of Scots, about 
6 in. in length, and a Descent from the Cross in wax by Michael Angelo (?). 

The *Festsaalbau (facade towards the Hofgarten , 256 yds. long), 
a 'building of festive halls', erected in 1832-42 by Klenze in the 
later Italian Renaissance style , possesses a handsome porch of 10 
Ionic columns, surmounted by two lions, between which are 8 alle- 
gorical figures in marble-limestone by Schwanthaler , representing 
the different provinces of the kingdom. The unsightly structure on 
the roof was the winter-garden of King Lewis II. The six saloons 
of the groundfloor are decorated with encaustic Mubal Paintings 
from the Odyssby, by Hiltensperger, from designs by Schwanthaler 
(closed at present). 

A broad marble staircase ascends to the first floor from the 
passage on the B. side of the Kuchenhof. Visitors, however, are 
usually conducted from the Hercules Saloon to the ante-chambers 
by a long corridor. 

Staircase, with six handsome columns of marble from the Untersberg. 
Ante-Chamber, with reliefs by Schwanthaler; 2nd ante-chamber decorated 
in the Pompeian style by Hiltensperger. — Magnificent Ball Room, tribunes 
supported by marble columns and bearing Caryatides of papier-mache, 
coloured reliefs (dancing genii) by Schwanthaler. Two Cakd Rooms with 
thirty-six "Portraits of Beautiful Women by Stieler. — Battle Saloon: 
Fourteen large pictures representing scenes from the wars in 1805-15. — 
'Hall of Charlemagne, with six encaustic paintings (mural paintings 
on wax ground) designed by Schnorr. Charlemagne anointed by Pope 
Stephen II. as Defender of the Church; Charlemagne entering after his 
victory over the Lombard king Desiderius ; victory over the Saxons, felling 
of the sacred oak, and erection of the cross ; synod at Frankfurt ; coronation ; 
also twelve smaller scenes from the emperor's life. Between the windows 
Alcuin, Arno, and Eginhard. — 'Barbarossa Hall, with six mural paint- 
ings by the same masters : election as emperor, entry into Milan, reconcilia- 
tion with Pope Alexander III. at Venice, imperial festival at Mayence, 
battle at Iconium, death. Reliefs above by Schwanthaler. — *Hapsburg 
Saloon, with four paintings, mainly by Schnorr: Rudolph's meeting with 
the priest; his acceptance of the imperial sceptre; victory over Ottocar of 
Bohemia on the Marchfeld; Rhenish robber-knights summoned before his 
tribunal. Frieze by Schwind, representing the Triumph of the Arts, etc. 
— "Throne Saloon. Twelve magnificent gilded bronze statues, over life- 
size, by Schwanthaler, of the ancestors of the House of Wittelsbach, from 
Otho the Illustrious to Charles XII. of Sweden. 

The Konigsbau (facade towards the Max-Joseph-Platz , 136 
yds. long), erected in 1826-33 by Klenze in imitation of the Pitti 
Palace at Florence , but of inferior effect owing to necessary de- 
viations from the original plan , is adorned in the interior with 
sculptures, frescoes, and other works of art (not accessible). 

The S. W. apartments on the groundfloor (entered from the Grotten- 
hof, p. 145) are adorned with the magnificent *Nibblungbn Frescoes 
by Schnorr, begun in 1861. Five saloons with large paintings; in 
the lunettes, numerous smaller paintings. 

Entrance Hall : the principal persons of the poem, right, Siegfried and 
Chriemhild ; then Hagen, Volker, Dankwart ; above , the dwarf Alberich, 
keeper of the Nibelungen treasure, and Eckewart, Chriemhild's messenger; 
left, Gunther and Brunhild ; Queen Ute (Gunther's mother) with her sons 
Gemot and Giselher ; Siegmund and Siegelinde , Siegfried's parents ; next, 
King Attila and Rudiger, Dietrich of Bern and Meister Hildebrand. Marriage 


148 Route 28. MUNICH. AllerK-Hofkirche. 

Hall : Siegfried's return from the war against the Saxons ; Brunhild's arrival 
at Worms ; Siegfried and Chriemhild's nuptials ; opposite, by the window, 
the delivery of the girdle. Hall of Tbeacheky ; (by the window) quarrel 
of the queens Chriemhild and Brunhild in front of the cathedral at Worms. 
Siegfried murdered by Hagen at the well ; Chriemhild finds Siegfried's corpse 
at the door of the cathedral: Hagen proved to be the murderer by the 
corpse beginning to bleed afresh. Over the door: Hagen throwing the 
Nibelungen treasure into the Rhine. Hall of Revenge : Fall of the 
heroes (by the window) ; Chriemhild expostulates with Volker and Hagen ; 
combat on the staircase of the burning palace; Dietrich conquers Hagen; 
Chriemhild's death. Over the doors : the last combat of the heroes ; Hagen 
brought before Chriemhild by Dietrich ; Attila's lament. Hall of Mourning : 
Burial of the fallen heroes ; the sad tidings conveyed to Burgundy ; Bishop 
Pilgram of Passau causes mass to be sung for the repose of the dead (by 
Sehnorr's pupils). 

The Hof- und National-Theater (PI. F, 4; performances, see 
p. 141), on the E. side of the Max-Joseph-Platz, one of the largest 
in Germany, accommodating 2200 spectators, was erected by Fischer 
(d. 1822) in 1818, but was burned down in 1823 and re-erected in 
its original form by Klenze within eleven months. Handsome portico 
of eight Corinthian columns. The pedimental frescoes designed by 
Schwanthaler (Pegasus and the Hora?, Apollo and the Muses) were 
replaced in 1894 by glass mosaics. The building is 145 ft. high, 
188 ft. broad, and 332 ft. deep ; the stage measures 95 ft. in breadth 
by 115 ft. in depth. The interior deserves a visit (which takes an 
hour; adm., see p. 142); fine view of the Alps from the roof. ■ — Be- 
tween the Hof-Theater and the Allerheiligenkirche is the Kesidenz- 
Theater, built in 1752-60 and restored in 1857, richly decorated 
in the rococo style (room for 800 spectators). 

The *Allerheiligen-Hofkirche (All Saints' Church), or Court 
CftapeJ (adm., see p. 143 ; music, seep. 141), on the E. side of the pal- 
ace, erected in 1837 by Klenze in the Byzantine-Romanesque style, 
is sumptuously fitted up. The arches rest on columns of variegated 
marble, the walls are covered with different coloured marbles ; and 
the vaulting, window-arches, and choir are adorned with frescoes on 
a gold ground by Hess, Schraudolph, and Koch. The concealment of 
the windows causes the light to enter in a very effective manner. 

At the back of the Alte Residenz , in the Marstall-Platz, are 
the Royal Coach Houses and Harness Rooms (Hofwageriburg ; 
adm., see p. 142) , containing an extensive collection of vehicles 
belonging to the rulers of Bavaria in the 17-19th centuries. Among 
the most noteworthy objects are the *State Coaches and Sleighs of 
Elector Max Emmanuel (1679), the Carriage of Elector Charles Albert 
(1726), and the *State Sledges and Carriages of King Lewis II. 

Adjoining the Festsaalbau on the N. is the Hofgarten (PI. E, 
F, 3, 4), or palace-garden, laid out in 1614. Originally a pleasant 
park, with fountains and a pond, it is now simply a square planted 
with trees, and bounded on two sides by open Arcades, which are 
adorned with faded frescoes of landscapes and historical subjects, 
painted in 1827-34. 

Feldherrnhalle. MUNICH. 28. Route. 149 

By the entrances next to the Palace are three frescoes by Kaulbach, 
representing Bavaria and the rivers Danube, Rhine, Isar, and Main. The 
historical frescoes on the W. side, of events from the history of Bavaria, 
were executed by pupils of Cornelius (most of them restored) ; beyond 
them are masterly landscapes from Italy and Sicily by Karl Rottmann 
(d. 1850). Each scene has its name annexed. The distichs above the pictures 
are by King Lewis I. On the N. side, at the top, are thirty-nine small 
encaustic paintings from the Greek War of Independence, from sketches 
by P. ffess (p. 177). — In the seven niches at the N.E. end are the labours 
of Hercules in colossal wooden groups, executed by R. Boos (1730-1810) 
and restored in 1852. — In the middle of the Hofgarten is a fountain- 
temple with a good bronze figure of Bavaria (16th cent.). 

The groundfloor of the N. wing contains the Museum of Plaster 
Casts of classic sculptures (adm., see p. 143), affording a good survey 
of the development of the plastic art from the 6th cent, before Christ 
down to the present day. Director, Prof. Furtwangler. Catalogue 
30 pf. — The extensive Ethnographical Museum occupies seven 
rooms on the upper floor (adm., see p. 143; Conservator, Dr. Buchuer; 
Catalogue 50 pf.). — Opposite, to the right of the exit, is the Art 
Union, or Kunstverein (PI. F, 3; entrance in the Arcades; adm., 
see p. 142), containing paintings and sculptures by living artists, 
some of them the property of the society, others for sale. — The 
Barracks on the E. side of the Hofgarten are to be torn down. 

From the just -mentioned exit a few steps bring us to the 
Prinz-Regenten-Strasse (PI. F, G-, H, 3,4), which is now under- 
going a thorough reconstruction. It begins opposite the Palace of 
Prince Charles (now the Austrian Embassy), skirts the left (S.) 
side of the English Garden (p. 193), passes (right) the Exhibition 
Building of the '■Secession' (p. 142), and leads straight to the Isar, 
which it crosses by the Luitpold-Brilcke. On the farther bank, below 
the Luitpold Terrace (p. 157), to which two roads ascend, are pleasure- 
grounds and a large fountain. 

Most of the buildings in the handsome Ludwig-Strasse (PI. 
F, E, 4-1; tramway-line 2, p. 140), originated by King Lewis I., 
40 yds. in width, and 2/4 M. in length, are in various Renaissance 
forms, constructed of brick and stone skilfully combined. 

The Feldherrnhalle (PI. E, 4), or Hall of the Generals, at the 
S. end, a copy of Orcagna's Loggia dei Lanzi at Florence, erected in 
1844 by Gartner, contains the Bavarian Military Monument, by 
F. von Miller (unveiled in 1892), and statues of the Bavarian 
generals Tilly and "Wrede, by Schwanthaler. 

The Church of the Theatines (PI. E, 4), erected by Barelli in 
1662-75 in the debased Italian style, overladen with decoration, 
contains the Royal Vaults. Facade of 1767. Pictures in the interior 
(restored in 1856) by Tintoretto, Zanchi, Karl Loth, Cignani, and 
others. To the right is the mortuary chapel of King Maximilian II. 
(d. 1864) and Queen Marie (d. 1889). In the sacristy, on the left, 
an Entombment by H. Hess. 

In the Odeons - Platz rises the equestrian Statue of Lewis I. 

150 Route 28. MUNICH. Royal Library. 

(d. 1868), by Widnrnann, erected in 1862. — To the left is the 
Odeon (PI. E, 3), erected in 1828 by Klenze, and destined for con- 
certs and balls ; one of the apartments is fitted up as an English 
Chapel (see p. 144). The ceiling of the concert-room is decorated 
with frescoes by W. von Kaulbach and others, the orchestra with 
busts of celebrated composers (partly concealed by the organ). — On 
the N. side of the square, on the left, stands the Palace of Prince 
Regent Luitpold, formerly that of the Duke of Leuchtenberg (PI. E, 3), 
erected by Klenze (unoccupied). Opposite (Fiirsten-Str. 1) is the 
Palace of Prince Ludwig Ferdinand. 

Then, farther to the N., in the Ludwig - Strasse (left), the 
Palace of Duke Max (PI. E, 3), by Klenze, with frescoes by hanger, 
Kaulbach, and Zimmermann , and a marble frieze representing the 
myth of Bacchus , by Schwanthaler. On the right, the War Office 
(PI. F, 2, 3), also by Klenze. — In the vicinity, Kaulbach-Str. 12, 
is the Kaulbach Museum, an interesting selection of the pictures 
and sketches left by the eminent painter W. von Kaulbach (d. 1874). 
Adm., see p. 142. 

The *Royal Library (PI. F, 2; adm., see p. 142), an imposing 
edifice , was built in 1832-42 by Gartner in the Florentine style. 
The steps are adorned with colossal seated figures of Aristotle, 
Hippocrates, Homer, and Thucydides. *Staircase with broad marble 
flight of steps ; above, on each side, is a gallery, borne by 16 marble 
columns; on the walls are medallion -portraits of celebrated poets 
and scholars. At the entrance to the library are statues of Albert V., 
the founder, and Lewis I., the builder of the library, both by 
Schwanthaler. The library (Director, Dr. Laubmann), one of the 
most extensive in Europe, comprises upwards of 1,300,000 vols, 
and 30,000 MSS. , and is especially valuable for its theological and 
biblical literature and German MSS. The most interesting rarities 
('Cimelien', from the Greek xetfrfjXio^ , a treasure) are exhibited in 
the Fiirsten-Saal. 

First Section: Specimens of substances used to write on; bronze 
and wax tablets, papyrus, parchment, cotton and linen paper, palm- 
leaves, bark, woven materials. Also brazen tabulae honestae missionis, or 
certificates of honourable discharge of Roman soldiers ; wax tablets with 
inscriptions ; the Codex Purpureus, a Latin Book of the Gospels of the 9th 
cent., written on purple vellum with gold and silver letters. — Second 
Section : Precious manuscripts in different old and modern languages. 
The most numerous are the Latin MSS., of which, for showing the devel- 
opment of writing , specimens of every century from the 6th to the 16th 
are exhibited. One of the oldest is the Breviarium Alarici, an extract from 
the Code of Theodosius the Great, made in Spain by order of Alaric, King 
of the Visigoths, 484-506. Earliest German MSS.: The Wessobrunner Oebet, 
a fragment of an alliterative epic with a prayer in prose , written before 
814, from the monastery of Wessobrunn in Upper Bavaria ; Beliand, a 
harmony of the Gospels in early Low German (the Gospels in alliterative 
verse), written about 830 by a Saxon ecclesiastic; Otfried of Weissenburg's 
Gospel in verse, composed between 863 and 871 and copied at Freising 
about 900; oldest (13th cent.) MS. of the Nibelungen Lied, from the 
monastery of Hohenembs near Bregenz; Tristan and Isolde, poem by 
Godfrey of Strassburg, MS. of 1240, with paintings; Parcival and Titurel, 

Ludwigskirche. MUNICH. 28. Route. 151 

by Wolfram von Escbenbach, with paintings. Among the Oriental MS3. 
several Arabic specimens are remarkable for their splendour and beautiful 
writing ; among the modern MSS. a copy of Petrarch with graceful margin- 
al drawings and a manuscript of Calderon with a final note from the 
author's own hand may be mentioned. Then follow several musical 
compositions with old notes , among them also ancient Greek hymns of 
Dionysius and Mesomedes. — Thikd Section: Sumptuous old binding?. 
'Codex Aureus, written in gold uncial letters in 870 by order of Emp. 
Charles the Bald; the cover consists of a plate of embossed gold, with 
jewels and pearls. "Four Books of Gospels and a Missal of Emp. Henry II. 
(1024), presented to the cathedral of Bamberg, with a similar cover. Then 
a collection of bindings from the 11th to the 17th cent, and a series of 
ivory covers, showing the development of ivory carving from the Roman 
period to the end of the 16th century. — Fourth Section : Illuminated MS. 
•Prayer-book of Emp. Maximilian I., with marginal drawings by Albert 
Diirer and Cranach. Latin prayer-book with miniatures by Memling (V). 
The Jewels of Anne of Austria, consort of Duke Albert V. of Bavaria, 
miniature-paintings by Hans Mielich. Prayer-book of Duke Albert V. 
of Bavaria, by Giulio Clovio (1574). Calendarium of the 16th cent, by 
Brueghel (?). "Livre de Jehan Bocace des cas des nobles hommes et femmes, 
translation made in 1458 for Maitre Etienne Chevalier, with admirable 
miniatures by Foucquet and his pupils. Latin prayer-book with illustrations 
by Sinibaldi of Florence (1485), richly bound like the preceding. Several 
books of arms and weapons, among them the tournament book of Duke 
William IV. of Bavaria, painted in 1541-44. — Fifth Section: Typo- 
graphical specimens in illustration of the history of printing. Block-books 
(i.e. books printed from carved blocks of wood) of the 15th century. Then 
the earliest printed books, including the Mazarin Bible, printed by Guten- 
berg and Fust (Mayence, 1455); stereotype plate of 1553. Diirer's Passion 
of 1511, the first edition of Holbein's Dance of Death, Sandro Botticelli's 
engravings (Florence, 1481), the first editions of Columbus' and Amerigo 
Vespucci's letters on the New World; broadsides and title-pages, etc. — 
Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Sections : Interesting early maps ; autograph 
writings of celebrated men ; book-plates ('Exlibris') from the 16th cent, to 
the present day. 

The National Arc/lives of Bavaria, in the vaults of the groundfloor, contain 
about 500,000 documents and include an interesting collection of medals and 
of impressions of the seals of German emperors , princes , and noblemen 
(shown on application). Archivist, Hofrath von Rockinger (office-hours 9-2). 

The *Ludwigskirche (PI. F, 2; adm., see p. 143), erected in 
1829-44 in the Italian Romanesque style by Gartner, is a hand- 
some cruciform structure. Facade flanked with two towers 210 ft. 
in height. Mosaic roof of coloured tiles. Above the portal, Christ 
and the four Evangelists, by Schwanthaler. 

Interior (dark; best light in the afternoon). The entire wall at the 
back of the high-altar is covered with the "Last Judgment, the largest of 
the frescoes of Cornelius (1836-40), 60 ft. high, 36 ft. broad. The other 
frescoes, designed by Cornelius, were executed by his pupils (God the 
Father, the Nativity and Crucifixion, Patriarchs, Prophets, Martyrs). — In 
the adjacent grounds are frescoes by Forslner at fourteen different shrines. 

Opposite is the Blind Asylum (PI. F, 2), erected by Gartner in 
1834-38 in the Florentine style. The portals are embellished with 
statues of the four patron-saints of the blind, by Eberhard. 

The University (PI. F, 1) on the left, the Priests 1 Seminary, 
or Georgianum, opposite , and the Max-Joseph School form a large 
square, intersected by the Ludwig - Strasse , and adorned with two 
Fountains copied from those by Bernini in the piazza of St. Peter 
at Rome. The university (about 3500 students), founded in 1472 at 

] 52 Route 28. MUNICH. Siegesthor. 

Ingolstadt (p. 132), was transferred to Landshut (p. 135) in 1800, 
and thence to Munich in 1826. The University Library, on the 
second floor, contains upwards of 300,000 vols, (open daily, 9-12). 

The "Siegesthor (PI. F, 1), or Gate of Victory, erected by Lewis I. 
'to the Bavarian army', begun by Gartner in 1843 and completed 
by Metzger in 1850, is an imitation of the triumphal anh of Constan- 
tine at Rome. It is crowned with 'Bavaria' in a quadriga drawn by 
lions , in bronze , designed by Wagner (comp. p. 174). Over the 
Corinthian columns at the sides are figures of Victory ; on the walls 
raliefs, representing warlike exploits (below) and the different prov- 
inces of the kingdom (above). This fine arch forms an appropriate 
termination to the Ludwig-Strasse. 

Beyond the Siegesthor, to the left, is the imposing :| Academy 
of Art, in the Italian Renaissance style, designed by Neureuther 
(1874-85). The central portion is 610 ft. long, while the wings at 
the ends project 105 ft. On the flight of steps in front of the main 
entrance are mounted figures of Castor and Pollux, cast in bronze 
by F. von Miller from the designs of Widnmann. 

From the Siegesthor the Leopold- Strasse leads past the Palace 
of Prince Leopold and several villas to the suburb of Schwabing 
(Salvator Brewery ; Grosser Wirt), which, with its large bath-estab- 
lishments (p. 140), was incorporated with Munich in 1861. 

On the S. side of the Max-Joseph-Platz is the Post Office (PI. 
E, 4, 5). The facade towards the Platz was constructed by Klenze in 
1836. The open arcade contains six paintings of horse-tamers on a red 
ground in the Pompeian style, by Hiltensperger. The original facade 
towards the Residenz-Str. is in the Italian palatial style (1740). — 
To the right a short street leads to the Alte Hof, the oldest palace 
of the Dukes of Bavaria, erected in 1253-56, and now occupied by 
public offices. A passage to the left in front of it leads to the Hof- 
brauhaus, or 'Court Brewery' (PI. F, 5; p. 138). 

The "Maximilian - Strasse (PI. F, G, H, 5; tramway-line 4, 
p. 140), 1 M. in length and 25 yds. in breadth, was constructed 
by desire of King Max II. in a novel style of domestic architecture. 
First, on the right, is the Mint (PI. F, 5), a building of the 16th 
cent., remodelled by Gartner in 1809, with arcades embellished 
with statues. The old court is in the Renaissance style. Farther 
on , the street expands into a square , relieved with pleasure- 
grounds; on the left the Government Buildings (PI. G, 5; 1858-64), 
on the right the National Museum (p. 153). In the centre rise four 
monuments: to the left a Statue of General Deroy (PI. 19; killed 
at Poloczk in 1812), by Halbig (1856) ; adjoining it, that of Count 
Rumford (d. 1814), founder of the English Garden, by Zumbusch 
(1868). Opposite are the statues of Schelling, the philosopher 
(d. 1854), designed by Brugger (1861), and Fraunhofer, the op- 
tician (d. 1826), by Halbig (1861). 

National Museum. MUNICH. 28. Route. 153 

The *Bavarian National Museum (PI. F, G, 5; adm., seep.143), 
founded by King Max II. in 1855 and originally exhibited in the 
Herzog- Max -Burg (p. 188), contains a rich collection of objects 
illustrating the progress of civilisation and art. The building was 
erected in 1858-66 by Riedel. On the central portion , 95 ft. in 
height, is enthroned a 'Bavaria' with the lion, in zinc. The facade 
is richly adorned with caryatides, statues, reliefs, and other enrich- 
ments. Director, Prof. Dr. W. N. von Riehl. 

The Bavarian National Museum contains works of art of every kind, 
dating from the prehistoric Roman periods down to the present day, and 
representing every civilised country, but with special reference to Bavaria. 
The plans hung up at the entrance afford a general outline of the arrangement, 
The collections are divided into two principal sections : 1. General Collection 
('Allgemeine Sammlung') of the products of human industry, from hoar 
antiquity to the present day; 2. Special Collections ('Fachsammlungen') 
illustrating special branches of art or industry, and too extensive to be 
embraced in the General Collection. The General Collection begins in the 
arcades and in the two prehistoric rooms on the E. side of the ground- 
floor, is continued throughout the whole of the rooms on the W. side, 
and ends with the modern rooms (1619th cent.) on the second floor. The 
Special Collections begin in the third room on the E. side of the ground- 
floor and are continued in the thirty rooms on the first floor. These last 
are embellished with large Mural Paintings of the history of Bavaria. At 
the back of the building is a Garden, which contains monuments and 
gravestones extending from the Roman period to the 18th cent, (including 
the tomb of Orlando di Lasso, the composer; see p. 188); also a colossal 
"■Group of Mars and Venus in bronze, by Hubert Gerhard (ca. 1590), and 
the so-called 'Miltenherg Column'. — The Museum further includes an 
extensive Library of Technical Works and a copying -room, the use of 
which is granted to artists and students on application. The larger groups 
and other objects of importance in the various sections are labelled. The 
briefest visit to the whole museum takes two hours. Those who are pressed 
for time should confine themselves to the second floor. Printed guide 50 pf.; 
also several special catalogues. 

Geoond Flooe. In the Vestibule are cannon , a relief of St. George, 
and in the centre the stone monument of a Count of Haag (d. 1566), with 
a recumbent figure. In the Arcades to the left are Roman relics. — Room I 
(left). Cases 3-7. Prehistoric antiquities, chiefly from tumuli in different 
parts of Franconia. Works of the bronze period (ca. 1400-900 B.C. ?), the 
early iron period (ca. 900-450 B.C. ?), and the later iron period (from ca. 
450 B.C. to the Roman period; Celtic antiquities). In Case 2 is the Golden 
Hat (shield-boss) of Schifferstadt (ca. 400 B.C.). Cases 8, 11-14. Roman 
antiquities, including (Case 13) fine glass vessels and fragments of early- 
Christian glass from the Catacombs. Cases 1, 2, 9, 10. Germanic anti- 
quities of the Merovingian period (5-8th cent. A.D.), objects from tombs 
at Wittislingen, Nordendorf, etc. The walls are hung with handsome 
Brussels carpets (continuation of this collection on second floor). — Room II. 
Roman antiquities ; mosaic from Westerhofen, near Ingolstadt ; an altar 
from Rheinzabern ; and stone monuments. — Rooms 3-9 contain the follow- 
ing Special Collections: 3-5. Iron-work, from the 15th cent, onwards 
(fine iron screen of ca. 1125 from the Dominican church at Ratisbon, at 
the entrance of R. 3; painted Gothic screen from Kiifstein); 6. Utensils 
in bronze, copper, brass, and tin; modern work in metal; 7-9. Plaster 
casts from famous originals. — To the left, at the foot of the staircase to 
the first floor, is a Torture Chamber. 

We return to the entrance. To the right is the department of "Med- 
iaeval Art, ranging from the early Christian epoch to the beginning of 
the 16th century. The Arcades contain architectural fragments of the 
Romanesque and early-Gothic periods. — Room I (Romanesque period). 
Romanesque architectural members. In the glass-cases are smaller works 

154 Route 28. MUNICH. National Museum. 

of art, chiefly ecclesiastical, such as ciboria, aquamaniles, crucifixes, 
monstrances, reliquaries, censers, and candelabra. Special attention is 
deserved by the ivory carvings (reliefs of the Resurrection and Ascension, 
6th cent.; jewel-casket of St. Cunigunde from Bamberg Cathedral) and the 
enamel-work on metal (ll-14th cent.). On the walls are large wooden 
crucifixes; stone sculptures from Wessobrunn (ca. 1250); mural paintings 
from the monastery of Rebdorf (13th cent.) ; stained glass from Seligenthal 
(ca. 1300). On the entrance-wall are early-Russian and modern Greek 
paintings and small objects in metal and wood. — Room II (Gothic, 14th 
cent.). The cases contain miniatures from mass-books and antiphonies 
(12-lBth cent.) ; crucifixes, aquamaniles, osculatories ; small sculptures, 
originals and casts. On the walls are larger sculptures, chiefly tombstones 
with reliefs ; altar-piece from Rosenheim, with the oldest panel-paintings 
of Bavaria (beginning of the 14th cent.); small reliquary-altar, with paintings 
in tempera in the Lower Rhenish style (ca. 1350). — Room III. Panel- 
paintings and sculptures of the 14-15th cent., including a *Winged Altar 
from Pahl near Weilheim (Xo. 9) and a rich Gothic domestic altar from 
Nuremberg (No. 15), both of the first half of the 15th century. — Room IV. 
Large triple altar from the old Franciscan church at Bamberg (perhaps by 
Meister Berthold of Nuremberg; 1429); stained glass from the Franciscan 
church of Ratisbon. — Room V. Ceiling and panelling from the old Weavers' 
Hall at Augsburg (1457); bridal coffers, cabinets; figures of the twelve 
Apostles in wood from Liibeck (15th cent.). — Room VI. The glass-cases 
contain incunabula (1440-1500) ; mediaeval coins and dies ; original docu- 
ments, etc. On the partition-wall, wooden figure of St. Willibald ; large 
piece of Flemish tapestry, representing the Nativity and Adoration of the 
Magi (ca. 1500). — Room VII. Rich Gothic ceiling in lime-wood from the 
castle of Oberhaus near Passau. The cases contain sculptures in wood, fine 
miniatures (Flemish prayer-books of the 16th cent., etc.), two small oil-paint- 
ings by Memling, late-Gothic goldsmith's work. By the walls, handsome 
carved cabinets ; bedsteads ; panel - paintings of different Upper German 
schools. — Room VIII. Staircase and gallery from Neu-Otting (15th cent.); 
altar of the Virgin from Weissenburg (15th cent.) ; wooden figure of 
St. George (14th cent.); so-called 'Palmesel' (comp. p. 107; 16th cent.). — 
Room IX ('Kirchensaal', in seven sections). Altar from Geroldshofen 
(ca. 1515), figures of the Virgin and the Magdalen, bust of St. Afra, wooden 
statuettes of the Apostles, and other works by Tilmann Riemenschneider ; 
Death of the Virgin, a group carved in wood, from Ingolstadt (1490-1500) ; 
two procession-poles of the Fishermen's Guild of Ingolstadt (1509) ; winged 
altar with gilded carving and paintings, of the school of Michael Pacher 
(ca. 1500); armorial shield of Milan; high-altar from the former Franciscan 
clmrch at Munich (1492). The cases of the 6th and 7th sections contain 
church-vessels in metal. Good stained glass in the windows. — Room X. 
Winged altar carved in oak, from Calcar (ca. 1520); fine late-Gothic gold- 
smith's work; large Flemish tapestry worked in gold thread with alle- 
gorical scenes (16th cent.). 

We now ascend the staircase, adorned with weapons and reliefs, to the 
First Floor, which contains the Historical Frescoes and the continua- 
tion of the Special Collections (see above). To the right, Rooms I-XII. 
Weapons, armour, uniforms, costumes, ornaments, etc., from the 12th cent. 
to the present day. — Room I (12-16th cent.). Helmets, chain-mail, shields, 
targes, etc. — Room II (1400-1520). Pikes, halberds, etc. ; two-handed 
swords. — Room III (1500-1570). Caronnades, cross-bows, stone projectiles ; 
swords of knights and 'Landsknechte', ornamented swords and daggers; fine 
wheel-lock muskets. — Room IV (1570-1620). Pikes , halberds, swords, 
battle-axes; 15. Gilded armour of Bishop Dieter von Raitenau, of Salz- 
burg (15S7-1612), by the armourer Piccinino of Milan. — Room V (15i0- 
1650). Light armour; armour for man and horse (ca. 1540); ornamented 
weapons; 9. Wedding cloak of Duke William V. (1568); 11. Women's dress 
and ornaments of the 16-17th cent. ; 13, 14. Jewels and clothes, chiefly 
from the graves of the Counts-Palatine of Neuburg, at Lauingen; breech- 
loading cannons. — Room VI (1600-1660). Light armour, chiefly of the 
period of the Thirty Years' War; 3. Tilly's coat; 4. Official robes of a 

National Museum. MUNICH. 28. Route. 155 

Nuremberg councillor; collection of shoes from the Boman period to the 
present day. — Room VII. South-German costumes of the first half of the 
19th century. — Room VIII (1620-1780). Collection of models of the cannon 
used in the Thirty Years' War; Oriental saddles and weapons, captured 
at Belgrade by Max Emanuel (1688); 8. Handsome rococo sword; 9. 
Memorials of Frederick the Great. — Room IX (1640-1800). Ladies' costumes 
of the beginning of the 18th cent. ; 9. Headdresses and coiffures of patri- 
cian ladies of Nuremberg and Augsburg; 15. Napoleon's sword. — 
Rooms X-XII (1740-1871). Robes and garments of the Bavarian sovereigns 
Max Joseph I., Lewis I. and his consort Theresa, and Max II., of Otho, 
King of Greece and his wife, of Fieldmarshal Wrede, and of General von 
derTann; uniforms, weapons, and trophies. — Room XIII. Musical instru- 
ments from the 15th to the 19th century. — Room XIV. Objects used 
in the Jewish divine service; examples of Nuremberg bismuth-painting 
and brazier's work ; toys ; playing-cards ; book-covers. — • Room XV. Col- 
lection of seals from Charlemagne to the present day. 

The Central Saloon (XVI) contains a collection of old ship-models, 
including that of the vessel of Charles V. in his attack on Algiers in 1541; 
also models of Bavarian and other towns, churches, castles, and fortresses; 
compasses and sun-dials of the 15-19th cent. ; Schiller's writing-table. — 
To the left of the entrance, in Rooms XVII-XXIV, is the Textile Collection, 
consisting of lace, embroidery, and materials for dress, and including 
Egyptian and late-Roman costumes (R. XVII), ecclesiastical vestments 
(R. XVIII), Oriental carpets (R. XIX), and the "Bed of Lewis II., from 
Linderhof (R. XXIII). Next, in Rooms XXV-XXVIII, is the Ceramic Col- 
lection, from Roman times to the present, including specimens of the chief 
manufactories of the world, among the finest of which are the Italian 
majolicas of the 16-17th cent. (R. XXVII), the Japanese and Chinese 
porcelain of the 15-18th cent., and the Meissen and Nymphenburg china 
of the 18th century. In Room XXIX is the Glass Collection, from the 
Roman period down to our own. Room XXX. Ornaments in wood. 

The Second Flooe contains works of art of the "Renaissance and 
Modern Times. The staircase has a fine wooden ceiling from the chateau 
at Dachau, and three pieces of Brussels "Tapestry, representing the battles 
of Hannibal, after Giulio Romano. The various rooms are hung with 
tapestry after different masters (from Flanders, Germany, France), and 
contain ceilings from Dachau, Neuburg, Donauworth, Nuremberg, and 
the Frauenkirche and the Royal Palace at Munich. The first five rooms 
are devoted to the 16th century. Among the choicest contents are : 
Room I. MSS., miniatures, and rare prints; finely ornamented drinking 
cups and utensils, chiefly from Nuremberg and Augsburg; reliefs in 
wood representing the ten commandments (1524); draughtsmen with 
portrait-medallions, partly by Hagenauer. — Room II. Cast of the monu- 
ment of St. Sebald by Peter Vischer at Nuremberg, and (No. 4) two 
bronze statues by Vischer. Bridal casket of Duchess Jacobsea of Bavaria 
(No. 7), with beautiful Italian intarsia. — Room III. Vessels in Limoges 
enamel, including eight by P. Reymond. "Silver -gilt hammer, designed 
for the use of Pope Julius III. at the opening of the great Jubilee Festival 
in 1550; 5. Winged altar of the Nuremberg school from Artelshofen (1511). — 
Room IV. Gold goblet of the Augsburg butchers' guild; 3. Domestic altar, 
with carvings by G. Bockschutz (1561); 5. Two tables, of Spanish work- 
manship ; bed of Countess Palatine Susanna. — Room V. In the centre tbe 
complete boudoir of a Countess Fugger from the chateau at Donauworth 
(1546). — Room VI (1500-1650). Table utensils in ivory and enamel; 3. 
Ivory caskets with portraits of Elector Maximilian I. and his sister. — 
Room VII. (This and the next four rooms illustrate the period of Elector 
Maximilian I., 1597-1651.) Table of Kelheim stone, elaborately engraved 
with portraits, arms, perpetual calendar, etc.; two tables in scagliola-work 
(imitation of mosaic}; carved furniture. — Room VIII. Nos. 1,2. Cabinets 
inlaid with tortoise-shell and mother-of pearl ; 5. Cabinet in Florentine 
mosaic; 13, 17. Cabinets of ivory, silver, enamel, and lapis lazuli, by 
Chr. Angermaier of Weilheim; vessels of rock crystal set in gold and 
enamel. — Rooms IX-XI. Works in amber and silver filigree, the latter 

156 Route 28. MUNICH. Maximilianeum. 

chiefly from Augsburg; fine groups in bronze, etc. — Rooms XII-XIII 
(time of Elector Ferdinand Maria, 1651-79). Gilded ceiling from the palace 
at Munich; large silver watches from Augsburg; Buhl furniture; cabinet 
with paintings by W. van Bemmel; portrait of Electress Adelheid (d. 1676), 
aacribed to Kneller. — Room, XIV (time of Max Emmanuel, 1679-1726). 
Miniatures and medallions of Bavarian and other royal personages. — 
Room XV. 'Ivory carvings, several by Elhafen (ca. 1720) and Simon Troger 
(d. 1769). 'Cabinet for coins by Angermaier of Weilheim (1624). — Rooms 
XVI-XVIII. Tapestry from the Munich manufactory; wood-carvings in 
the rococo style; miniatures and medals; fans. — Room XIX (modern 
period). First attempts at reviving the art of staining glass. Memorials 
of Max I. Joseph, Lewis I., and Max II. 

At the end of the Platz rises the ''Monument of King Maxi- 
milian II. (d. 1864), erected by his 'faithful people' in 1875. The 
colossal figure of the king in his coronation robes, 16'/2 ft- high, 
stands upon a lofty granite pedestal. In his right hand he holds the 
roll of the constitution ; his left rests on a sword. At the base of the 
pedestal sit allegorical figures of Peace, Enlightenment, Strength, 
and Justice ; at the upper angles are four figures of children bearing 
the Bavarian coat-of-arms and laurel-wreaths. All the figures are 
in bronze, cast by Miller from models by Zumousch. 

The Thiersch-Str. and the Pfarr-Str. lead hence to the N. to the St. 
Anna-Platz, with the St. Annakirche (PI. G, 4), a Romanesque edifice 
built in 1892-94 from the designs of Gabriel Seidl. 

Just beyond the monument the Maximilians- Str. reaches the 
Isar. The handsome Steinsdorfer-Strasse (Pi. Gr, 5,6), a wide, new 
quay, ascends hence to the S.W., along the left bank, to the new 
Protestant Lukaskirche, in the transition style, and on to the Lud- 
wigs-Briicke (p. 192). Opposite, in the river, are two islands united 
by the 'Muffatwehr'; the lower or Prater-Insel is prettily laid out 
and contains the Isarlust Restaurant (p. 138). 

The Maximilian-Str. crosses the river and the Prater-Insel by 
the Maximilians - Briicke , 540ft. long, which was constructed by 
Zenetti in 1859-64 and has recently been embellished with a 
monument to Burgomaster von Ehrhardt (d. 1888). In the grounds 
below the bridge is a monument to M.vonSchwind, the painter, with 
figures of Legend and Fantasy by Hahnel. On the right bank the 
street ascends the Gasteighohe in two branches. On the slope, form- 
ing a suitable termination to the grand street, rises the — 

Maximilianeum (PI. H, 5), founded by King Max II. for the 
higher instruction of students who have shown special aptitude for 
the civil service. The architect was Burklein. Admission, see p. 143. 

A broad circular approach ascends to the facade, which rises in two 
series of arches on a lofty terrace. The slightly curved central part of 
the structure is adjoined by open arcades on each side, flanked with corner- 
towers. Beautiful view of the river, the city, and the mountains. 

At the top of the handsome staircase are the sketches in oil for the 
paintings by K. von Piloty on the facade (now destroyed): in the middle, 
Emp. Lewis the Bavarian founding the monastery of Ettal (1330) ; to the 
right, Wolfram of Eschenbach at the 'Sangerkrieg' in the Wartburg; to 
the left, Duke Lewis the Rich founding the University of Ingolstadt. — 
Three rooms on the upper floor contain thirty large oil-paintings, illus- 
trative of momentous events in the world's history ; adj oining these on 
the right and left are two saloons adorned with frescoes. 

Wittelabach Palace. MUNICH. 28. Route. 157 

Entrance Hall: left, 1. Cabanel, Fall of man; right, 2. A. Miiller, 
Mahomet's entry into Mecca. — Room to the left. Wall of the entrance : 
*3. 0. Mchter, Construction of the Pyramids. To the right: 4. Otto, Bel- 
ahazzar's banquet at Susa ; '5. Kaulbach, Battle of Salamis; 6. Foltz, Age of 
Pericles ; 7. Hiltensperger, Olympian Games ; 8. A. Miiller, Wedding of 
Alexander the Great at Susa ; 9. Conrdder , Fall of Carthage ; 10. Joh. 
Schraudolph, Nativity, 11. Gunkel, Battle of Arminius ; 12. Hiltensperger, 
Age of Augustus ; 13. Hauschild, Crucifixion ; 14. Deger, Resurrection. — 
Room to the right. Entrance-wall : 15. Kbckert, Haroun al-Raschid. On 
the left: 16. F. Kaulbach, Coronation of Charlemagne; 17. Echter, Battle 
on the Lechfeld ; 18. Schwoiser, Henry IV. at Canossa ; 19. Piloty, Godfrey 
de Bouillon ; 20. Foltz, Frederick Barbarossa and Henry the Lion ; 21. Ram- 
berg, Emp. Frederick II. at Palermo ; 22. Kreling, Coronation of Lewis the 
Bavarian; 23. Schnorr , Luther at Worms; 24. Piloty, Queen Elizabeth 
of England ; 25. Piloty, Elector Maximilian I. founding the Catholic League ; 
26. Kotzebue , Peter the Great founding St. Petersburg ; 27. A. Adam, 
Battle of Zorndorf; 28. Pauwels, Louis XIV. receiving a Genovese em- 
bassy ; 29. E. Hess, Washington ; 30. P. Hess, Battle of Leipsic. 

The 'loggie 1 and side-rooms contain busts and portraits of great men. 

On both sides of the Maximilianeum lie the *Gasteig Pro- 
menades, laid out under King Max II. from the designs of Effner, 
and commanding beautiful views. They extend up the Isar ('Am 
Gwteig') to the Ludwigs-Briicke (p. 192), and down (' Maximilians- 
Anlageri) to Brunnthal and Bogenhausen (p. 193). In the Maxi- 
milians-Anlagen, opposite the Prinz-Regenten-Str. (p. 149), is the 
Luitpold Terrace (PI. H, 4), constructed in 1894 and affording a fine 
view of the city. — To the E. of the Maximilianeum is the suburb 
of Haidhausen, with the Gothic Church of St. John (PI. H. 6), erect- 
ed in 1852-74; central tower, 286 ft. high. The interior, without 
aisles, has groined vaulting, marble altars, and stained-glass win- 
dows in the choir. 

The handsome Brienner-Strasse, 3/ 4 M. long, leads to the W. 
from the Odeons-Platz to the Propylaea and the Glyptothek. The 
Wittelsbacher-Platz, on the right, is adorned with the equestrian 
*Statue of Elector Maximilian I. (PI. E, 3 ; d. 1651), founder and 
chief of the Roman Catholic League, and. victor at the Weisse Berg 
near Prague, designed by Thorwaldsenin 1839, and cast by Stiglmayer 
■with the metal of captured Turkish cannon. — Count Arco-Zinne- 
berg's Palace, Wittelsbacher-Platz 1, contains a rare and interesting 
*Collection of Antlers (adm., see p. 142). 

At the E. end of the Maximilians-Platz (p. 164) is a Statue of 
Schiller by Widnmann (1863). To the right, farther on, is the red 
Wittelsbach Palace (PI. E, 3), in the mediaeval English pointed 
style , built in 1843-50 from plans by Gartner, the residence of 
Lewis I. in 1848-68, now that of Prince Ludwig, the present heir 
to the throne, and Prince Arnulf . Part of it is shown on application 
to the castellan (to the right in the court). Fine court and staircase. 

In the Gabelsberger-Str., a little to the N.E., is the Protestant Church 
of St. Hark (PI. E, 3), erected by Gottgetreu in the Gothic style in 1873-77. 

In the Carolinen-Platz (PI. D, 3) rises an Obelisk, 105 ft. in 
height, cast almost entirely of the metal of captured guns, 31 tons 

158 Route 28. MUNICH. Old Pinakothek. 

in weight, and erected by Lewis I. in 1833 to the memory of 30,000 
Bavarians who had perished in the Russian war. 

At No. 3, Carolinen-Platz, in the garden-building, to the right, 
is the Lotzbeck Collection of Sculptures and Paintings, transferred 
in 1890 from the Chateau of Weyhera to Munich (adm., see p. 143; 
catalogue 30 pf.). 

Central Saloon. Sculptures: 1. Balbig , King Lewis I.; "2. Thor- 
waldsen, Venus; 3. Boyei; Psyche; Troschel, 7. Adonis, 8. Zethus and Am- 
phion, 9. Perseus and Andromeda, 10. Bellerophon and Pegasus (four 
reliefs). Paintings: "11. Riedel, Sakuntala; Consoni, 14. The Muses, 15. 
Dante and Virgil in the Inferno; Ary Scheffer, 16. Faust and Gretchen, 
17. Walpurgisnacht; B. and F. Adam, 20. Stable, 21. Hunt; 24. Schiavoni, 
Melancholy; 25. Gail, Storming of a Spanish cloister; 26. Catel, Burial 
of a Crusader. — Left Wing. Sculptures: 28. Troschel, Sleeping maiden; 
29. Bolbeck, Rape of Proserpine (relief). Modern pictures : 30. Manuel, Baron 
C. L. von Lotzbeck; Rottmann, 37. Untersberg, 38. Perugia; 39. Kirner, 
Raphael visiting Michael Angelo ; 40. Simonsen, Fight with pirates; Bilrkel, 
41. Village-smithy, 49. Mountain-pasture ; 45-48. Kurtz, Cattle ; 61. Marko, 
Death of Adonis. Old pictures: 97. Antonello da Messina, Portrait of a man; 
102. Italian School (ca. 1630), Portrait of a woman ; 98. Lor. Lotto (?), Rest 
on the Flight into Egypt; 99. Aug. Bronzino (1), Same subject; 100. Torbido, 
Portrait of a man; 101. Jac. Bassano, Portrait of a woman. — Right Wing. 
Sculptures: 55. Tenerani, Flora. Modern pictures: "60. Riedel, Medea; 61. 
Morgenstem, Rorschach; 64. A. Adam, Arabian horses; 65. Bayer, Hora; 
Catel, 66. Illumination, 67. In a gondola ; ::, 68. Diaz, Girl in a landscape ; 
71, 72. Carl Werner, Venetian scene; 76. Maes-Canini, Italian peasant family; 
77. Bayer, Erwin Column in Strassburg Cathedral; P. Mess, 78. Engage- 
ment between French and Cossacks, 79. Scene on the Loire; 83. Pollack, 
Girl reading. Old pictures: 89 Cologne School (ca. 1530), Portrait of a man; 
94. Livens, Portrait of a boy; 95. Tenters the Younger, Peasant with a hare; 
91. Upper German School, Princess Elizabeth, daughter of Emp. Ferdinand I. 
(1534); 96. School of Giotto (ca. 1300), St. Peter. 

The Barer-Strasse on the right leads to the — 

**01d Pinakothek ('Repository of Pictures', from the Greek; 
PI. D, 2; adm., see p. 143; reached by tramway - lines 1 & 3, 
p. 140), erected in 1826-36 by Klenze in the Renaissance style. 
The building is 500 ft. long, 90 ft. wide, and 90 ft. high. On the 
S. side, on the attic story above, are twenty-four statues of celebrated 
painters from sketches by Schwanthaler. It contains upwards of 1400 
pictures, arranged in periods and schools, in twelve saloons and 
twenty-three cabinets. Each picture is labelled. Catalogue l 1 /^ M, 
or with 120 photographs 15 Jt (comp. Hirth and Muther's ' Cicerone', 
with 188 illustrations, and the section in Morelli's 'Italian Painters', 
devoted to the galleries of Munich and Dresden). The cabinets 
should be visited immediately after the rooms to which they be- 
long, in order to preserve the historical sequence. Director, Prof. 
Dr. von Reber. 

Origin of the Collection. This fine picture gallery has been form- 
ed by the union of three different collections. As early as the 16th 
and 17th centuries the Bavarian princes were noted for their love of art. 
Elector Maximilian I. in particular was an enthusiastic admirer of Diirer, 
and secured at Nuremberg several of that master's finest works. In 1805 
this collection was enriched by the removal to Munich of the celebrated 
Dvisseldorf Gallery, founded by the Electors of the Palatinate. This was 
done to save the collection from being carried off to Paris, and it was 
afterwards regarded as part of the inheritance of the Palatinate which 

Old Pinakothek. MUNICH. 28. Route. 159 

fell to Bavaria. The numerous examples of Netherlandish masters of the 
17th cent., including the fine Rubens collection, formed part of the Diissel- 
dorf Gallery. The third constituent part of the Pinakothek is the Boisserie 
Collection, being works of the Lower Rhenish School rescued by the brothers 
Sulpice and Melchior Boisseree and their friend Bertram from churches 
and monasteries suppressed at Cologne in 1805-1810. The addition of this 
valuable collection to the Pinakothek in 1827 placed it in the foremost 
rank as a gallery for the study of northern art. Under King Lewis I. the 
gallery was further extended by the addition of the Wallerstein collection 
in 1828, and of several valuable works purchased at different times in Italy. 

The pre-Raphaelite Italian schools are scantily represented in 
the Munich Gallery ; probably the most important examples are the 
Madonna by Francesco Francia (Room VIII, No. 1039) and Perugino's 
Vision of St. Bernard (R. VIII, No. 1034). The finest of the works by 
Raphael is undoubtedly the Madonna of the Tempi family (Cab. XIX, 
1050), painted in his Florentine period ; the contemporary Madonna 
of the Canigiani family (R. VIII, 1049) has suffered greatly from 
cleaning, the angels at the top having entirely vanished. There exist 
several replicas of the Madonna dellaTenda (Cab. XIX, 1051; Roman 
period) at Turin and elsewhere, but the Munich example is con- 
sidered the best. The portrait of Bindo Altoviti (R. VIII, 1052), 
freely retouched, was formerly regarded as a portrait of Raphael 
himself. Not one of the five works ascribed to Correggio is indisput- 
ably authenticated. The best example of the Venetian school is the 
Christ crowned with thorns, by Titian (R.IX, 1114). Murillo's Beggar 
Boys (R. XI), perhaps the most popular work in the gallery, is sure 
of attention. Early Flemish painting is seen to the greatest advantage 
in Rogier van der Weyden's Triptych (R. II, 101-103) and St. Luke 
(R. II, 100), Memling's Seven Joys of Mary (Cab. Ill, 116), the 
winged altar-pieces and the triptych by Dierick Bouts (Cab. Ill, 
107-111), and the Adoration of the Magi ascribed to Gerard David 
(R. II, 118). The Cologne works of the 15th and 16th centuries will 
chiefly attract the professional eye, while several works of the 
Swabian and Franconian schools are of general interest and high 
artistic importance. Prominent among these German masters stands 
Holbein the Elder, to whom the altar-piece with St. Sebastian (R. Ill, 
209-211) is now rightly ascribed. Diirer's Four Apostles, or the 
'Four Temperaments' (R. Ill, 247, 248), deserve the closest study, 
especially the magnificent St. Paul in the famous white robe, unri- 
valled in its plastic modelling. The Battle of Arbela (Cab. IV, 290) 
by Albrecht Altdorfer (ca. 1480-1538), remarkable for its almost 
fantastic excess of realism, the Finding of the Cross (R. Ill, 267) by 
the rare master Barthel Beham (d. 1540), and the Portrait (Cab. V, 
286) by Hans Baldung Qrien are also worthy of notice. Of the altar- 
piece formerly attributed to Qrunewald (R. Ill, 281 et seq.) No. 281 
alone is by this artist, while the wings are in the style of Cranach. 

Next to Antwerp and Vienna, Munich best Bhows the versatility 
of Rubens. Among the eighty-nine pictures formerly catalogued 
here under his name are many school-pieces and mediocre works, 

160 Route 28. 


Old Pinakothek. 

but they also include several of his finest creations. The vast range 
of his genius may he estimated by glancing from the stupendous 
Last Judgment to the Lion Hunt, from the Battle of the Amazons 
to the Children with garlands of fruit , from the sketches for the 
Medici pictures in the Louvre to the Bacchanalian scenes. Rubens's 
best pupil, Van Dyck, is also well represented by several portraits 
(R. VII, 844, 845). The Descent from the Cross (Cab. VIII, 326) 
is the finest of the numerous examples of Rembrandt. The can- 
vases of Adrian Brouwer (Cab. XVI, 879, 883, 885, 893), notable 
partly for their rarity, the genre-pieces of Terburg and Metsu, and 
the humorous subjects of Jan Steen also deserve attention. The 
works of the Italian painters of the 17th cent, generally meet with 






23 1 22 J 21 


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13 1 12 | 11 



10 1 9 1 8 

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3 l 2 h 



of the 












Neap. & 
Sp. Sch. 



scant notice, but the Ascensions of Ouido Reni and Cignani, at 
least, do not merit this fate. The Mourning over the body of Christ, 
by N. Poussin (R. XII, 1321), is a work of great beauty. 

Vestibule. Portraits of the founders and enrichers of the gallery 
from Elector John William (d. 1719) to King Lewis I. (d. 1868). 
— We pass to the right into Room I. 

Lower Rhenish and Early Netherlandish Schools (Rooms I, 
II; Cab. I-III). — I. Room. To the left: *1. Meister Wilhelm of 
Cologne (?), St. Veronica with the napkin ; 3, 4. In the style of 
Stephan Lochner, Saints ; 31-33. Master of the Lyversberg Passion 
or of the Life of Mary, The Twelve Apostles ; 9-18. School of 
Stephan Lochner, Wings of a shrine from Heisterbach, with scenes 
from the Annunciation to the Gift of Tongues and Death of the 
Virgin, and figures of saints. 

II. Room. To the right (S. wall): *55, 56, 57. Master of the 
Death of the Virgin, Triptych, in the centre Death of the Virgin, 
on the wings the donors with their patron-saints. — E. wall : *118. 
Gerard David (?), Adoration of the Magi ; 97,98. Coxie, The Virgin 
Mary, John the Baptist (copies of figures in the Ghent altar-piece 
by Hubert van Eyck); *134. Quentin Matsys (?), Pieta. — N. wall: 

Old Pinakothek. MUNICH. 28. Route. 161 

169, 170. J. van Hemessen, Call of Matthew, Isaac blessing Jacob. 
— "W. wall: *101, 102, 103. Rogier van der Weyden the Elder, 
Triptych, in the centre Adoration of the Magi, on the wings 
Annunciation and Presentation. 

'No picture of the master is more imbued with religious feeling; 
none is more happily arranged and carried out.' — 'The Early Flemish 
Painter^ by Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

Above, 162, 163, 164. Flemish Master (ca. 1530), Adoration of 
the Magi; *100. Rogier van der Weyden, St. Luke painting a portrait 
of the Virgin; above, 139. Marinus van Roymerswale, Room of a 
lawyer (1542). — S. wall : *48, 49, 50. The so-called Master of the 
Boisseree St. Bartholomew or of the Altar of the Holy Cross (in the 
Cologne Museum), Triptych: in the centre SS. Bartholomew, Agnes, 
and Cecilia; on the wings SS. Christina, James, John, and Margaret. 

Cabinet I. To the right (W.): 5. School of Stephan Lochner, 
Madonna in a bower of pinks ; Master of the Lyversberg Passion, 
28. Assumption, 27. Visitation. — S. wall: 29. Cologne Master, 
Coronation of the Virgin ; Master of the Lyversberg Passion, 23. 
Nativity of the Virgin, 22. Meeting of Joachim and Anna, 34. Cruci- 
fixion. — E. wall: Master of the Lyversberg Passion, 24. Purifi- 
cation in the Temple, 26. Annunciation, 25. Marriage of the Virgin ; 
2. School of Meister Wilhelm, Virgin enthroned. 

Cabinet II. To the left (E.) : Flemish School (ca. 1510), 126. 
St. George, 125. Madonna; 89, 80-83, 88. Barth. Bruyn, Saints ; 140. 
Patinir, Crucifixion; 161. Flemish Master (ca. 1530), Nativity. — 
S. wall : 143. Patinir(?), St. Rochus; 122. JSetherlands School (about 
1500), Madonna. — W. wall: Portraits, chiefly by unknown masters; 
63-72. B. Bruyn, Altar-piece ; 133. Quentin Matsys, Portrait of 
Jehan Carandolet. 

Cabinbt III. To the left (E.): 110, 111. Dierick Bouts, Two 
wings belonging to the Last Supper in the church of St. Peter at 
Louvain : Abraham and Melchisedech , and Gathering manna ; 
*107-109. Dierick Bouts, Triptych, in the centre Adoration of the 
Magi, at the sides SS. John the Baptist and Christopher; *115. 
Memling, John the Baptist; 155. Qossaert, surnamed Mabuse, Ma- 
donna and Child. — S. wall: 151. J. Mostaert (?), Repose on the 
Flight into Egypt; 146, 147. Herri met de Bles, Adoration of the 
Magi ; Lucas van Leyden, *148. Virgin with Mary Magdalen and 
St. John, 149. Annunciation. — "W. wall: 117. Gerard David, 
Marriage of St. Catharine; 114. Hugo van der Ooes (?), Annun- 
ciation. — *116. Memling, The seven Joys of Mary (1480). 

'We feel at once, in looking at this picture, the absence of linear per- 
spective and atmosphere; yet the episodes are so complete in themselves, 
and so cleverly arranged and executed, that they produce a deep im- 
pression ; and the colours are so bright , so clear , and so admirably con- 
trasted, that we necessarily yield to a grateful sense of rest'. — C. <& C. 

145. Herri met de Bles, Annunciation; 138. M. van Roymers- 
wale (after Matsys), Money-changer and his wife (1538). 

Upper German Schools (R. Ill; Cab. IV, V). — III. Room. 

Baedekek's S. Germany. 8th Edit. \ 1 

162 Route 28. MUNICH. Old Pinakothek. 

To the left (E.) : *240, *241, *242. Durer, The Paumgartner altar- 
piece, a triptych, in the centre the Nativity, on each side the donors 
in armour ; ahove , 278. Lucas Cranach the Elder., The Woman 
taken in adultery (half of it a later enlargement); 197, 198, 199, 
200. Holbein the Elder, Crown of Thorns, Ecce Homo, Bearing of 
the Cross, Resurrection. — S. wall : M. Schaffner, 214. Annunciation, 
215. Presentation in the Temple; 231. M. Wohlgemuth Crucifixion; 
258. Style of Hans von Kulmbach, Adoration of the Magi and De- 
scent of the Holy Ghost; M. Schaffner, 216. Pouring out of the Holy 
Ghost, 217. Death of the Virgin ; 229. M. Wohlgemut, Resurrection; 
ahove, 259. Style of H. von Kulmbach, Resurrection of Christ and 
Coronation of the Virgin. — W. wall : 209, *210, *211. H. Holbein 
the Elder, Triptych: centre, Martyrdom of St. Sebastian; at the sides, 
SS. Barbara and Elizabeth. 

This work may be styled the artist's master-piece, and far transcends 
any of his previous efforts. Without excessive or violent motion, the 
picture is full of dramatic power. The head of the saint is well in- 
dividualised and expressive of a high degree of patient suffering, while 
the nude body shows careful observation of nature. See '■Holbein und seine 
Zeit\ by Professor Alfred Woltmann. 

175, 176. Zeitblom, SS. Margaret and Ursula; 225. H. Burgk- 
mair, Esther before Ahasuerus; Holbein the Elder, 201. Purification 
in the Temple, 204. Nativity, 202. Annunciation, 203. Visitation; 
254-257. H. von Kulmbach, Saints; 238. Durer, Pieta. (1500); 
above, 267. Barthel Beham, Invention of the Cross ; 205, 206, 207, 
208. Works by Holbein the Elder. — N. wall : Durer, **247. SS. Peter 
and John, **248. SS. Paul and Mark (completed in 1526). 

The four Apostles are at the same time prototypes of the four 'Com- 
plexions', St. John representing the melancholic, St. Peter the phlegmatic, 
St. Paul the choleric, and St. Hark the sanguine temperament. The panel 
with SS. Paul and Mark is the finer of the two. St. Paul is one of the 
most majestic figures ever conceived by the master, and appears as if 
just on the point of battling for his faith with word or blow. A great 
deal more labour in the details has been bestowed upon St. Paul than 
upon the other figures, and it is also the best -preserved. The white 
mantle is a marvel of plastic painting, and is admirably shaded. — l Biirer\ 
by Prof. Moriz Thausing. 

233. Hans Pleydenwurff, Crucifixion; 297a, 297b. Tyrolese Master 
of about 1480 (M. Pacher?), SS. Gregory and Augustine; 188, 
189. B. Strigel, Portraits of the Rehlingen family, patricians of 
Augsburg; *281. Matthias Griinewald, Conversion of St. Mauritius ; 
282-285. Four altar-wings belonging to the last, with SS. Mary Mag- 
dalen, Lazarus, Chrysostom, and Martha, by an unknown master; 
Hans Pleydenwurff , 234. Marriage of St. Catharine, 234a. Adoration 
of the Holy Child. — E. wall : 271. L. Cranach the Elder, Death 
of Lucretia; 244. Durer, Same subject (1518) ; 222. Burgkmair, 
St. John in Patmos ; above, 193-196. Works by Holbein the Elder. 

Cabinet IV. To the left(E.): 295. M. Feselen, Siege of Alesia 
(Burgundy) by Julius Caesar ; 292. Vlrich Apt, Pieta, ; 221. H. Burgk- 
mair, SS. Liborius and Eustace. — 270. Cranach, Madonna ; A. 
Durer, 250. Mater dolorosa (1515), *249. Jacob Fugger the Rich ; 

Old Pinakothek. MUNICH. 28. Route. 163 

177. Zeitblom, St. Bridget. — W. wall : 228. Jorg Brew, Scipio's victory 
at Zama; 183. B. Strigel, David with the head of Goliath; A. Alt- 
iorfer, *289. The chaste Susanna, 290. Alexander's victory at Arbela. 

Cabinet V. To the left(E.): 245. A. Durer, SS. Joachim and 
Joseph (from the so-called Jabach altar-piece) ; *213. H. Holbein the 
Younger, Portrait of Sir Bryan Tuke, treasurer of King Henry VIII. ; 
A. Durer, **239. Portrait of himself (dated 1500, but shown by the 
style of execution to be of later date), *236. Portrait of Oswolt Krell 
(1499); 191. B. Strigel, Emp. Maximilian I. ; 246. A. Durer, SS. 
Simeon and Lazarus (from the Jabach altar-piece). — S. wall : 286. 
H.Baldung Orien, Pfalzgrave Philip the Warlike. 292a. VlrichApt, 
Triptych : in the centre, SS. Narcissus and Matthew in a landscape ; 
at the sides, Virgin and Child and St. John. 220. M. Schongauer, 
Portrait of himself (1483; a later copy by H. Burgkmair); 287. H. 
Baldung Orien, Margrave Bernhard III. of Baden. — W. wall: 223, 
224. School of Ratisbon, William IV., Duke of Bavaria, and his 
consort Maria Jacoba (1526); 293. A. Altdorfer, Mountain- land- 
scape ; L. Cranaeh the Elder, 275. Moses with Aaron and two Pro- 
phets, 272. Madonna; *243. A. Durer , Portrait of his teacher Wohl- 
gemut (1516); 291. A. Altdorfer, Virgin and Child, with angels 
playing on musical instruments; 294. M. Feselen, Siege of Rome by 
Porsenna; *212. H.Holbein the Younger, Half-length ofDerichBorn 
(1530); *237. A. Durer, Portrait of a young man (Hans Durer?); 
174. In the style of M. Schongauer, Nativity; 288. A. Altdorfer, St. 
George fighting the dragon. 

Dutch School (R. IV ; Cab. VI-XI). — IV. Room. To the left 
(E.): 640, 641. Weenix, Still-life; 317. Nic. Eliasz Pickenoy, Ad- 
miral Tromp. — S. wall : 315, 316. B, van der Heist, Portraits ; 
*579. Jan Wynants, Landscape by morning-light, accessories by A. van 
de Velde; *359. Frans Hals (more likely of the Flemish School?), 
Family-portraits; 645. Weenix, Poultry; 313. M. J. Mierevelt, Por- 
trait; 319,320. J. van Ravesteyn, Portraits; *580. Wynants, Land- 
scape by evening-light, accessories by A. van de Velde ; 307. Bloe- 
maert, Raising of Lazarus ; 322. De Vries, Portrait. — W. wall : 
338, 339. F. Bol, So-called portrait of Govert Flinck and his wife; 
554. J. van der Meer of Haarlem (?), Forest-scene; 343. 6. Flinck, 
Soldiers gaming; Honthorst, 312. Cimon and Pera, 310. St. Peter 
liberated from prison ; 646. Weenix, Boar-hunt ; Rembrandt, *333 (?). 
Portrait of himself, 325. Portrait of a man in Turkish costume 
(1633) ; 335, 336. Elevens, Portraits of old men ; 487. A. van de 
Velde, Landscape with cattle by evening-light ; 350. 6. van den 
Eeckhout, Laac blessing Jacob. — N. wall : 647. M. de Hondecoeter, 
Cock-fight; 451. A. van der Werff, Wary Magdalen ; 332. Rem- 
brandt, Abraham's sacrifice (studio-copy) ; 594. jV. Berchem, Land- 
scape with ruins; *324. Rembrandt, Holy Family (1631); 644. 
Weenix, Game; 588. J. Both, Autumnal scene inltaly ; 648. Honde- 
coeter, Cock-fight; 609. Beerstralen, Storm at sea. — E. wall: 566. 


164 Route 28. MUNICH. Old Pinakothek. 

A. van Everdingen, Norwegian landscape with waterfall; 592. 
N. Berchem, Laban and Jacob. 

Cabinet VI. To the left (E.): A. Ouyp, 475. Landscape, 474?. 
Officer with a grey horse ; 530. Es. van de Velde, Skaters. — S. wall : 
491. A. van de Velde, Cattle; 471. P. Potter, Cows and goats; 490. 
A. van de Velde, Shepherd at a well. — W. wall: *472. PaulPotter, 
Cattle; 541, 540. S. van Ruysdael , Landscapes; Isaac van Ostade, 
*378. Winter - scene, 381. Village - fair ; 321. J. van Ravesteyn, 
Portrait; 314. M. J. Mierevelt, Portrait of himself; J. van Goyen, 
535. Landscape, 537. View of Leyden. 

Cabinet VII. To the left (E.J: 551. Jac. van Ruysdael, Group 
of oaks and a torrent; *424. Gabr. Metsu, Twelfth Night; *542. Sal. 
van Ruysdael, River-scene; 624. J. de Heem, Flowers; 629. A. van 
Beyeren, Still -life. — S. wall: 597. N. Berchem, 587. J. Both, 
Landscapes. - — W. wall: *548. Jac. van Ruysdael, Marshy forest; 
*478. K.duJardin, The sick goat; *544. Jac. van Ruysdael, The 
sandy road (1667); 610. L. Bakhuysen, Antwerp harbour; 351, 
352. J. Backer, Portraits. 

Cabinet VIII. To the left (E.): Rembrandt, *331. Adoration 
of the Shepherds (1646), *326. Descent from the Cross, *327. Cru- 
cifixion (1633); 348. G. van den Eeckhout, Jesus teaching in the 
Temple. — S. wall: *583, 584. J. Both, Landscapes with Mercury 
and Juno ; *623. J. deHeem, Fruit; 401. G.Dou, Old woman cut- 
ting bread; *369. A. van Ostade, Peasants drinking and smoking. 
— "W. wall: Rembrandt, *328. Ascension (1636), *329. Resurrec- 
tion, *330. Entombment (1639). 

This remarkable series of scenes from the history of Christ (Nos.326- 
331) was executed in 1633-39 for Prince Frederick Henry, Stadtholder of 
the Netherlands. The finest of the series is the Entombment, which is 
painted with a broad and vigorous touch, and is of ample, dry, and gran- 
ulated impasto. The colouring in general is sombre , and in the back- 
ground and the figures in the foreground there are shades of brown which 
recall the Spanish colourists. A powerful effect is produced by the group 
on which the high light falls, where the colours have been laid on with 
great freedom. — '■Rembrandt; sa Vie et ses (Euvres\ by C. Vosmaer. 

Cabinet IX. To the left (E.) : 372. A. van Ostade, Merry peas- 
ants : *545. Jac. van Ruysdael, Forest-scene; 577. J. Wynants, 
Landscape; *409. F. van Mieris the Elder, Oyster-breakfast; 371. 
A. van Ostade, Boors brawling ; 392. J. Steen, Physician feeling the 
pulse of a patient ; G. Dou, 403. Old woman eating, 396. Girl with 
a light at a window, 402. Old woman at a window; 370. A. van 
Ostade, Merry peasants; 546. J. van Ruysdael, Forest-scene; 373. 
A. van Ostade, Peasants drinking. — S. wall: Isaac van Ostade, 
377. Scene on the ice, 376. Interior of a cottage ; 353. S. de Ko- 
ninck, Jesus in the Temple ; 510. Ph. Wouwerman, Grey horse. — 
"W. wall: 419. F. van Mieris, Trumpeter; 477. K. duJardin, Sheep 
and goats ; 425. G. Metsu, Cook in the larder ; *388. G. Terburg, 
Trumpeter bringing a lover-letter ; 539. J. van Ruysdael, Landscape; 

Old Pinakothek. MUNICH. 28.. Route. 165 

6. Dou, 398. Woman selling herrings, *397. Portrait of himself; 
*389. G. Terburg, Boy with a dog. 

Cabinet X. To the left (E.) : *423. F. van Mieris, Lady at her 
mirror; 407. G. Dou, Lady at her toilet; 391. J. Steen, Card- 
players quarrelling; F. van Mieris, *415. Lady playing the lute, 
*417. Lady in a swoon, *414. Lady with a parrot; 614. J. van der 
Heyden, Street-scene; G. Dou, 393. Old painter. at an easel, 399. 
Hermit. — S. wall : 0. Dou, 395. Old market-woman, 408, 400. 
Hermits ; *550. J.vanRuysdael, Waterfall; *361. Th. deKeyser, Man 
and wife ; *628. A. van Beyeren, Still-life ; 374. A. van Ostade, Man 
drinking. — W. wall : 404. G. Dou, Old woman combing a boy's hair ; 
553. J. van der Meer van Haarlem, Margin of a forest ; 427. Slinge- 
land, Cradle; G. Dou, *394. Quack, *405. Girl emptying a can; 
627, 622. J. de Heem, Flowers and fruit ; F. van Mieris, *420. Of- 
ficer asleep, 422. Boor cutting tobacco; 549. J. van Ruysdael, Thaw 
in the village. 

Cabinet XI. To the left (E.): Ph. Wouwerman, 503. Watering 
horses, 501. Stable; 488. A. van de Velde, Ferry; 652, 653. J. 
van Huysum , Fruit and flowers ; *582. J. Wynants, Landscape ; 
Ph. Wouwerman, *496. Deer-hunt, 499. Leaving the stable, 513, 
Draught of fishes. — S. wall : 506. Ph. Wouwerman, Battle of Nord- 
lingen; 613. Willem van de Velde the Younger, Calm sea; 436. 
Eglon van der Neer, Lady in a faint ; 567. A. van Everdingen, Storm 
at sea ; 507. Ph. Wouwerman, Plundering of a village. — W. wall : 
468. W. van Mieris the Younger, Fishmonger ; 505. Ph. Wouwerman, 
Scene on the ice; *651. J. van Huysum, Fruit; *426. Pieter de 
Hooch, Interior with woman reading ; Ph. Wouwerman, 500. Wag- 
goners at a ferry, 508. Sportsmen resting, 502. Watering horses ; 
625. J. de Heem, Fruit; 406. Dou, Woman baking cakes. 

Flemish School (RR. V-VII. ; Cab. XII-XVI). — V. Room. To 
the left (E.) : 786. Rubens , Portrait of a young man (after Joost 
van Ciei)e); ( ,*813. J. Jordaens, The satyr and the peasant; 871. 
G. de Crayer, Portrait. — S. wall: *663. Neufchatel, Neudorfer, 
the mathematician, and his son ; 934. K. E. Biset, Picture-gallery 
(the pictures on the walls by various Antwerp artists); 869. G. de 
Crayer, Madonna enthroned with saints ; 664, 665. Neufchatel, 
Portraits ; 944. F. Millet, Landscape; 961. P. de Vos, Bear-hunt. — 
W. wall : Frans Snyders, 957. Two young lions pursuing a roe-deer, 
956. Lioness killing a wild boar ; 969. P. Boel, Still-life. — N. wall : 
812. C. de Vos, Family von Hutten; *814. J. Jordaens, As the old 
cock crows, the young one learns ; 925. D. Teniers the Younger, Fair 
at Florence (after Callot) ; *955. Snyders, Kitchen-piece. — E. wall : 
*729. Rubens and J. Brueghel, Madonna in a garland of flowers; 
954. Snyders, Poultry-dealer. 

VI. Room, with the adjoining Cabinet XII. (see p. 166), con- 
tains exclusively works by Rubens or from his studio. To the left 
(E.): **734. Lion-hunt. — S. wall: **737. Perdition of lost souls 

166 Route 28. MUNICH. Old Pinakothek. 

724. Seneca ; *752. Meleager and Atalanta ; **782. Portraits of Rubens 
and Ms first wife, Isabella Brant ; 726. Martyrdom of St. Lawrence; 
*735. The Last Judgment (the large picture) ; *794. Portrait of his 
second wife, Helena Fourment ; 750. SS. Peter and Paul; **757. 
Massacre of the Innocents; *784. Earl and Countess of Arundel; 
*728. Seven children with festoons of fruit ; *754. Drunken Silenus. 

— W. wall: 787. Philip IV. of Spain ; *798. Kubens and Helena 
Fourment in a garden ; *799. Portrait of a scholar ; 749. The Trinity ; 
*800. Portrait of Dr. van Thulden; *744. Samson betrayed by De- 
lilah ; 788. Elizabeth of Bourbon, first wife of Philip IV. of Spain. — 
N.wall: *797. Helena Fourment and her son; 731. Diana; *795.Por- 
trait of Helena Fourment; 730. Nymphs surprised by satyrs ; 739. The 
woman of the Apocalypse ; *746. Christ and the penitents ; **759. 
Pastoral scene; *791. Franciscan; *748. Crucifixion; 790. Cardinal 
Don Ferdinand of Spain ; 736. Fall of the Angels; **727. Rape of 
the daughters of Leucippus by Castor and Pollux. ; 725. Drunken- 
ness and Wantonness overcome by Virtue and Temperance. — E. 
wall: 755. War and Peace; 753. Reconciliation of the Romans and 
the Sabines. 

Cabinet XII. Contains exclusively pictures by, or attributed 
to, Rubens (comp. R. VI, p. 165). To the left (E.) : 762. St. Chri- 
stopher. — 838. The Last Judgment (the small picture). 

'Very happily and with a proper feeling of his own powers, Kubens 
has here given only a corner in the background to the Blessed, whose 
heavenly calm and ethereal existence he was incapable of expressing ; and 
he has devoted the whole of the remaining space to the fall of the 
Damned, his true sphere. . . . The whole produces an admirable effect 
by the broad manner in which the light is managed. The colouring is 
powerful, but not extravagant; the treatment particularly easy and clever'. 

— l ZAfe of Rubens', by Prof. Waagen. 

758. Pieta. — S. wall: 743. Satyrs; *745. The chaste Susanna; 
733. Conversion of Paul; *761. Landscape, with rainbow; 760. 
Browsing cattle ; 732. Destruction of Sennacherib's army. — W. 
wall : *793. Portrait of a girl. — **742. Battle of the Amazons. 

'The admirable effect of the whole is increased by a decided and 
masterly arrangement of the light ; the colouring is forcible without being 
overcharged, and the execution of the principal parts must be called 
careful for Rubens. In the whole range of modern art there exists no 
other historical battle-piece worthy of being compared with Raphael's 
Battle of Constantine; and in fact it has the advantage over the latter in 
the well-planned concentration of interest, and in the contrast afforded 
by the male and female figures, which is admirably employed.' — Waagen. 

792. Old woman; *780. Mourning for Decius (sketch for a 
picture in the Liechtenstein Gallery, Vienna) ; *764-779. Sketches 
of events in the life of Maria de' Medici, for the pictures painted 
in 1621-26 for the Luxembourg in Paris, now in the Louvre. 

VII. Room. To the left (E.) : A. van Dyck, 848. The organist 
Liberti of Antwerp, 827. Rest on the Flight into Egypt, 836. Portrait 
of Marchese Spinola (unfinished) ; 939. J. van Arthois, Landscape. — 
S. wall : Van Dyck, 828. SS. Mary and John with the body of Christ, 
834. Petel, the sculptor, 823. Martyrdom of St. Sebastian; 781. 

Old Pinakothek. MUNICH. 28. Route. 167 

Snyders, Boar-hunt, the figures by Rubens; 832. A. van Dyck and 
P. Snayers, Henry IV. of France defeating the Catholic League; 
A. van Dyck, *822. Susanna at the bath, *833. Portrait of himself; 
866. Portrait of Queen Henrietta Maria of England (studio-piece). 

— W. wall : 868. O. Kneller (after Van Dyck), Queen Henrietta 
Maria of England; A. van Dyck, *846. The painter Jan de Wael 
and his wife, 849. Portrait of Mary Ruthven, Vau Dyck's wife ; 964. 
J. Fyt, Bear-hunt. Van Dyck, 847. Malery the engraver, *830. 
Pieta, 835. Portrait of Marchese Mirabella; 965. J. Fyt, Boar-hunt. 

— N. wall : A. van Dyck , 842. Duchess of Croy, *843. Portrait, 
*841. Duke of Croy, *824. St. Sebastian ; 968. P. Boel, Dog watch- 
ing dead game ; Van Dyck, *839, 840. So-called Burgomaster of 
Antwerp and his wife, *837. Duke Wolfgang Wilhelm of the Palati- 
nate ; J. Fyt, 963. Roe pursued by dogs, *966. Still-life. — E. wall: 
A. van Dyck, *844, *845. The sculptor Colyn de Nole and his wife, 
*826. Holy Family; 940. Arthois, Landscape. 

Cabinet XIII. To the left (E.): Van Dyck (sketches), 856. 
General Tilly, 851. Maria de' Medici, 859. Palamedesz, the painter, 
860. Van Uden, the painter, 857. John, Count of Nassau; 708, 709. 
H. van Balen and J. Brueghel, Spring, Summer. — S. wall: 921. 
D. Teniers the Younger , Apes carousing; 831. Van Dyck, Pieta; 
719. Vinkboons, Bearing of the Cross; 922. Teniers, Monkeys. — 
W. wall: A. van Dyck, 854. Gustavus Adolphus, 844. Wallen- 
stein, 853. Margaret of Lorraine, 852. Prince Thomas of Carignan, 
858. Caesar Alexander Scaglia; 710, 711. Van Balen and Brueghel, 
Autumn, Winter. 

Cabinet XIV. To the left (E.) : 697,682,689. J. Brueghel the 
Elder, Landscapes; *909. Teniers the rounder, Violin-player; 850. 
VanDyck, Snayers, the painter; 675. Bril, Landscape; 919. Teniers, 
Witchcraft. — S. wall: 713, 712. Balen and Brueghel, Nymphs 
fishing, Nymphs and game ; 705. Brueghel and Rubens, Flora. — 
W. wall : Teniers, 917. Lot and his daughters, 912. Village-concert ; 
J. Brueghel, 704. Madonna with a garland of flowers, 683. Land- 
scape; 715. Van Balen and Brueghel, Feast of the Gods. 

Cabinbt XV. To the left(E.): Teniers, 902, 903. Tavern- 
scenes, 926-929. Old picture-gallery at Brussels; 894. A. Brouwer, 
Peasants singing. — W. wall: 916. Teniers, Municipal guard- 
room; *880. Brouwer, Village-surgeon; Teniers, 9 11. Peasant couple, 
905. Peasant wedding. 

Cabinet XVI. To the left (E.) : *879. Brouwer, Card-players 
quarrelling; *907. Teniers, Boors drinking; 887, 889, 890, 895, 
896. Brouwer, Tavern-scenes; 945. Millet, Italian coast-scene. — 
S. wall: Brouwer, 882, 883, 884, 891, 892. Scenes of peasant- 
life, *885. Village -surgeon. — W. wall: 904. Teniers, Village- 
tavern; 888. Brouwer, Card-players; 825. A. van Dyck, Crucifixion; 
*910. Teniers, Cottage - interior ; 946. Millet, Italian landscape; 
*893. Brouwer, Soldiers gaming. 

1 68 Route 28. MUNICH. Old Pinakothek. 

Italian School (RR. VIII-X; Cab. XVII-XX). — VIII. Room. 
To the left (E.): 984a, b. Agnolo Gaddi, SS. Nicholas and Julian; 
*1033. Cima da Conegliano, Madonna with Mary Magdalen and 
St. Jerome; 1044. School of Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna; 1016a. 
Lorenzo di Credi, Virgin and Child, with an angel, an early work; 
*1083. Lor. Lotto, Marriage of St. Catharine; 1008. Filippino Lippi, 
Christ appearing to the Virgin. — S. wall : *1011, 1012, 1013. Bom. 
Ghirlandajo, Madonna with SS. Catharine and Lawrence; 1057. 
Mariotto Albertinelli, Annunciation; 1010. Sandro Botticelli, Pieta; 
*1080. Garofalo, Pieta; 1026. Marco Palmezzano, Madonna and 
Saints. — "W. wall: no number, Luca Signorelli, Madonna (studio- 
piece); 1022a. Liberale da Verona, Pieta; 1017. Lorenzo di Credi, 
Holy Family ; 1085. Rocco Marconi, St. Nicholas with John the 
Baptist and St. Philip; 1066. A. del Sarto, Holy Family (injured); 
1095. Correggio, Madonna with SS. Ildefons and Jerome (retouched). 

— N. wall: **1034. Perugino, The Virgin appearing to St. Bernard; 
1035. Perugino, Virgin adoring the Holy Child ; *1052, Raphael, 
Portrait of Bindo Altoviti, probably painted in Rome about 1512 
(injured); 1045. Bern. Luini, St. Catharine; *1049. Raphael, Holy 
Family, of the Canigiani family ; 1087. Seb. delPiombo (?), Portrait of 
a priest; 1073. Sodoma, Madonna; 1060. Innocenzo da Irnola, Virgin 
and saints. — *1039. Franc. Francia, Madonna in a bower of roses. 

This panel 'affords a rare example of dignity in Francia's works; it 
is also distinguished by a more tender blending and harmony of silvery 
tone than any we have hitherto met with'. — 'History of Painting in 
North Italy\ by Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

1009. Filippino Lippi (?), Pieta. — E. wall: 1086. Bissolo (?), 
The relatives of Christ; 1006. Fra Filippo Lippi, Madonna; 1040. 
F. Francia, Madonna and Child with two angels; 1005. Fra Filippo 
Lippi, Annunciation ; *1031. M. Basaiti, Madonna with SS. Sebastian 
and Jerome ; 987, 988. Spinello Aretino, Two altar-pieces with five 
saints in each. 

IX. Room. To the left (E.): 1127. Jac. Tintoretto (?), Vesalius, 
the anatomist; *1112. Titian, Charles V. (1548); 1147. Jac.Bassano, 
Entombment. — S. wall: Paolo Veronese (?), 1134. Cupid with two 
tiger-hounds, 1135. Portrait of a lady in brown silk; 1117. Franc. 
Vecellio, Madonna and saints; 1116. Titian, Venus initiating a girl 
in the service of Bacchus (studio-piece); 1128. Jac. Tintoretto (?), 
Nobleman introducing his son to the Doge. — "W. wall: 1152. 
Leandro Bassano, Christ with Mary and Martha; 1113. Titian, 
Madonna (injured); 1149. Jac. Bassano, Moses smiting the rock. 

— *1109. Titian, Madonna with Jesus and John the Baptist. 
'The head and foot of St. John, and the head of the Virgin are damaged 

by abrasion and retouching; yet the picture is still a lovely one of Titian, 
and the landscape to the right, with blue mountains and nearer ranges 
dotted with church and campanile, is beautifully painted'. — ' Titian' , by 
Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

1124. Moroni, Portrait; 1115. Titian(?~), Venetian noble. — 
1108. Palma Vecchio, Holy Family. 

Old Pinakothek. MUNICH. 28. Route. 169 

'The flesh tints are flayed, and there is some retouching in this little 
picture, but the figures and action are still attractive by their grace ; and 
the colours almost equal those of Titian in richness and power'. 0. & C. 

N. wall: *U23. Moretto (more likely Moroni?'), Priest; 1275, 
1274. Rotari, Genre-scenes; School of Jac. Tintoretto, 1132. Portrait 
of Grimani, Venetian admiral, 1129. Annunciation; *1110. Titian, 
Vanity of earthly things (an early work, damaged); 1239. B. Strozzi, 
The Tribute Money; 1111. Titian, Portrait of a man; 1156. Palma 
Oiovane , Adoration of the Shepherds. — *1114. Titian, Christ 
crowned with thorns (of his latest period). 

'It is impossible to conceive better arrangement, greater harmony of 
lines, or more boldness of movement. Truth in the reproduction of na- 
ture in momentary action is combined with fine contrasts of light and 
shade, and an inimitable richness of tone, in pigment kneaded, grained, 
and varied in surface beyond anything that we know of this time 1 . C. & C. 

1136. P. Veronese, The Centurion of Capernaum; 1121. Paris 
Bordone (?), Man offering jewels to a woman ; 1155. Palma Oiovane, 
Entombment. — E. wall : 1120. P. Bordone{7), Portrait. — *1107. 
Palma Vecehio (more likely Cariani ?), Portrait of a man. 

'A noble portrait by Palma Vecehio', probably of the painter himself. 
'Whoever he may be, the man is of strong and energetic mould; the 
glance of his eye is so rapid, open , and expressive as to convey the best 
impression of nature's instant action ; there is a breadth of modelling and 
a variety of toning beyond measure telling and truthful ; and the play of 
the features is admirable'. C. <fc C. 

P. Veronese, 1137. Holy Family (copy ?), 1140. Cleopatra (studio- 
piece); 1271. Giov. Batt. Tiepolo, Adoration of the Magi (1753). 

X. Room. To the left (E.): 1174. GuidoReni, St. Jerome; 1176. 
Domenichino, Susanna at the bath; 1182. Guercino, Dido on the 
funeral pyre; *1211. Camillo Procaccini, Holy Family; 1215. 
Cavaliere d'Arpino, Madonna. — S. wall: 1194. Canlassi, Mary 
Magdalen borne to Heaven by angels; 1171. G. Reni, Apollo flaying 
Marsyas. — W. wall: 1259. Cignani, Assumption. — N. wall: 
1054. After Raphael, St. Cecilia (original at Bologna); 1105. Fed. 
Baroccio, Mary Magdalen receiving the Eucharist; 1197. A. Turchi, 
Hercules and Omphale ; *1170. G. Reni, Assumption ; 1165. Lod. 
Carracci, Angel appearing to the sleeping St. Francis. — E. wall: 
1164. Lod. Carracci, Entombment; 1185. Tiarini, Rinaldo in the 
enchanted forest (from Tasso) ; 1104. Baroccio, Christ appearing 
to Mary Magdalen. 

Cabinet XVII. To the left (E.): 1023. Ferrarese School (about 
1480), Madonna enthroned; *989-991. Fra Angelico, Legend of 
SS. Cosmas and Damianus ; 992. Fra Angelico, The dead Christ; 
1040a. Leonardo da Vinci (more likely School of Verrocchio ?), Ma- 
donna and Child; 1000. Florentine School (about 1400), St. Jerome ; 
983. Giotto, Last Supper. — S. wall: 1022. Francesco di Giorgio, 
St. Anthony of Padua; Florentine School, 1001. The Magi, 999. 
St. Francis; 1007. Fra Filippo Lippi, Annunciation; 993, 994. 
School of Fra Angelico, Annunciation. — W. wall: Giotto, 982. 
Christ in Hades, 981. Crucifixion; 986. Lippo Memmi(?~), Assump- 

170 Route 28. MUNICH. Old Pinakothek. 

tion ; 996, 997. Florentine School, Portraits ; 1030. School of Gentile 
Bellini, Portrait. 

Cabinet XVIII. To the left (E.) : 995. School of Fra Angelico, 
Head of a monk (in fresco); 1053. Raphael(?~), Head of St. John 
on a tile. — S. wall: 1081. Garofalo , Madonna with St. Michael 
and John the Baptist. — W. wall: 1032. M. Basaiti, Descent from 
the Cross. 

Cabinet XIX. To the left (E.): 1078. Umbro-Bolognese School 
(about 1510), Portrait of a young man (forged inscription) ; 1242. 
Salvator Rosa, Soldiers drinking; 1059. Girol. del Petechia, St. 
Bernardino. — **1050. Raphael, Madonna Tempi (so named from 
the Casa Tempi at Florence, where it was purchased by Lewis I. in 
1829 ; much damaged). 

Both in tone and execution this beautiful work is closely allied to 
the celebrated Madonna of the House of Orleans. The colours are laid on 
thinly, with a somewhat fuller impasto in the whitish light. It is a true 
touch of nature which makes the mother accompany the close embrace 
with a look of tender affection , while the child receives the caress more 
mechanically and gazes straight out of the picture. — ^Raffael wid 
Michelangelo', by Prof. Anton Springer. 

1223. Sassoferrato , Madonna; 1058. Paechia, Madonna and 
angels; 1186. Franc. Albani, Venus and Adonis. — S. wall : 1038, 
1037. Raphael (more probably Perugino ?) , Baptism and Resur- 
rection of Christ ; *1094. Correggio, Faun playing the flute, early 
work; 1074. Sodoma(?), Archangel Michael. — W. wall: 1184. 

B. Gennari, Salvator Mundi; *1051. Raphael, Madonna della Tenda 
(so named from the green curtain ; purchased in England by Lewis I. 
in 1814); 1227. C. Bold, Mary Magdalen. — N. wall: 1224. 

C. Bold, Madonna. 

Cabinet XX. To the left (E.) : Bern. Belotto (Canaletto), 1268. 
The Piazzetta, 1270. Vegetable-market at Venice ; *1133. Paolo 
Veronese (?), Jupiter and Antiope; 1145. Paolo Veronese, Adoration 
of the Magi (studio-piece). — S. wall: 1168. Ann. Carracci, Piet&; 
1192. Lanfranco, Christ on the Mt. of Olives; 1200. Cigoli , St. 
Francis. — W. wall : 1267. Belotto (Canaletto), Canal Grande at 
Venice , 1233. Carlo Maratta (?), Portrait of a cardinal. 

Spanish Masters (chiefly). — XI. Room. To the left (N.) : 1291 . 
Zurbaran, St. Francis of Assisi; 1254. L. Giordano, The father 
of the artist ; *1308. Murillo, Old woman cleansing a boy's head; 
1253. L. Giordano, Portrait of himself. — E. wall: 1309. Clodio 
Coello, St. Peter of Alcantara walking on the sea; 1280. Ribera, 
Body of St. Andrew removed from the cross ; 1298. Ant. Pereda, 
Portrait; 1281. Ribera, Death of Seneca. — S.wall: 1310. Jose 
Antolinez, The Conception; Murillo, *1306. Beggar-boys gambling, 
1303. St. Thomas of Villanuova healing a paralytic, *1307. Girls 
selling fruit; 1279. Franc. Ribalta, The Virgin and St. John 
returning from the Sepulchre. — W. wall : Ribera, 1285. St. Onu- 
phrius praying, 1282. Egg-dealer; 1300. Pedro de Moya, Conver- 
sation-piece; *1305. Murillo, Two beggar -boys with a puppy; 

Old Pinakothek. MUNICH. 28. Route. 171 

1284. Ribera, St. Bartholomew; 1293. Velazquez, Portrait; 1299. 
P. de Moya, Fortune-teller; 1302. Careno, Donna Maria Anna de 
Austria. — N. wall : 1292. Velazquez (?), Portrait of himself (in- 
jured); 1283. Ribera, Peter's repentance; **1304. Murillo , Two 
beggar-boys eating grapes and melons; 1301. Alonso Cano, Vision 
of St. Anthony o f Padua. 

XII. Room. French and Later German Masters. To the left 
(N.): *1326, 1327. Claude Lorrain, Landscapes. — "W. wall: 1322. 
JV. Poussin, Midas and Bacchus ; 1374. J. Vernet, Storm at sea ; 1340. 
Ph. de Champaigne, Turenne ; *1324, *1325. Claude Lorrain, Land- 
scapes; *1321. N. Poussin, Entombment. — S. wall: 1330. Le 
Sueur, Christ in the house of Lazarus. — E. wall : 1433. Ant. Qraff, 
Portrait of himself; 1425. J. Kupetzky(?), Portrait of a woman ; 
Chr. Schwarz, 1380-82. Madonna in clouds, at the sides SS. Jerome 
and Catharine, 1379. Family of the artist; 1431. R. Mengs, Portrait 
of himself ; 1432. Ang. Kauffmann, Portrait of herself . 

Cabinbt XXI. To the left (E.) : 1316. A. Crabeth (?), Portrait 
of a young lady; 1331. Le Sueur, Mass of St. Louis; 1368. C. J. 
Vernet, Morning by the sea ; 1366. Ant. Pesne, Girl with straw-hat ; 
1376. Chardin, Cook paring turnips; 1369. Vernet, Evening near 
Rome. — "W. wall : 1377. Qreuze, Head of a girl; 1314. J. Clouet, 
Portrait of a young man ; 1315. Francois Clouet, Claude, daughter 
of Henry II. of France. — N. wall : 1320. S. Vouet, Madonna. 

Cabinet XXII. German Masters, chiefly 17th century. — To 
the left (E.): Casp. Netscher, 1398. Musical entertainment, 1399. 
Lady with parrot; Rottenhammer, 1383. Judgment of Paris, 1384. 
Last Judgment, 1385. Diana and Actaeon ; 1426, 1427. Denner, Old 
man and old woman ; 1416. J. H. Roos, Before the battle ; Netscher, 
1400. Bathsheba at the bath, 1402. Pastoral scene. — S. wall: 
*1391. Elsheimer, Moon-light scene, with the Flight to Egypt as ac- 
cessory; 1401. Netscher, Boy playing the flute; 1404, 1405. Mignon, 
Fruit and flowers ; Rottenhammer , 1386. Madonna in a landscape, 
1387. Boys dancing. — W. wall : 1388. Rottenhammer, Marriage at 
Cana; 1403. Lingelbach, Hay-harvest; 1415. Roos, Landscape with 
cattle; 1390. Elsheimer, Destruction of Troy. 

Cabinet XXIII contains a series of religious pictures painted 
for Elector Palatine Johann Wilhelm by Adrian van der Werff, and 
a few other works by the same hand (440-61, 464, 438, 446). 

On the S. side are the *Loggie (entrance from the Platz, to the 
left), an arcade in twenty-five sections , with frescoes designed by 
Cornelius, illustrating the history of painting in the middle ages, 
the first thirteen relating to Italian art , the remaining twelve to 
art in Germany, the Netherlands, and France. 

E. Series : 1. Dome : Religion in union with the Arts. Arabesques ; 
King David (lyric poetry), Solomon (architecture), St. Luke (painting), 
St. Cecilia (music). King Lewis conducted by his genius into the grove 
of poets and artists; the three heads to the right on the outer arch are 
Klenze, Cornelius, and Zimmermann. — 2. The Crusades awaken Art. 

172 Route 28. MUNICH. Old Pinakothek. 

Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Crusade. Battle of Iconium. Giov. 
Pisano shows the magistrates of Pisa his design for the Campo Santo. — 
3. Cimabue (d. 1300). He is taught by Byzantine painters; his Madonna brought 
into the church. — 4. Giotto (d. 1337), when a shepherd-boy, becomes Cimabue's 
pupil ; shows his pictures to Pope Benedict XI. ; King Robert of Naples 
visits Giotto ; the painter accompanies Pope Clement V. to Avignon. — 
5. Fra Angelico da Fiesole (d. 1455). Ordination as Dominican; he paints 
in the cells of the monastery ; receives the blessing of Pope Martin V. 
after having painted a chapel in the Vatican; shows Duke Cosimo de' 
Medici at Florence the plan of the monastery of St. Mark; he declines 
an archiepiscopal see. — 6. Masaccio (d. 1443) shows his designs to a car- 
dinal; paints in the church del Carmine at Florence. — 7. Pervgino (d. 
1524), Raphael's teacher. — 8. Predecessors and Contemporaries of Raphael. 
Signorelli's Vision of the Last Judgment. — 9. Leon, da Vincfs birth (d. 
1519); Leonardo as a teacher and a portrait-painter; his death in the 
presence of Francis I. of France. — 10. Correggio (d. 1534) among his 
pupils ; allegories. — 11. Venetian School. Diirer visits Bellini ; Bellini at 
Constantinople paints the Sultan and his mistress ; Titian paints Emp. 
Charles V. ; the heads of the School visit Titian. — 12. Michael Angelo (d. 
1563). Allegory in allusion to his threefold capacity as painter, sculptor, 
and architect; he paints the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel; works as a 
sculptor at night; designs the dome of St. Peter's. — 13. Raphael (d. 1520) 
when a boy in his father's studio ; enters the school of Perugino ; is 
introduced to Pope Julius II. ; paints in the Stanze of the Vatican. 

W. Sebies (beginning at the end) : 1. Allegories similar to those in the 
first loggia on theE. — 2. Charles Martel's victory over the Saracens at Tours 
(732). Boniface preaches Christianity. Charlemagne surrounded by scholars, 
bards, and poets. — 3. Emp. Henry, the 'founder of cities'. The architect 
Meister Gerhardt delivers the model of Cologne cathedral to Bishop Conrad ; 
relics of the Magi ; death of St. Gereon and St. Ursula. — 4. Meister Wilhelm 
of Cologne (d. 1380). Vision of the Virgin ; his death. Influence on the pic- 
tures of Holbein and other masters. — 5. John (d. 1442) and Hubert (d. 
1426) van JSyck: the latter invents oil-painting; teaches his brother and 
sister ; shows Philip the Good of Burgundy his pictures ; instructs Anto- 
nello of Messina in the art of oil-painting. Allusions to their celebrated 
'Immaculate Lamb'. — John Memling (d. 1499) paints in St. John's Hos- 
pital at Bruges ; his death ; vision of the Last Judgment. — 7. Lucas van 
Leyden (d. 1533) : drawing on his death-bed. — 8. Hans Holbein (d. 1543) : 
the Virgin appears to him (allusions to his Dresden Madonna) ; he receives 
letters of introduction from Erasmus for England ; paints Sir Thomas More 
and his family ; introduction to Henry VIII. ; he draws the Dance ot 
Death. — 9. Albert Diirer (d. 1528), pupil of Wohlgemut ; his friend Pirk- 
heimer reads to him ; Emp. Maximilian holds the ladder for him ; his 
flattering reception among the painters of Antwerp. — 10. Rembrandt (d. 
1669); on the dome Claude Lorrain (d. 1682). — 11. Le Sueur (d. 1655) 
working at night , among the Carmelites ; Nic. Poussin and his School at 
Rome ; protection from envy. — 12. Rubens (d. 1640) at his easel , sprinkled 
with flowers by the goddess of fortune ; at his feet Cupid and Bacchantes ; 
allusions to the tendency of his pictures ; the master in the presence of 
Marie de' Medici; ambassador in England. 

Ground Floor of the Pinakothek. On the N. side are the Cabi- 
net of Engravings (adm., seep. 142), upwards of 300, 000 in number 
(Dutch and German well represented), and the Cabinet of Drawings 
(adm., see p. 142), containing 22,000 by old and modern masters 
(four by Raphael, ten by Fra Bartolommeo, seal of the academy of 
Florence by Benvenuto Cellini, with explanation in his own hand- 
writing, sketches by Rembrandt and-Durer, portraits by Holbein, etc.). 

Good reproductions (photographs, photo-lithographs, etc.) of rare en- 
gravings, etchings, and drawings are sold by the attenda in the Cabi- 
net of Engravings. Prices 25 pf. to 3 M. 

.Old Pinakothek. MUNICH. 28. Route. 173 

The Cabinet of Vases (adm., see p. 142; catalogue 1 Jf), occu- 
pying five rooms in the W. wing of the groundfloor of the Old 
Pinakothek, comprises about 1500 specimens, obtained by King 
Lewis I. from the Candelori (from Vulci), Canino (Etruscan), Dod- 
well (Greek), Panitteri and Politi (Sicilian), and Lipona (Lower 
Italian) collections. 

I. Boou. Centre-table : 2. Woman playing the lyre ; 3. Hercules wrest- 
ling with Antaeus; 7. Theseus carrying off Antiope; 10-41. Drinking cups, 
mostly inscribed with toasts. Table to the left : 54. The Gorgon pursuing 
Perseus (archaic) ; 58, 60. Hercules stealing the Delphic tripod ; 65. Achilles 
killing Troilus at the altar (on the battlements of Troy are Priam, He 
cuba, and other figures); 89. Achilles lying in wait for Polyxena and 
Troilus behind a fountain; 114. Hercules and Antseus; 120, 122. Women 
with pitchers on their heads at a fountain; 123. Zeus, Hermes, Hera, and 
Aphrodite caricatured; 124. Achilles attacked by Hector, ^Eneas, and 
Deiphobus after the death of Troilus (very early) ; 125. Atalanta and Pe- 
leus struggling ; 134. Hercules vanquishing the Triton ; 170. Fight between 
Theseus and the Minotaur. 

II. Room. Near the door, fragments of old mural paintings. Table 
to the right (behind a grating): "211. Dodwell Vase, found at Corinth (on 
the lid, boar-hunt with names inscribed ; on the vase, figures of animals). 
Table to the left : 299. Triptolemus in the winged chariot. On the small 
table near, 329. Theseus and Ariadne. 

III. Room (r.). First table to the right: 331. Peleus overcoming Thetis; 
334. Cups with pleasing inscriptions in dialogue; '336. Triptolemus in 
the winged chariot (patera) ; 337. Youth on horseback (Castor ?) ; 342. Com- 
bat between Hercules and Busiris ; 343. Medea with the ram practising 
magic ; 345. Gsea delivering Erichthonius to Athena. Second table : "370. 
Large cup with raised and gilded ornamentation, Achilles slaying Pen- 
thesilea; 376. Boreas carrying off Orithyia; 378. Hector arming himself; 
383. Orpheus pursued by a Thracian woman. — Third table : 404. Seated 
youth with a wreath ; 418. Chariot-races. 

IV. Room (left from II. Room). The nine tables round the walls bear 
nothing of importance. Near the pillars stand Athenian prize amphorae, 
the pattern of which was imported into Italy in oil-jars, e.g. 449, 498, 
544, with representations of Athena and warlike sports. On the windows 
wire-cages with specimens of small vessels, some of them of very hand- 
some shape. On the table (No. 10) nearest the entrance : '745. The contest 
between Idas and Apollo for Marpessa; 748. Boreas pursuing Orithyia; 
•753. (flower-pot or wine-cooler?), Alcseus and Sappho. Eleventh table 
(towards the window): 776. Hephaestus intoxicated, surrounded by Bac- 
chantes ; 781. Large cooler or mixing-cup, with five sailing-ships on the 
brim, inside. Twelfth table (in a line with No. 10) : "805. Scenes from the 
Argonautic expedition; 807. Peleus pursuing Thetis; "810. Large coloured 
amphora from Canosa in Apulia : Vengeance of Medea, death of Creusa in 
the poisoned garment, Medea slays her children and departs in the chariot 
drawn by dragons. — Thirteenth table : '849. Large amphora, Orpheus in 
Hades, companion vase to the beautiful No. 810 and like it found at Ca- 
nosa; 853. Lycurgus and Dionysus, beautifully ornamented, Apulian, from 
the same tomb as Nos. 810 and 849. Then, drinking utensils representing 
heads of a woman, griffin, sheep, ram, horse, and deer. 

V. Room. On Table I, left : Old Etrurian utensils in black'clay with 
stamped figures; on Table II some very ancient yellow ones with animals. 
Table IV, right : Plain Cyprian vessels. On Table III : 1035. Large vase with 
combats between war-chariots. On the floor a large antique 'Mosaic, Gsea, 
goddess of the earth, surrounded by the seasons, also Helius in the zo- 
diac, found in the Romagna on the property of the Duke of Leuchtenberg. 

The *New Pinakothek (PI. D, 2; tramway-lines i[& 3, p. 140; 
adm., see p. 143; Catalogue, incl. the porcelain collection, 80 pf.), 

174 Route 28. 


New Pinakothek, 

erected by Voit in 1846-53, contains exclusively Modern Pictures, 
mainly by Munich masters (650 -works, in eleven rooms and four- 
teen cabinets). The frescoes on the exterior, which have suffered 
from exposure on the W. and S. sides, were executed by Nilson 
from Kaulbach's designs (see 5th small saloon, p. 176). In the 
entrance-hall is the model of Wagner's Quadriga on the Siegesthor 
(p. 152). Near it, to the left, is the entrance to two rooms con- 
taining Paintings on Porcelain (adm., see p. 143; catalogue, see 
above), copies of the best pictures in the Old Pinakothek, and of 
the gallery of beauties in the Palace. The groundfloor also now 
contains the Antiquarium (p. 179), in five rooms. 

Ground Plan of the Hipper Floor. 

! VI ! 

! ; 








7 1 6 
















I. Room : *W. von Kaulbach, Portrait of King Lewis I. ; (r.) Kaul- 
bach, Portrait of King Maximilian II.; (1.) Holmberg, Prince Regent 
Luitpold. Malachite vase presented by Emp. Nicholas ; porphyry 
vases from King Charles John of Sweden. Tables of green granite 
(erbetto antico) and Egyptian granite; vases of serpentine, porphyry- 
breccia, and antique alabaster. 

II. Room. *1. C. von Piloty, Seni before the corpse of Wal- 
lenstein; 24. Jacobs, Wreck; *2. C. von Piloty, Thusnelda in the 
triumphal procession of Germanicus ; *230. Andr. Aehenbach, Storm 
at sea; *3. Anselm Feuerbach, Medea; 7. Piglhein, Christ bearing the 
Cross ; 8. Fuger, Mary Magdalen ; 9. Albert Becker, Raising of the 
daughter of Jairus; 10. Winkler, Mountain- scene by moonlight; 11. 
Stange, Venice burying its doge; 15. Schorn, Deluge (unfinished); 
17. J. A. Koch, 20. Chr. Reinhart, Historical landscapes. This and 
the following three rooms also contain (above) cartoons for windows 
in the cathedral of Cologne and the Auer-Kirche at Munich, by J. A 

III. Room. Wenglein, *27. Collecting lime in the bed of the 
Isar at Tiilz, 28. Moorland in Upper Bavaria ; 524. Ed. Schleich, Moon- 
light; *32. Heffner, Isola Sacra near Rome; 33. A. Zimmermann, 
Mountain-scene ; *36, 37. Makart, Gifts of the water and the earth 
(Abundantia) ; 38. Coroenne, The Dauphin taking leave of his mother 
Marie Antoinette in 1793; *40. W. von Kaulbach, Destruction of 

New Pinakothek. MUNICH. 28. Route. 175 

Jerusalem (which suggested the cycle of frescoes in the New Mu- 
seum at Berlin) ; 39. Fliiggen, Ante-chamber of a prince. 

IV. Room. 618. W. Bauber, The conversion of St. Hubert; 
636. Fr. Boubaud, In the Caucasus ; 588. L. Herterieh, St. George ; 
609. W. Lindenschmit the Younger, Venus and Adonis; 55. H. von 
Hess, Last Supper (unfinished); 607. William Stott, Bathing-place; 
623. W. B. Tholen, Sand-pits among the Dunes ; 34. A. Zimmer- 
mann, Historical landscape ; 504. Luigi Nono (Venice), Vegetable- 
seller; Zwengauer, 77. Moor, 78. The Benediktenwand (evening- 
scenes); 139. P. Hbcker, Dutch girl; 589. G. Kuhl, Sunday after- 
noon in Holland; 615. P. Paul Miiller, By the pond; 587. Herm. 
Baisch, Dutch pasture ; 590. A. Laupheimer, Cardinal; 79, 80. Mill- 
ner, Kampenwand; 605. O. Strutzel, Environs of Munich; *516. 
Ed. Schleich, Scene on the Isar; 54. Fr. Navez, Women of Fondi 
spinning; 606. Anderson- Lundby, Winter-day; *123. A. Bbcklin, 
Among the waves ; 83. Joh. Schraudolph, Christ healing the sick ; 
591. Fr. Skarbina, Farm-house in Picardy; 597. P. J. Clays, Open 
sea; 53. Heimlein, Waterfall near Salzburg. 

V. Room. 119. Fr. August von Kaulbach, Entombment; 58. H. 
von Hess, Apollo and the Muses ; 109. Fischer, Entombment; 85. Joh. 
Schraudolph, The Virgin, Mary Magdalen, and St. John on Mt. Cal- 
vary ; 108. L. Brills, The Saviour ; Schraudolph, 84. Miraculous draught 
of fishes, 81. Mary with Jesus and John the Baptist, 88a. Ascension; 
116. Fr. Overleck, Italy and Germany; 82. Schraudolph, St. Agnes; 
62, 63. P. von Hess, King Otho entering Nauplia in 1833 and Athens 
in 1835; 107. W.von Schadow, Holy Family; 97. Angelica Kauff- 
mann, Christ and the Samaritan Woman ; 613. Ed. Oebhardt, Cruci- 
fixion; 91. Wichmann, Venetian woman distributing fruit ; 57. H. 
von Hess, Virgin enthroned; *115. Overbeck, Mary and Elizabeth, 
Jesus and John the Baptist (1825). 

VI. Room. *Rottmann, Twenty-three Greek landscapes (1845-50), 
encaustic paintings admirably lighted from above. 

Smaller Rooms (beginning from the large Room V). 

I. On the right: 633. L. K. Miiller, Study of a head (Coptic 
girl); 156. H. Lang, Storming of Froschweiler ; 602. Raffet, Soldiers 
of the First Republic ; 157. H. Lang, Bavarians crossing the Marne 
at Corbeil; A. Adam, 159. Battle of Custozza (1848), 160. Battle of 
Novara (1849); *140. Putz, Bavarian riflemen at Bazeilles; 5. Ans. 
Feuerbach, Portrait of himself; 141. Fr. Bodenmiiller, Battle of 
Worth; *122. Fr. von Lenbach, Portrait of Dr. Dollinger; 593. R. 
Birth du Frenes, The artist Schuch ; 142. Bodenmiiller, Incident in 
the-Battle of Sedan; 158. A. Adam, Storming the lines of Duppel 
(1849) ; 642. H. W. Jansen, Dutch harbour ; 652. V. Miiller, Romeo 
and Juliet; *578. Or. Bisschop (The Hague), Sunshine in house and 
heart; 124. A. Bbcklin, Pan among the reeds ; 563. Jan Blommers, 
Fresh fish ; *121. Lenbach, Prince Bismarck ; 126. F. Adam, Battle of 
Orle'ans ; 581. Frenzel, The favourite; *120. Lenbach, Pope Leo XIII. 

176 Route 28. MUNICH. New Pinakothek. 

II. To the right: 631. George Innes, Sunrise; 572. V. Geza, Ducks ; 
570. A. von Pettenkofen, Hut in Slavonia: 565. Fr. von Uhde, A 
painful walk; 61. P. von Hess, Battle of Austerlitz; 622. F. BriM, 
The decisive moment ; *643. Franz Stuck, Sin ; 127. F. Adam, At- 
tack at Mais-la-Tour; *584. A. Kampf, Emp. William I. lying in 
state; 640. 0. Jernberg, In the fields; 51. W. von Kobell, Battle of 
Hanau (1813) ; 594. A. Langhammer, Supper ; 625. H. Herkomer, 
Cares (water-colour); 604. Ad. Menzel, The levy (gouache) ; 568. 
John Lavery, Tennis-court; 567. A. Kunz, Still-life; 562. Fr. Cour- 
tens, A field of hyacinths ; 638. O. Hackl, The fir >t quarters ; 616. 
Nic. Gysis, Carnival in Greece; 47. B. Adam, Cattle; no number, 
*Munkacsy, Visit to a sick woman; 174. Steffan, Mountain-scene; 
no number, J. Benlliure (Valencia), St. Francis ; 182. Ad. Echtler, 
Fallen; 169. Chr. Morgenstem, Landscape in Alsace ; 149. Van der 
Meer, Winter-scene in the Netherlands ; 626. L. Brunin, The sculptor; 
644. Aless. Milesi, Twilight ; 577. H. Battels, At full steam. 

III. To the right: 186. G. von Canal, Old palace-garden; 184. 
Diday, The Wetterhorn; 187. E. Zimmermann, Adoration of the 
Shepherds; 191. Willroider, The Deluge; 192. H. Kaulbach, At a 
friend's grave; *193. A. Gobi, Vaccination in Tyrol; 194. M. Zim- 
rnermann, Oak-forest; ,519. Ed. Schleich, Coming storm; 198. Joh. 
Fischbach, Convent-park; 201. L. von Hagn, Concert in a garden; 
*202. Kurzbauer, Festival in the country ; 203. Stademann, Winter- 
scene ; 189. Loefftz, Body of Christ ; 185. G. von Maffei, Turn-spits 
(Dachshunde) ; 183. Winterhalter, Portrait. 

IV. To the right: *215. Wilkie, Opening the will ; 216. J. Ver- 
meersch, Harbour- scene; 229. Chr. Mali, Mountain-pasture; 165. 
W. Lichtenheld, Moonlight-scene; 242. Jos. von Brandt, Cossack 
horses in a snow-storm ; 236. B. Fries, Scene on the Tiber, near Rome ; 
210. A. Eiedel, Girl of Albano ; 635. Fr. Roubaud, Wounded; *243. 
J. von Brandt, Defence; 235. Voltz, Herd returning home; 231. Andr. 
Achenbach, Autumn morning in the Pontine Marshes; 239. L. Gallait, 
Monk feeding the poor; 178. R. Zimmermann, Mountain-scene in 
winter; 241. Verboeckhoven, Sheep-pen; 537. Griitsner, Convent- 
scene; 561. LeMayeur, High-tide; 223. Mali, Scene in Verona; *227. 
Wopfner, Fishing in the Chiemsee ; 224. Schindler, March ; 206. 
A. Riedel, Judith; 223. Ad. Lier, The Theresienwiese at Munich; 
221. Ramberg, After dinner; 205. A. Riedel, Neapolitan fisher-family. 

V. Above : W. von Kaulbach, Sketches for the frescoes outside 
the building (p. 174), representing the artistic activity of King 
Lewis I. at Rome and Munich, with numerous portraits. To the 
right: 244. Marc/5, Landscape with the Flight into Egypt; 250. A. 
von Bayer, Franciscan Church in Salzburg; 254. J. Lange, The 
Gosau-See by morning light ; *257. J. Geyer, Concilium medicum; 
271. Jos. Stieler, Portrait of Goethe (1828) ; *260. Defregger, Storming 
the Red Tower at Munich in 1705 ; 258. J. Geyer, Return from the 
masked ball; 59. H. von Hess, Portrait of Thorwaldsen; 255. J. 

New Pinakothek. MUNICH. 28. Route. 177 

Lange, The Gosau-See by evening-light; 261-269, 274-279. Stieler, 
Schrotzberg, etc., Portraits of the Bavarian royal family; Ainmuller, 
246, 247. Interior and Choir of Westminster Abbey ; 249. Stein'.e, 
The Parzival cycle (water-colours). 

We now pass through Room I to the Cabinets (chronologically 

1. Cabinet. To the right, 231. Graff, Portrait of Chodowiecky; 
98. Angelica Kauffmann, King Lewis I. when crown-prince; 18. 
Jos. A. Koch, Italian vintage-festival; opposite, 298. Catel, Crown- 
prince Lewis in the Spanish artists' tavern on the Ripa Grande at 
Rome; 19. J. A. Koch, Schmadri Fall in Switzerland. 

2. Cabinet. To the right, 307. A. Schelfhout, By the shore; Rott- 
mann, *319. Monte Pellegrino near Palermo, 320. Acropolis of 
Sicyon ; Fr. Catel, 302. Near Castel Gandoli'o, 303. Bay of Palermo ; 
321. Rottmann, Island of Ischia; opposite, 316. Fr. Oranet, Savo- 
narola; 317. Koehkoek, Sea-piece; 337. Regemorter, Dutch room; 
44. W. von Kaulbach, King Lewis I.; back-wall, Quaglio, 341. St. 
Sebald's at Nuremberg, 342. Cathedral of Orvieto ; 355. Dillis, Tegern- 
see ; 358. Neher, Trausnitz Chapel, near Landshut; 372. Heyclech, 
Lion-gate at Mycenae. 

3. Cabinet. To the right, 309. J. W. Preyer, Still-life ; P. von 
Hess, 64. Italian tavern, 67. Greek peasants on the shore, 66. Marino, 
in the Alban Mountains ; B. Stange, 12. Shipping in the Lagoons of 
Venice, 13. Italian villa; 374. K. W. von Heydeck, Bridge of Cuenca 
in Spain; 324. Rottmann, Eibsee ; opposite, 297. Jos. Rebell, Near 
Capri ; 68. P. von Hess, Capturing horses in Wallachia ; Rottmann, 
325. The Hohe Goll, 326a. Corfu ; 313. J. Schnorr, Scenes from the 
Nibelungen ; rear-wall, 305. Catel, Garden of the Capuchins at Sy- 

4. Cabinet. To the right, no number, P. von Hess, Departure of 
King Otho for Greece ; 162, 163. A. Adam, Horses ; 308. Schelfhout, 
Winter-scene ; 272, 273. Jos. Stieler, Emp. Francis I. of Austria and 
his wife; 377. Heydeck, Approach to the Acropolis; opposite, Rott- 
mann, *322. Taormina with Mt. Etna, 323. Tomb of Archimedes at 
Syracuse ; 384. Schendel, Market-place at Antwerp ; 385. Monten, 
Napoleon I. ; rear-wall, 128. F. Adam, French cuirassiers at the 
burning of Moscow; 340. Ferd. Braekeleer, Street-musician; 70-74. 
P. von Hess, Sketches for the scenes from the Greek War of In- 
dependence in the Arcades (p. 149). 

5. Cabinet. To the right, 392, 393. H. Adam, Views of Munich ; 
*394. M. von Schwind, A symphony; opposite, 344. D. Quaglio, 
Villa Malta, at Rome; 166. W. Lichtenheld, Castle-yard with trea- 
sure-diggers by moonlight; 25. J. Jacobs, Harbour of Constantinople f 
402. L. van Kuyck, Stable ; rear-wall, 412. J. Kirner, Fortune-teller ; 
415. Aiwasowsky, Near St. Petersburg; 172. Gerhardt, Interior of 
St. Mark's at Venice ; 414. W. Schon, Girl listening. 

6. Cabinet. To the right, *420. L. Robert, Woman of Procida; 421. 
Baedeker's S. Germanv. 8th Edit. 12 

178 Route 28. MUNICH. New Pinakothek. 

N. de Keyser, Monk at an alms-box ; 200. Fischbach, The Tennen- 
gebirge ; 424. J. H. van de Laar, Genre-scene ; 14. B. Stange, The 
tower-window ; opposite, 386. W. Lindenschmit the Elder, Death of 
Duke Luitpold at the battle of Pressburg (sketch); 429. H. Biirkel, 
"Winter - scene ; 406. Enhuber, Grandfather and grandson ; 433. Le- 
poittevin, Adrian Brouwer painting a sign in a tavern ; Hasenclever, 
*438. Jobs undergoing examination, 439. Sulking couple ; rear-wall, 
419. A. Loffler, Twenty-two sketches from the East. 

7. Cabinet. To the light , 222. Bamberg, The morning-prayer ; 
443. L. Faustner, Frauenkirche at Munich; 251. Bayer, Convent- 
hall; 448. Frey, Memnon columns at Thebes; opposite, 430. H. 
Biirkel, Aqueduct in the Roman Campagna; 413. Kirner, Baden free- 
lances in 1849; rear-wall, 345-348. D. Quaglio, "Views of Munich; 
460. Foltz, The singer's cur?e. 

8. Cabinet. To the right, 462. Scholz, Officer's widow in church ; 
4G4. Spitzweg, The poor poet; 213. Biedel, Karl Rottmann; 434. 
Camphausen, Scene from Cromwells time ; 467. R.Eberle, Shepherd; 
opposite, *431. H. Biirkel, Rain in a mountain- village ; 248. M. 
Ainmiilltr, Rheims Cathedral; 86, 87. J. Schraudolph, Angels; 56. 
//. von Hess, Portrait; 359. M. Neher, St. Martin's at Brunswick; 
432. Biirkel, Roman Campagna; rear-wall, 349-352. Quaglio, Views 
of Munich; 219. Vermeersch, Canal Grande at Venice. 

9. Cabinet. To the right, 232. And. Achenba^h, On the North Sea; 
481. Bamberger, Gorge at Cuenca in Spain; 505. A. Fink, "Winter 
morning among the mountains; Spitzu-ey, 465. In the attic, 466. 
Hermits; 252. Bayer, Convent-yard; 233. A. Achenbach, Sea-piece; 
49. B. Adam, Stable ; 482. Bamberger, San Geronimo in Castile ; 
485. Hendrik Schmidt, Dutch school-room ; 486. Bosioom, Interior 
of a church at Amsterdam; 35. A. Zimmermann, Mountain-torrent. 

10. Cabinet. To the right, 224a. E. J. Schindler, Saw-mill in 
Upper Austria ; 510. Bischof, The first snow ; 600. W. Triibner, Herren- 
insel, in the Chiemsec; 512. K. Hojf, At the palace of W'iirzburg ; 
648. Willroider, Near Furstenfeld-Bruck ; 558a. Bob. Schleich, 
Hay-harvest in Upper Bavaria ; H. Rhomberg, 436. The first cigars, 
437. Sledge-carver; Neher. 365. Prague Cathedral, 367. Lichten- 
thal, near Baden-Baden; 649. E. Meissonier, The bravoes. 

11. Cabinet. To the right, 574. Weishaupt, Cattle; 26. J. Jacobs, 
Sunrise in the Archipelago; *583. Rob. Haug, Parting; 585. Frbh- 
Ucher, Landscape; opposite, *534. A. Holmberg, Scholar; *564. Ed. 
Banian (of St. Cloud), Potter's work-room; 150. O. Schonleber, 
Dutch village. 

12. Cabinet. To the right, 540. Gebler, Reynard's end; 497. 
Gabriel Max, Ape-critics; 571. J. R. Reid, Unwelcome news; 608. 
Jose Villegas, Doge Foscari after his deposition (water-colour) ; 566. 
J. H. de Haas, Cattle at pasture ; opposite, 536. Grutzner, The devil 
and the Silesian roysterer; 538. Fr. Amerling, Study of a head; 
637. Favretto, Venetian art-dealer ; *569. W. Leibl, Peasant interior; 

<New Pinakothek. MUNICH. 28. Route. 179 

543. A. Seitz, Vagabonds; rear-wall, 88. J. Schraudolph, Madonna; 
592. Hans Thoma, Scene in the Taunus. 

13. Cabinet. To the right, 494, 495. Olga Wiesinger-Florian. 
Flower-pieces ; *496. Qab. Max, Catharine Emmerich in a state of 
ecstasy; opposite, 542. A. 1). Bouveret (Paris), Madonna; 610. O. 
Sinding, Boys bathing; 516-528. Ed. Schleich, Landscapes. 

14. Cabinet. To the right, 550. Al. Gierymski, Wittelsbacher- 
Platz at Munich ; *547. Benlliure, Month of Mary at Valencia; 552. 
Max Lieber/nann, Old woman with goats; 498. Bauernfeind, Ruined 
temple at Baalbek; opposite, 503. Nono (Venice), Garden-scene; 
500. Mauve, Cows pasturing; *551. Squindo, The royal family 
brought back to Paris in 1789 ; 560. A. Newhuys, Spring. 

The Antiquarium, on the groundfioor of the New Pinakothek, 
contains the smaller Greek and Roman and a few Egyptian antiquities, 
including some fine terracottas and bronzes (adm., see p. 142; good 
catalogue, 60 pf.). 

I. Room. Cork models of the Pantheon and the so-called temples of 
Vesta at Rome and Tivoli. Ancient terracottas of Italian and Greek origin, 
some of them reproductions of celebrated works in bronze or marble. 
4th Cabinet, '258. Winged Victory, a Roman work after the Nike of Paio- 
nios at Olympia. Case to the left of the entrance : "653. Satyr carrying off 
a girl, from Tanagra; "659. Greek funeral feast; 6G2. Diomede; 667. Eu- 
ropa and the bull ; 671. Nereid. Over the Case by the E. wall : 894. Dancing 
mime with a wreath; above, 926-929. Reliefs of vintage-s enes and wine- 
making. Case to the right of the entrance: 761. Winged sphinx; 762. Nike, 
with traces of painting; 770. Eros; 774. Flask; 775. Painted beaker in the 
form of a barbarian's head; '777. Perforated glass goblet, from a Roman 
sarcophagus at Cologne; 790. Votive tablet with Aphrodite and Hermes, 
from Rosarno in Calabria; 791. Young Bacchant with ivy-wreath; 803. 
Fortuna and Cupid ; 805. Sphinx; 806. Victory, gilded terracotta from Attica. 
Case b$ the W. wall: '846. Draped female figures from an Attic grave with 
well-preserved painting; 848. Triton and Eros; 849. Head of the so-called 
'Dying Alexander' ; 908. Leda. By the Window- Wall: 923. Marble frag- 
ment with three old men; 923. Arimaspe and a griffin. — II. Room. 
Models in cork of the Arch of Constantine, the Temple of Neptune at 
Psestum, etc. The Wall-Cases contain small antiquities of the most diverse 
nature. — III. Room. Cork and plaster models (Colosseum, House of Sal- 
lust at Pompeii, etc.). The Rowid Case in the centre contains gold and silver 
"ornaments and works in ivory (shelves 1, 2, & 6, TriDkets from Etruria; 
shelf3, 'Gold wreath from a Greek tomb at Armento, S. Italy; shelf 4, Gold 
ornaments from Greece and Cyprus; shelf 8, Egyptian gold ornaments from 
the great Pyramid of Meroe). In the Wall-Cases are Roman lamps, bronze 
ornaments and utensils, etc. — IV. Room. 5th Wall-Case, Ancient weapons 
and armour, including a handsome suit of bronze armour from the tomb 
of a Greek warrior in S. Italy. Among the small bronze figures in the 
Case to the left of the entrance are: 349, 350. Mercury; 352. Jupiter Pluvius; 
357. Youthful Mars; '361. Venus loosening her sandal; '363. Discobolus, 
after Myron ; 369. Pallas Athena ; 372. Hercules, probably after Lysippus ; 
373. Zeus. Case to the right of the entrance: 647. Silver goblet with 
representations of the destruction of Troy, by a Greek master; 652. One- 
handled silver pitcher with reliefs of Lapithse and Centaurs ; 666. Marble disk 
with representations of Hercules; 671. Early-Greek standing mirror from 
Hermione, in Argolis (5th cent. B.C.). The early-Etruscan bronze reliefs by 
the 2?. Wall belong to the same series as Nos. 32-38 in theGlyptothek. By the 
middle window of the N. Wall : 920. Cist from Prseneste. — Egyptian Room (to 
the left of Room I). Egyptian collection : sarcophagi, mummies, cippi, etc. 

At No. 78 Theresien-Strasse, behind the New Pinakothek, is 


180 Route 28. MUNICH. Glyptothek. 

a *Panorama representing the Emp. Constantine entering Rome in 
312, by Buhlmann and Wagner (adm., see p. 143). 

In the Schelling-Strasse (Nos. 83-93), near the New Pinakothek, 
are the so-called Furstenhauser, a row of private residences elab- 
orately adorned with frescoes by Ferd. Wagner ; in the court of No. 
87 is the kiosque from the old winter-garden of Lewis II. A little 
to the N., in the Arcis-Str., lies the new Northern Cemetery (PI. D, 
1; p. 193). Opposite the W. side of the Old Pinakothek rises the 
Polytechnic School (PI. D, 2), a handsome brick edifice in the 
Italian Renaissance style, with ornamentation in granite and sand- 
stone, by Neureuther (d. 1887). The cornice is adorned with seventy- 
two medallion-portraits of celebrated architects, mathematicians, and 
naturalists. *Staircase worthy of inspection. The valuable technical 
collections are shown during the vacations only, and occasionally on 
Sundays (apply to the custodian, groundfloor). — In the neigh- 
bouring Luisen-Strasse is the Art- Industrial School. 

The *Glyptothek (PI. C, D, 2, 3; adm.. see p. 142), or 'Repo- 
sitory of Sculptures', in the Konigs-Platz, contains ancient sculp- 
tures collected chiefly by Lewis I. when crown-prince, in 1805-16. 
The building, erected by Klenze in 1816-30, is externally in the 
Ionic style, with a porch of eight columns; the interior is vaulted, 
and tends to the Roman style. The group in the tympanum, 
designed by Wagner, and executed by Schwanthaler and others in 
marble , represents Minerva as protectress of the plastic art. The 
hirteen halls are lighted from the quadrangle in the centre. The 
niches in front and on the sides contain marble statues of famous 
sculptors. Excellent catalogue by Prof. Dr. Brunn (d. 1894), 2 Jl. 

I. Assyrian Hall. At the entrance, two colossal lions with human 
heads, casts of the originals from the palace of Sardanapalus III. at 
Kalah (Larissa; 884-859 B.C.), now in the Louvre. In the hall, 
seven reliefs in alabaster, originally coloured, with winged genii, etc., 
and cuneiform inscriptions. 

II. Egyptian Hall. 5, 6. Statues of priests in black marble, of 
the time of Hadrian; 7, 8. Recumbent sphinxes, in basalt, of Ro- 
man workmanship; *13. Statue of Ra, the god of the sun, with the 
head of a hawk, in black granite, early Egyptian; 14. Portrait- statue 
of a man (not Egyptian); 15. Antinous as Osiris, in rosso antico, of 
Hadrian's time; 16. and 24. Groups of husband and wife in a sitting 
posture, in sandstone, the former with traces of painting; 17. Isis, 
and 23. Horus, of a late period; 25. Quadruple head of Brahma; 
29. Head of Buddha (specimens of Indian art from Java); *30. Sitting 
statue of a high priest, in limestone, early Egyptian, the most valu- 
able object in this part of the collection; 31. (in the centre) Obelisk 
in syenite, of Roman origin. 

III. Hall of the Incunabula (Greek and Etruscan art, 'in cuna- 
bulis', i.e. 'in its cradle', and copies). *41. So-called Apollo of 
Tenea, probably a portrait-figure, archaic (middle of the 6th cent. 



28. Route. 181 


VII. I VIII. I Small I IX. | X. 
Hall of Hall of Ves- Trojan Hall of 


Hall of 

Hall of 




Gods. I Mbule. I Hall. 


I. Assyr. 









B.C.; found at the foot of the Aero-Corinth) ; 43. Roman lady as For- 
tuna, in imitation of the archaic style, of Hadrian's time; 45. Spes, 
Roman, a similar work ; 44. Triangular base of a candelabrum from 
Perugia, a very andent Etruscan work, embossed and riveted; 47, 
48. Etruscan cinerary urns; *49. Head of a youth, a copy in marble 
of a bronze original (?); 50. Bearded Bacchus, archaistic ; 32-38.Early- 
Etruscan reliefs in bronze found at Perugia, some. of them probably 
from a chariot. 

IV. **Mginetan Hall. Sculptures in marble from a Temple of 
Minerva in the island of jEgina, found in 1811, purchased by Crown- 
Prince Lewis in 1812, and restored with the aid of Thorwaldsen. 
They are of great im- 
portance in the history 
of art. They consist of 
two pediment groups 
from the temple erect- 
ed by the ^Eginetans 
after the Persian wars, 
and commemorate the 
exploits of their he- 
roes, (1) Telamon and 
(2) Ajax and Teucer, 
his sons, in the war 
against the Trojans. 
The first group (E.ped- 
iment) consists now 
of five figures only, the 
other (W. pediment) 
has ten. The figures 
are somewhat thickset, 
with mask-like heads 
and open mouths. A 

small model of the temple on the wall above affords a convenient 
survey of the left group. Group on the right : Telamon and Hercules 
fighting over the body of Oicles against Laomedon, the perjured king 
of Troy. 54. Hercules, 55. Dying Trojan, 56. Champion of the Tro- 
jans, 57. Fallen warrior, 58. Youth stooping forwards. Group on the 
left; Greeks fighting against the Trojans around the body of Achilles. 
59. Minerva, 60. Achilles, 61. Ajax Telamonius, 62. Teucer, 63. 
Greek combatant (son of Ajax Oileus?}, 64. Wounded Greek, 65. 
-(Eneas, 66. Paris, 67. Trojan kneeling, 68. Wounded Trojan. By 
the walls are smaller fragments. 

V. Hall of Apollo. 79. Ceres; 80. Bearded Bacchus; 81. Jupiter 
Ammon; 82. Rhodian vase; 83. Head of an athlete, a Roman copy 
of Lysippus ; 85a. Relief of a family sacrificing to jEsculapius and 
Hygieia, from Corinth ; 87. Draped female statue (Roman portrait- 
figure; head ancient, but not belonging to this statue); 88. Attic 

Hall of Egypt' an i tibule. . Modern 

Incunab.l Hall 



182 Route 28. MUNICH. Qlyptothek. 

cinerary urn, with relief ; *89. Girl's head (Muse?), an admirable 
original of the Attic School (ca. 400 B.C.); 90. Colossal statue of 
Apollo Citharcedus ; 91. Head of Mors; *92. Pallas, Roman copy of 
a bronze original; 93. Statue of Diana, Roman. 

VI. Hall of Bacchus. In the centre : **95. Sleeping satyr, the 
'Barberini Faun', a Greek original (ca. 300 B. C. ; partly restored) ; 
*96.Eirene and Plutus, a copy of the bronze original by Cephisodotus 
the Elder, father of Praxiteles (beginning of the 4th cent. B. C.) ; 
97. Apollo; 98. Silenus, copy from a Greek original in bronze; *99. 
Head of a laughing satyr, after a bronze original; 100. Bacchanalian 
sarcophagus; upon it, 101. Sitting satyr, Roman copy of a Greek 
work in marble; *102. Young Pan with horns, known as 'Wiuckel- 
mann's Faun'; 103. Bacchus anointing himself; *105, 106. Satyrs, 
probably after Praxiteles; 108. Bacchus, late-Roman; 109. Satyr 
with a wine-skin, Roman copy of a Hellenistic bronze; 112. Ariadne; 
*113. Diana, restored by Thorwaldsen as Ceres; *114. Silenus with 
the young Bacchus, freely restored. By the wall to the left, 115. 
Nuptials of Neptune and Amphitrite, a Greek relief from the work- 
shop of Scopas (4th cent. B. C.). 

VII. Hall of the Children of Mobe. 123. Hermes, resembling the 
Hermes of Praxiteles ; 124, 129. Busts of Roma and Minerva with 
bronze helmet (modern); 125. Female figure in relief (Roman); 
127. Rustic scene, a Hellenistic relief; *12S. Head of Medusa ('Me- 
dusa Rondanini'), alto-relief; 130. Venus; *13i. Venus of Cnidos, 
after Praxiteles ; 136. Decoration of a herma, relief ; 135. Head of 
Paris; 138. Draped figure, restored by Thorwaldsen as Clio. In the 
centre, 140. Boy struggling with a goose, a Roman copy of the bronze 
original of Boethus; 141. Dying child ofNiobe; *142. Torso of a 
youth, an admirable Greek original of the 4th cent. B. C, formerly 
mistaken for llioneus (son of Niobe). 

VIII. Hall of the Gods. This and the next two rooms are adorned 
with beautiful *Frescoes by Cornelius, executed in 1820-30. The 
principal scenes are: 1. The infernal regions, Orpheus entreating 
Pluto and Proserpine to restore him his wife Eurydice ; 2. Marriage 
of Neptune and Amphitrite; Arion; Thetis; 3. Olympus; Jupiter 
and Juno; Hercules receives the cup of nectar from Hebe; Gany- 
mede and the eagle. On the vaults are the four Elements, the Seasons, 
and the Quarters of the Day. Over the doors reliefs by Schwan- 
thaler. — Small Vestibule. Minerva imparts a soul to the man formed 
by Prometheus; Prometheus released by Hercules; Pandora opens 
her casket. In the niches are Roman busts ; to the left, *147. Marcus 
Aurelius, in peperino 

IX. Hall of the Trojans. Frescoes : 1. QuaTrel of Achilles and 
Agamemnon over the abduction of Brise'is ; 2. Contest for the body 
of Patroclus ; 3. Destruction of Troy, with Priam, Hecuba, Cassandra, 
^Eneas, and Anchises. The nine smaller paintings on the ceiling 
represent episodes before and during the Trojan war. 

Glyptotheh. MUNICH. 25. Route. 183 

X. Hall of tlie Heroes. On the left: 152. .^Esculapius ; 153. Alex- 
ander the Great (much restored, arm wrongly) ; 155. Hippocrates (?) ; 
156. Hunter; 157. Pericles; 158. Domitian; 159. Themistocles (?); 
160. Statue of a Greek king, after an early- Attic original ; 162. Dio- 
medes carrying off the Palladium, after a Greek original in bronze 
(the Victory not part of the original); 163. Philosopher (Zeno ?) ; 
* 165. Athlete, probably a copy of an early-Attic original in the style 
of Myron; 166. Socrates; 149. Demosthenes; *151. (in the centre), 
Mercury, after a bronze original of the school of Lysippus (head not 
belonging to the statue). 

XI. Hall of the Romans (in three sections), with a valuable col- 
lection of busts, chiefly of the Roman Empire. Section 1 : to the 
left, *172. Unknown; 236. Tiberius; VIIIB. Messalina; *219, 183. 
Augustus; *216. Cicero (?); 181, 202. ISero; 261. Corbulo (?); 211. 
Maecenas (?) ; 187. Unknown; to the right, 272. Seneca (?); 271. 
Otho; 238. Vitellius (? modern). — Sec. 2: to the left, 211. Julia, 
daughter of Titus; 186. Vespasian; *268, 196. Trajan; *198. Anto- 
ninus Pius ; 199. Titus ; 217. Hadrian (?) ; 180. Lucius Verus ; 242. 
Marciana, sister of Trajan; 276. Plotina, wife of Trajan; 193. Mar- 
cus Aurelius; to the right, 237. Sabina (?), wife of Hadrian; 195. 
iElius Cresar (?) ; 256. Antinous. — Sec. 3: to the left, 245. Per- 
tinax; 220. Plautilla, wife of Caracalla; 194. Tranquillina, wife of 
Gordianus Pius; 240. Otacilia Severa, wife of Philippus Arabs; 200. 
Septimius Severus; 255. Commodus; EHB. Junius Brutus (?); to 
the right, 201. Geta (?); 182. Unknown; 231. Lucius Verus. — By 
the doors : 167-170. Four Caryatides, Roman. By the left wall : 
175. Statue of Agrippina the Elder, wife of Germanicus ; 188. Sar- 
cophagus with the Muses, Athena, and Apollo ; 192. Statue of Sep- 
timius Severus; 205. Sarcophagus with the children of Niobe; 206. 
Reliefs from a frieze, Victories sacrificing; 209. Augustus, 226. 
Livia Drusilla, wife of Augustus, statues. Wall to the right: 280. 
Statue of Lucilla (?), wife of Lucius Verus ; 264. Statue of a member 
of the Claudian family ; 246, 262, 277. Pulvinaria (seats of the gods), 
with appropriate attributes; 233. Statuette of Matidia, niece of 
Trajan, as Ceres. In the centre: 285. Boy with a goose, on a stand; 
286, 287. Candelabra; 288. Ornamental vase, with head of Medusa; 
no number, Intoxicated Roman woman. 

XII. Hall of the Coloured Sculptures. In the centre, 293. An- 
tique mosaic ; upon it, 294. Tripod, bearing (295.) a modern (?) 
statuette of Silenus in bronze. (1.) 298. Ceres (?), in black and 
white marble, freely restored; *299. Head of a satyr, in bronze ; 
300. River-god, in black marble ; 302. Head of an athlete, a fine 
bronze; 304. Girl loosening her robe, statuette in black and white 
marble, a good Roman work; 306. Alexander the Great (?), bronze ; 
309. Young satyr, in marble; 313. Claudius (?), bust; 314. Draped 
female statue, in bronze, a good Roman portrait-figure. 

XIII. HaU of Modern Masters. To the left, *318. Paris, by 

184 Route '28. MUNICH. Schack Gallery. 

Canova; 319. Sandal-tinder, R. Schadow; 320. Napoleon, bust by 
Spalla (1808); 321. Lewis I. when crown-prince (1821), bust by 
Thorwaldsen ; 322. Paris, Canova; 323. Cupid and Muse, Eberhurd; 
324. The Russian Marshal Miinnich, Eberhard; 325. Infant Christ 
kneeling, Algardi; *326. Admiral Tromp, bust by Rauch ; 327. Bar- 
barossa, bust by Tieck; 328. Bust of a young man (not Raphael), a 
good Florentine (?) terracotta of the close of the 15th cent. ; 329. 
Iffland, bust by 0. Schadow; *336. Statue of Adonis, Thorwaldsen; 

330. Elector Palatine Frederick the Victorious, bust by Dannecker; 

331. General von Heydeck, bust by Wolf; 332. Count Stolberg, bust 
by Freund; 333. Vittoria Caldoni, 'the beauty of Albano', bust by 
R. Schadow; 334. Catharine II. of Russia, bust by Busch; no num- 
ber, Abel, bronze figure by Carles; 335. Vesta, marble statue by 
Tenerani. In the centre : Ludovica, Duchess of Bavaria, monumental 
iigure by Riimann; Motherhood, marble group by Flossmann. 

The Exhibition Building (PI. C, 3), opposite the Glyptothek, in 
the Corinthian style, was completed by Ziebland in 1845. In the 
tympanum is Bavaria, bestowing wreaths on artists, by Schwanthaler. 
It contains a permanent exhibition of works by Munich artists 
(p. 142), most of which are for sale. 

The handsome Kbnigs-Platz is appropriately terminated by the 
*Propylaea (PI. C, 3), a magnificent gateway , with Doric columns 
outside , and Ionic inside , designed by Klenze , and completed in 
1862. The reliefs by Schefzky (after Hiltensperger) represent scenes 
from the Greek War of Independence and the re'gime of King Otho. 
On the inner walls are inscribed the names of the heroes of the war 
and of famous philhellenists. — On the day after its inauguration 
(30th Oct., 1862) the ex-monarch of Greece (d. 1867) returned to 
his native city. — From the Propylsea to the Basilica and to the 
Crystal Palace, see p. 187. 

The * Schack Picture Gallery, Aeussere Brienner-Str. 19 (PI. 
C, 3; adm., see p. 143; catalogue 50 pf., bound 1 Jf), bequeathed 
by Count Adolf von Schack (d. 1894), the poet, to the German 
Emperor, consists of choice modern works of German masters, such 
as Genelli, Schwind, Feuerbach, and Bbcklin, and of copies (often 
admirable) of the great Italian and Spanish masters by Lenbach and 
others. It forms a valuable complement to the New Pinakothek. 

Ground Floor. Opposite the entrance: Seeboeck, Bust of Count 
Schack. — Room I. To the left: Bocklin, 12. Ideal landscape; 25. 
Autumn-landscape, with Death on horseback; 26. Italian villa in 
spring; *17. The shepherd's complaint; *18. Murderer pursued 
by the Furies; 23. Sacred grove; 14. Pan frightening a shepherd; 
: -'15, 16. Villa on the sea; 21. Ideal landscape in spring. *71. Len- 
bach, Shepherd-boy; 60. L. von Hagn, Italian garden-scene; *1. Bam- 
berger, Gibraltar ; 95. Neubert, Olevano, in the Sabine Mountains ; 
112. Ross, Grotto of Egeria ; 93. Feuerbach, Laura at mass at Avig- 
non, watched by Petrarch ; *3. Bamberger, The bridge of St. Miguel, 

Schack Gallery. MUNICH. 28. Route. 185 

near Toledo; 164. SpUzweg, Hypochondriac; 6. Bamberger, Scene 
near Granada; 172. Steinle, The -watchman; ill. Schleich, Night 
scene at Venice ; 77. Lenbach, Portrait of a Franciscan ; 7. Bamberger, 
Lake of Albufera near Valencia; 118, 119. Rotlmann, Roman scenes; 
*31. Dreber, Sappho. — End-wall: Preller, 104. Ulysses andLeuco- 
thea, 1C5. Calypso bidding farewell to Ulysses; Morgenstern, 91. Coast 
of Capri, 90. Tasso's house at Sorrento. Above the door: *78. Len- 
lach, Portrait of Count Schack. — Eight wall: 42. Ftuerbach, Idyl 
from Tivoli; 72. Lenbach, Portrait of a lady; 38. Feuerbach, Madonna 
and Child with angels; 28. Boheim, Two satyrs pursuing a hare; 
177. Rottmann, Greek coast -with iising storm; 186. Zimmermann, 
Lake of Como; *40. Ftuerbach, Haflz at the fountain; 68. Kbbel, 
Egeria's grotto, near Rome; 121. Schleich, The Lake of Starnberg; 
•61. Henneberg, The Wild Huntsman; 87. Millner, The Obersee, near 
Berchtesgaden; 35. Feuerbach, Francesca da Rimini and Paolo, 37. 
Children bathing, *34. Pieta, 33. Roman woman, 32. The garden of 
Ariosto, 36. Nymph listening to children performing music; Bbcklin, 
19. The dragon's cave, 24. Old Roman tavern in spring, *22. Ideal 
landscape with the journey to Emmaus, 27. Nereid and Triton, 13. 
The anchorite, 20. Shepherdess with her flock; 41. Feuerbach, Mother 
and children at a well. — Room II. Copies of Giov. Bellini, Titian, 
Palma Vecchio, Veronese, etc., by A. Wolf. 

Fibst Floob. Room I. M. von Schwind (to the left), 137. TheErl- 
king; 143. Forest-chapel; 146. Morning-prayer; (to the right) 158. 
The captive's dream; 135. Nymphs watering a stag; *139. The wed- 
ding-trip; 151. Number Nip. - — To the right, Room II. (right), 
M. von Schwind, 147. Duel by night; 160. Hero and Leander; *129. 
Count Gleich en returning from the Crusades; 153. Father Rhine; 
154. The Danube. 174. Steinle, Lorelei (first sketch of No. 175, see 
below) ; 48. Genelli, Ezekiel's vision. — To the left, Room HI. M. von 
Schwind, 130-133. Morning, Noon, Evening, Night; 150. "Wieland 
the Smith; 161. Hermit in a rock grotto. — Room IV. *Copies from 
Titian, Giorgione, Murillo, Velazquez, Rubens, etc., by Lenbach; 
to the left of the door, 73. Lenbach, Portrait of himself. — RoomV. 
175. Steinle, Lorelei; 123. Schleich, Alp in the Zillerthal ; 76. Len- 
bach, The Tocador de la Reina at the Alhambra ; 106. Rahl, Portrait 
of Willers, the landscape-painter; 173. Steinle, Tartini playing the 
violin on a tower of ; 84. H. von Maries, "Watering horses ; 109. 
Rahl, Portrait of a woman; 185. Zimmermann, Brocken Scene from 
Goethe's Faust; 64. Kirchner, Verona ; Genelli, *49. Rape of Europa, 
*52. Lycurgus fighting with Bacchus and Bacchantes ; 179. Wilkrs, 
Athens ; *103. K. von Piloty, Columbus discovering the New World ; 
107. Rahl, Portrait of an old man; 59. Hagn, Garden of the Villa 
Colonna, at Rome; 55. Bamberger, The Generalifeb, near Granada; 
182. A. Wolf, Lovers in a garden at Venice; 115. Rottmann, Greek 
landscape; 85. Marshall, Tartini's dream ; 171. Stange, Piazza at 
Venice in moonlight. — End-wall: <! 62. Hess, Thorwaldsen; 163. 

186 Route 28 MUNICH. Brome Foundry. 

Spitzweg, Serenade; 51. Gene'li, Abraham receiving the news of 
Isaac's birth; 88. B. Morgenstem, Heligoland ; 187. B. Zimmermann, 
Winter-scene by night ; 5. Bamberger, Evening-glow in the Sierra 
Nevada; *50. Genelli, Hercules and Omphale; 2. Bamberger, To- 
ledo; 74. Lenbach, View of the Vega, from the Torre de las Infan- 
tas at Granada; 29. Catel, The theatre of Taormina; 113. Rottmann, 
The Kochelsee; *81. W. Lindenschmit, The fisherman (Goethe); 
53. Genelli, Bacchus and the Muses; 176. Steinle, Adam and Eve; 
75. Lenbach, The Alhambra; *53a. Genelli, Composition for the 
curtain of a theatre; 69. A. Kraus, The Troubadour; 167. Spitzweg, 
Hermit; 114. Rottmann, The Hintersee, near Berchtesgaden ; 54. 
Gerhard, Lion Court at the Alhambra by moonlight; 166. Spitzweg, 
Turkish coffee-house; 116. Rottmann, The spring of Calirrhoe, near 
Athens; 128. Schweinfurth, Landscape from the environs of Cerve.tri, 
near Rome ; 92. Muhr, Gipsies ; 66. L. von Klenze, Interior of a Sara- 
cenic chateau near Amalfi ; 126. Schnorr von KaroUfeld, The Erl- 
king; *168. Spitzweg, Herd-girls on an alp; 79. Lenbach, Portrait of 
Count Schack; *30. P. von Cornelius, Flight into Egypt (of his early 
Roman period ; the landscape in the background is painted by J. A. 
Koch); 67 J. A. Koch, Lime-kiln near Olevano. — Room VI (lighted 
from above). Copies of Bellini, Titian. Michael Angelo, Velazquez, 
etc., by Linhart, Maries, Schwarzer, Wolf, and others. 

We now return to Room IV and descend the stairs to the right. 
Room I. (to the left) 94. Naue, Return of Kallias and Arete from 
the battle of Salamis (after Count Schack's poem 'The Pleiades'); 
Neureuther, 97. The nun (from Uhland), 99. Madonna, 101. Dream 
of Rezia (from Wieland's Oberon); 46. Fiihrich, Introduction of 
Christianity into ancient Germany; 180. Wislicenus, Fancy borne by 
the Dreams; 11. Bode, Legend of Charlemagne's birth; 47. Fiihrich, 
Death of St. John Nepomuk; Copies of Titian, P. Veronese, Cor- 
reggio, and Seb. del Piombo, by Wolf. — Room II. (to the left), 184. 
A. Zimmermann, Golgothaatthe time of the Crucifixion; 170. Stange, 
The evening-bell; 162. Sidorouicz, Evening-scene; Neureuther, *98. 
Reminiscences of the Villa Mills at Rome, 96. Festival in honour of 
Cornelius, 102. Reminiscence of Villa Malta at Rome; 181. Wolf, 
Venetian banquet; 8. M. von Beckernth, Burial of Alaric, King of 
the Goths, in the river Busento; 198. Zu-engauer, The Kochelsee; 
93. Naue, The Swan Maiden ; 169. Stademann, Winter-scene. Copies 
from Venetian masters, by Wolf and others. 

The Bronze Foundry (PI. B, 1 ; adm., see p. 142; tramway-line 
3, p. 140), in the Erzgiesserei-Str., enjoys a high reputation. Found- 
ed in 1825 by Stiglmayer (d. 1844), it was afterwards managed by his 
nephew Ferd. von Miller, and now belongs to the sons of the latter. 
The Museum contains the original models of most of the statues cast 
here, including the head of the Germania on the Niederwald Mon- 
ument. — A few paces to the N.W., in the Ferdinand-Miller-Platz 
(PI. B, 1), is the new Church of St. Benno, in the Romanesque style. 

Royal Arsenal MUNICH. 28. Route. 187 

Farther to the N.W., on the road to Dachau, i/ 2 M - beyond the 
terminus of tramway-lino 3 in the Stiglmayer-Platz, is the Zeug- 
haus or Royal Argenal, with the Military Museum (arms, banners, 
uniforms, etc. ; 15-19th cent. ; adm., see p. 142; catalogue 80 pf.). 

In front of the building are 22 cannons and 4 mortars, several of 
them with elaborate ornamentation. In the i:ourt are French field-pieces, 
naval guns, and mitrailleuses. — Room I. Head-pieces, helmets, and other 
objects from the time of Charles Theodore to the present day. The glass- 
cases contain early implements for artillery and models. In the middle, 
Bavarian, Franconian, and Swabian banners. — Room II. Flags, weapons, 
and armour of the 16-17th centuries. Rich collection of pikes, halberds, 
pole-axes, etc. — Room III. Objects of the end of the 17th and the 18th 
century. Trophies of the Turkish wars, including the tent of Grand-Vizier 
Suleyman, captured in 1687 at Mohacs by the Elector Max Emmanuel. 
Bavarian military types of the 18th century. — Room IV (19th cent.). 
Trophies of the Napoleonic wars and of 1870-71. Models of muskets, 
rifles, and cannon, collection of gun-locks and pistols; orders, medals, 
presentation swords, uniforms of Bavarian rulers and generals. — Room V. 
Collection of the modern weapons of different countries, either in use or 
projected; collection of munitions of war, bullets, cartridges, and cannon- 
balls. Portfolios and albums with over 3000 portraits of distinguished 
military men, pictures of uniforms, etc. — On the staircase and throughout 
the different rooms are the original plaster models of statues of Bavarian 
rulers, executed in the reign of King Maximilian II. 

Beyond the Arsenal lie the Military Hospital, the Maximilian Bar- 
racks, and the Artillery Work-Shops. — Other large military struc- 
tures have recently been erected in the Marsfeld (PI. A, 2, 3), to 
the W. of the Stiglmayer-Platz (see above). Among these are the 
buildings of the Corps of Cadets (facade 735 ft. long), in the Mars- 
Platz ; the Military School, in the Blutenburger-Str. ; and the Military 
Academy, in the Pappenheimer-Str., the last with a collection of 
weapons and models on the first floor. 

The *Basilica of St. Boniface (PI. 0, 3; adm., see p. 143), an ad- 
mirable imitation of an early-Christian Italian basilica of the 5th or 
6th cent., designed by Ziebland, was completed in 1850. Nave 75 ft., 
four aisles 41 ft. in height. The sixty-six columns are monoliths of 
grey Tyrolese marble with bases and capitals of white marble. Open 
timber roof, richly gilded. 

On the right of the entrance is a sarcophagus of gray marble, the 
burial-place of Lewis I. (d. 1868) and his queen Theresa (d. 1854). The 
choir, the side-altars, the spaces between the windows, and the walls of the 
nave are decorated with fine frescoes by H. ton Hess and his pupils Schrau- 
dolph and Koch: scenes from the life of St. Boniface and Bavarian saints, 
Madonna enthroned, Stoning of St. Stephen, etc. Above the columns in 
the nave, between the arches, are thirty-four medallion-portraits of the 
popes from Julius III. to Gregory XVI. — Adjoining the choir of the church 
is a Benedictine monastery, with a fresco of the "Holy Eucharist, by //. 
von Hess, in the refectory. 

The Botanic Garden (PI. C, 3, 4; adm., see p. 142), opposite the 
Basilica, contains a large fresh-water aquarium (Victoria Regia, etc.), 
a palm-house, botanical museum, etc. — In the Sophien-Str. is 
the Crystal Palace (PI. C, 4 ; 256 yds. long ; central part 75 ft. 
high), erected in 1854, used for exhibitions and festivities. [Annual 
Exhibition of Art, see p. 142.) — A little to the S. are the Courts 

188 Route 28. MUNICH. Marien- Plats. 

of Law and the Karls-Platz (p. 190). To the E., at the corner of the 
Arco-Str. and the Barer-Str., is the bronze * Monument of F. X. Oa- 
belsberger (d. 1849), inventor of a -well-known system of stenography, 
by Eberle (1890). From this point we proceed to the E. to the — 

Maximilians-Platz (PI. D, 4), the pleasure-grounds of which 
were laid out by K. von Effner. In the middle stands the *liebig 
Monument, by Wagmtiller and Biimann, erected in 1883. The 
seated marble figure of the great chemist (1805-73) rests upon a 
pedestal of grey granite with laurel-wreaths and marble reliefs. 
Adjacent are a marble bench with a Bust of Effner (1886) and the 
Herma of a Satyr by Gasteiger (1894). 

At the S.W. end of the grounds rises the handsome *Wittelsbach 
Fountain by Hildelrandt (1895), with groups emblematical of the 
destructive and fertilizing powers of water and masks symbolizing 
its different 'temperaments'. — To the W., opposite the fountain, 
is the Bemheimer Haus, a fine baroque edifice by Thiersch (1890). 
To the S., at the corner of the Pfandhaus-Str., is the Herzog-Max- 
Burg, built about 1580, now occupied by the military authorities 
and the commission for extinguishing the national debt. 

To the E. of the Liebig Monument (Pranner-Str. 20) is the Land- 
tagsgebdude (PI. E, 4), or house of the Diet, remodelled in 1885 in 
the German Renaissance style. — In the Pfandhaus-Str. (see above; 
No. 7) is the Kunstgewerbehaus (PI. T>, 4; adm., see p. 142), 
built in 1877 in the Renaissance style, with a facade by Knob and 
Voit and a fine exhibition-hall. The handsome banquet-hall, design- 
ed by B. Gedon, is adorned with paintings by F. A. Kaulbach. 

ThePfandhaus-Strasse ends atthePromenade-Platz (Pl.D, E,4), 
in which are five bronze statues. In the middle is Elector Max 
Emmanuel (1679-1726), conqueror of Belgrade, by Brugger (1861). 
To the right are Westenrieder (1748-1829), the historian, by Widn- 
mann (1854), and Gluck (1714-87), the composer, by Brugger; to 
the left are Kreittmayr (1705-90), the statesman, by Schwanthaler 
(1845), and Orlando di Lasso (1520-94), the composer (properly 
Roland de Lattres, of the Netherlands), byWidnmann. — The Hart- 
mann-Strasse leads to the S. from the Promenade -Platz to the 
Erauenkirche (p. 190). The Maffei-Str. leads to the E. to the busy 
Theatiner-Str., whence we may follow either the Perusa-Str. to the 
N.E. to the Max-Joseph-Platz (p. 145), or the Wein-Str. to the S. 
to the Marien-Platz. 

The Marien-Platz (PI. E, 5), the centre of oldMunich, is adorned 
with a Column of the Madonna, erected in 1638 by Elector Maxi- 
milian I. from a design by Peter Candid, to commemorate the victory 
on the "Weisse Berg near Prague. Enthroned on the column is the 
Virgin , the tutelary saint of Bavaria ; four genii at the corners 
contend against a viper, a basilisk, a lion, and a dragon (plague, 
war, famine, and heresy). 

Rathhaus. MUNICH. 28. Route. 189 

The Old Rathhaua (PI. E, 5), on the E. side of the Platz, dates 
from the 14th cent, and was restored in 1865. The tower, under 
which runs the road to the Thai (p. 165), is adorned with stereo- 
chromatic paintings by Seitz. The gables in front bear zinc statues of 
Henry the Lion and Lewis the Bavarian. The great hall, recently re- 
stored, contains old standards and ensigns of the Munich guilds. — 
On the N. side of the Platz is the *New Rathhaus (PI. 85). a Gothic 
edifice by Hauberrisser (1867-74). The facade towards the Marien- 
Platz is 156 ft., that towards the Diener-Strasse 230 ft. long. The 
central part of the former, in sandstone, 57 ft. wide, has a balcony 
in three sections on the second story, terminating in a lofty gable, 
and embellished with statues of the four Civic Virtues by A. Hess. 

Below the portal, to the left, are two tablets, with handsome bronze 
trophies, in memory of citizens who fell in the war of 1870-71. On the 
second floor are the Council Chambers, on the left that of the town-council, 
on the right that of the magistrates (adm., see p. 143). In the former, 
filling the whole wall, is a large allegorical painting of 'Munichia' by 
K. von Piloty, illustrating the history of Munich (explanation of the por- 
traits on the table); also portraits of Lewis II. by F. Piloty and Prince 
Regent Luitpold by Kaulbach. The 'Magistrates' Room is adorned with a 
mural painting by W. Lindenschmil (progress of Munich under Lewis I.) 
and admirable stained-glass windows by R. Seitz (nine departments of civic 
administration). Portraits of Prince Regent Luitpold by Holmberg and 
Lewis II. by Lenbach. Bust of Burgomaster von Ehrhardt (d. 1888), by 
F. ton Miller. Splendid carved timber ceiling; fine mantel-piece and chan- 

To the left of the portal is the Hauptwache or guard-house. In the 
sunk-floor (entrance in the Diener-Str.) is the Rathskeller (p. 13S). 

In front of the Rathhaus rises the *Fischbrunnen, in bronze, 
by Knoll (1865). The figures allude to an old Munich custom called 
the 'Metzgersprung' (p. 142). 

A few yards to the S.E. of the Marien-Platz is the Church of 
St. Peter (PI. E, 5), of 1170, the oldest in Munich, but repeatedly 
restored and modernized. To the original building belongs the 
Romanesque tower (p. 126 ; fine view from the gallery). Altar- 
pieces by Sandrart, Loth, etc. ; fine organ by Abt Vogler. 

The Thai leads from the Marien-Platz to the S.E. to the Lud- 
wigs-Brucke and the suburbs of Haidhausen and Au (pp. 157, 192), 
while the Kauflnger-Str. andNeuhauser-Str. lead to the N.W. to the 
Karlsthor and the Central Railway Station (tramway-line 5, p. 140). 
To the right is the Frauen- Platz, with the — 

*Frauenkirche (PI. E, 5), or Church of Our Lady, cathedral of 
the Archbishopric of Munich and Freising, a brick edifice (320 ft. 
long, 117 ft. broad; vaulting 108 ft. high) in the late-Gothic style, 
erected by Jbrg Oangkofer in 1468-88 and restored in 1858-68. The 
two uncompleted towers, 318 ft. high, were covered at the begin- 
ning of the 16th cent, with clumsy helmet-shaped roofs (ascent, see 
p. 142). On the outside walls of the church are many ancient tomb- 

Intekiok (adm., see p. 143; music, see p. 143). The nave and aisles 
are of equal height, borne by twenty-two slender octagonal pillars; rich 

190 Route 28. MUNICH. Acad, of Science. 

groined vaulting. The windows, each 65 ft. high, are filled with fine stained 
glass, including the remains (sometimes wrongly arranged) of the old glaz- 
ing of the 15-16th centuries. The high-altar-piece shows the Coronation of 
Mary, in carved wood, by Knabl, and paintings on the wings by Sehwind. 
The archiepiscopal throne and pulpit, a modern continuation of the an- 
cient choir-stalls, are by Knabl. Most of the modern side-altars are by 
Sickinger, the statues by L. Foltz. Above the choir-stalls are carved wooden 
figures of the 15th cent. (Apostles and Prophets). — The large Turkjsh 
flag on a pillar of the nave (1.) was captured by Elector Max Emmanuel at 
Belgrade in 1688. — At the W. end of the nave, under the organ-loft, is 
the " Monument of Emp. Lewis the Bavarian (d. 1347), erected in 1622 by 
Elector Maximilian I. (designed by P. Candid, cast by H. Krumper), a cata- 
falque in dark marble, with figures and decorations in bronze ; four knights 
at the corners guard the tomb; at the side are statues of the Wittelsbach 
princes Albert V. and William V. ; an admirable brass of the 15th cent, is 
inserted in the pedestal, which is open at the sides. Behind this mon- 
ument, opposite a relief-monument of Bishop Gebsattel (d. 1846) by Schwan- 
thaler, is a spot from which none of the thirty windows of the church are 
visible except the great window behind the altar. 

At the corner of the Neuhauser-Str. and the Ett-Str. rises the 
Church of St. Michael [Hofkirche; PI. D, 5; adm., see p. 143), 
formerly a church of the Jesuits, erected in 1583-97 in the Roman 
baroque style, with grand barrel-vaulting. The front is adorned 
with a St. Michael in bronze, by Hub. Oerhard. The transept con- 
tains the *Monument of Eugene Beauharnais (d. 1824), Duke of 
Leuchtenberg, and once vice-king of Italy, by Thorwaldsen. In the 
royal burial-vault under the choir reposes Lewis II. (d. 1886). 
Church-music, see p. 141. 

The old Jesuits' College, adjoining St. Michael's, contains the 
Academy of Science (PI. D, 5), with its valuable collections (adm., 
see p. 142). 

The "Palaeontological Collection, under the direction of Prof. Dr. Zittel, 
is probably the most complete in Europe (nine rooms); the specimens 
fro n the animal kingdom are arranged zoologically, those of plants geo- 
logically. The Prehistoric Collection contains many objects of the stone 
period and interesting relics of lake-dwellings from the Starnberger-See and 
Kobenhausen. The "Collection of Minerals also deserves inspection. The 
Zoological- Zooiomical Collection includes animals both stuffed and preserved 
in spirits. The Collection of Physical and Optical Instruments is interesting, 
especially to the scientific visitor. Of ancient Greek coins alone the Cabinet 
of Coins contains 20,000. 

The Academy also contains an Exhibition of Bavarian Exports 

The narrow Herzog-Max-Strasse, at the end of the Neuhauser- 
Strasse, leads to the right to the Synagogue (PI. D, 4; adm., see 
p. 143), built in the Romanesque style by Alb. Schmidt, in 1884-87. 
— The Neuhauser-Str. ends in the Karlsthor (PI. D, 5). Outside 
the gate is the Karls-Platz, on the right side of which is the Hotel 
Bellevue (p. 137), embellished with frescoes by C. Schraudolph. 
Adjacent, to the N., at the corner of the Prielmaier-Str. and the 
Elisen-Str. , are the new Courts of Justice (PI. C, D, 4), by Thiersch. 
Nearly opposite, at the corner of the Maximilians-Platz, is a Statue 
of Goethe, by "Widnmann (1869). — Botanic Garden, see p. 187. 

From the Karls-Platz the broad Sonnen-Strasse , planted with 

Bavaria. MUNICH. 28. Route. 191 

trees, runs to the S. to the Sendlinger-Thor-Platz. At the beginning 
of it is the Protestant Church of St. Matthew (PI. C, 5), an un- 
attractive circular building (1827-32), open only on Sundays during 
service (at 8, 10, and 3). The ceiling is adorned with an Ascension 
by Hermann of Dresden. — To the E., Herzogspital-Str. 18, is the 
University Ophthalmic Institute. 

The Schwanthaler Museum (PI. 0,5 ; adm., see p. 143), Schwan- 
thaler-Str. 90, contains models of almost all the works of the talented 
and prolific sculptor Ludwig von Schwanthaler (d. 1848), bequeathed 
by him to the Academy of Art. Catalogue 30 pf. 

In the Sonnen-Strasse are the new Volks-Theater (PI. C, D, 5 ; 
p. 141 ; No. 5, to the left), the Reisingerianum (University Clinical 
Institute ;• No. 17, to the right), and the Frauenklinik or Gynaeco- 
logical Institute (PL C, 6; No. 16). 

In the Sendlinger-Thor-Platz (PI. C, 6) are the old Send- 
linger Thor (14th cent.) and a colossal bust of Alois Senefelder 
(d. 1834), the inventor of lithography, by Zumbusch (1877). — 
The busy Sendlinger - Strasse leads hence to the N., passing the 
St. Johanniskirche (PI. D, 6 : 1733-46), to the Marien-Platz (p. 188), 
while the Thalkirchner-Strasse (electric tramway, p. 140) runs to the 
S. to the Southern Cemetery (p. 192) and to the large municipal 
Slaughter House and Cattle Market (PI. B, C, 8; adm., p. 143), 
erected by Zenetti in 1876-78. Beyond these are the South Railway 
Station (Pl.B, 9) and the IsarRailway Station (PI. B, 10, ll;p.l94). 

To the S.W. of the Sendlinger-Thor-Platz are the large General 
Hospital (1813) and the Institute of Clinical Medicine. In the 
grounds in front is a marble bust of T. N. von Nussbaum, the 
surgeon (1829-90). —Adjacent, in the Nussbaum-Str., are the new 
Clinical Institute of Surgery (PL C, 6) and the Pathological and 
Pharmacological Institutes. — To the N. (Schiller-Str. 25) is the 
Anatomical Institute, with important anatomical and pathological 
collections (adm., see p. 142). In the Findling-Str. (Nos. 12 & 34) 
are the Physiological and Hygienic Institutes. 

The Findling-Str. ends at the Theresienwiese (PI. A, 6, 7), 
the scene of the October Festival (p. 142), which has recently been 
much diminished by the construction of new streets. On the N.E. 
side are the new Church of St. Paul (PI. A, B, 5) and a Panorama 
(PI. A, 5; p. 143). 

The *Bavaria and Hall of Fame (Ruhmeshalle ; PI. A, 7) lie on 
the W. side of the Theresienwiese, li/ 4 M. to the S.W. of the Karls- 
thor (tramway-line 2, p. 140; adm., see p. 142). The colossal statue 
of Bavaria, in bronze, designed by Schwanthaler, measures 62 ft. to 
the top of the wreath which the figure holds aloft. The ascent, by 
an iron spiral staircase of sixty steps, is most comfortably made 
early in the morning, before the metal has been heated by the sun. 
*View in clear weather through apertures in the head (room for 5 
persons). — The Hall of Fame, a Doric colonnade with projecting 

102 Routed. MUNICH. Mariahilfkirche. 

wings, designed byKlenze, and completed in 1853, contains busts of 
eighty Bavarian notabilities, among them Francis von Sickingen, 
Jean Paul Richter, Schwanthaler, the philosopher Schelling,Klenze, 
Cornelius, etc. (custodian's fee for the statue and the hall, 40 pf.). 
Adjoining the Ruhmeshalle is a public Park. 

Towards the E. from one ivIarien-Platz (p. 188) we pass through 
an archway under the tower of the OldRathhaus (p. 189), and enter 
the broad street called the Thai. On the right, at the beginning of it, 
rises the Church of the Holy Ghost , rebuilt in 1885-87 , beyond 
which lies the Provision Market (PI. E, 5, 6). Beyond the latter is 
the spacious Corn Hall (Schranne ; PI. D, E, 6), built in 1853. In 
the St-Jakobs-Platz (PL D, E, 6), between the Corn Hall and the 
Sendlinger-Str., is the Landwehr Arsenal, containing the Municipal 
Historical Museum and the Maillinger Art - Historical Collection, 
illustrative of the history of Munich (adin., see p. 143). 

At the E. end of the Thai is the *Isarthor (PI. F, 6), erected at 
the beginning of the 14th cent, and restored by Lewis I. in 1835. 
The pediment is adorned with a fresco by Neher, representing the 
Entry of Emp. Lewis the Bavarian after the Battle of Ampflng (1831 ; 
spoiled in 1881 by an attempt at restoration). In the Zweibriicken- 
Str., beyond the gate, on the right, are the Heavy Cavalry Barracks, 
on the bank of the Isar. Opposite is the new Steinsdorf-Strasse (see 
p. 156). The Ludwigs-Brilcke (PI. G, 6, 7), farther on, affords a 
good survey of the Maximilians-Briicke and the Maximilianeum. 
The bridge was remodelled in 1891-94 and furnished with allegorical 
figures of industry and trade (by Eberle), fishing (by Hahn), and 
art (by Kaufmann). 

In the suburb of Au (PI. F, G, 7, 8) are numerous beer-gardens 
(comp. p. 138). The *Mariahilfkirche (PI. F, 8), or Auer-Kirche, 
was erected in 1830-39 by Ohlmuller and Ziebland in the earliest 
Gothic style. Tower 260 ft. high. *Stained glass designed by Schrau- 
dolph, Fischer, and others. — Farther to the S., in the suburb of 
Giesing, is the *6iesinger Kirche, a Gothic building erected by 
Dollmann in 1866-84, with a tower 315 ft. high and an elaborately 
decorated interior. A little to the E. is the new Eastern or Central 

From the Auer Kirche we return into the town by the Reichen- 
bach Bridge (PI. E, 8; tramway-line 7, p. 140). In the Gartner- 
Platz (PL E, 6, 7), with statues of Gartner (d. 1847) and Klenze 
(d. 1864), the chief architects of modern Munich (see p. 145), is 
the Gartner-Platz Theatre (p. 141). — With a visit to Giesing may 
be combined an excursion to the Isarauen (p. 193), or we may drive 
hence to the Southern Cemetery (p. 192; tramway-line 8, p. 140). 

The *Southern Cemetery (PI. C, D, 7, 8) of Munich , outside 
the Sendlinger-Thor (p. 191), contains the finest and most artistic 
tombstones in Germany. 

English Garden. MUNICH. 28. Route. 193 

Among the illustrious dead may be mentioned Fraunhofer, the astro- 
nomer (d 1826; arcade, W. side), Senef elder, inventor of lithography (d. 
1831; E. aide, by the wall), Neumann, the historian (d. 1870; central 
walk), and P. von Bess, the painter (d. 1871 ; central walk). 

On the S. side, from the arcades, we enter the New Cemetery 
(PI. C, 8), inclosed with arcades in red brick. The first graves on 
the right and left are those of Ludwig von Schwanthaler (d. 1848) 
and Fr. von Gartner (d. 1847), the two greatest contributors to the 
splendour of modern Munich. Many other eminent men are also 
interred here. The centre *Crucifix is by Halbig. 

The Northern Cemetery, in the Arcis-Strasse (p. 180 ; PI. D, 1), 
not far from the New Pinakothek, laid out by Zenetti in 1866-69, con- 
tains a monument erected by the city to the German soldiers who 
died of their wounds at Munich in 1870-71, and also a monument 
to French prisoners buried here during the same period. In the 
centre is another marble *Crucifix by Halbig. 

Environs. The *English Garden (PI. F, G, H, 1, 2, 3), a park 
of 600 acres, originally laid out by Count Rumford, with fine old 
trees, and watered by two arms of the Isar, affords delightful walks 
in summer. At the entrance between the Hofgarten and the Prinz- 
Regenten-Str. (p. 149) is a marble statue known as the 'Harmlos', 
from the first word of the inscription, by Xaver Schwanthaler (re- 
newed in 1890). Farther on, by the Brunnhaus, is an artificial cas- 
cade. Then, on the right, the Dianabad. To the left, on a height, 
rises the Monopteros, a small temple designed by Klenze ; then the 
Chinese Tower (cafe ; music, see p. 125) and the little lake of Klein- 
hesselohe (restaurant), used for boating. The Milchhausl and the 
Tivoli, farther on, are both cafes. At the N. end is the Aumeister, 
a forester's house with a restaurant. 

To the E. of the park is the Max-Joseph-Brucke, leading across 
the Isar Canal and the Isar to Bogenhausen (PI. I, 2; Inn), on the 
right bank of the Isar, near which is the Observatory (adm., see 
p. 143). From the Brunnthal, a health institute with a shady coffee- 
garden, to the right of the bridge, the charming Gasteig-Anlagen 
extend to the Ludwigs-Briicke (p. 192). 

On the left bank of the Isar, above the Reichenbach bridge (PI. E, 8 ; 
p. 192), begin the 'Isarauen, through which a road leads, crossing the 
ffberfalle or weirs, to the right bank of the Isar (fine view of ThalHrchen, 
see below). Then, to the right, we enter the Marienilause, ascend the steps, 
and follow the bank through fine wood to the (l J /2 hr.) Menterschwaige 
and to Grosshesselohe. 

Grosshesselohe, 7 M. from Munich, is reached by railway in 12-20 min.; it 
is also a station of the Isarthal Railway (see p. 194). From the Main Railway 
Station (p. 137) we cross the handsome bridge over the Isar to (1 M.) the 
Menterschwaige (Restaurant). The bridge affords a good view of Munich, 
with the deep and broad valley of the Isar below. — Pleasant walk to the 
Grosshesselohe Restaurant, ascending from the station by a path to the 
left on the left bank (10 min.) ; thence through wood to the P/4 hr.) little 
chateau of Schwanegg , erected by Schwanthaler (private property, not 
accessible) ; >/4 hr. farther on is Pullach (p. 194). We now descend to (7s hr.) 
Hiillriegelskrent (Inn), on the Isar, and return by the romantic lower path 

Baedeker's S. Germany. 8th Edit. 13 

194 Route 28. NYMPHENBURG. 

along the river (not advisable in wet weather), traversing fine beech-woods 
and ascending to the station near the Grosshesselohe bridge. Or from Hbll- 
riegelskreut we may cross the river by a wire-rope ferry to the old ducal 
hunting-lodge of Grunwald (Inn, with view), and follow the right bank to 
(1 hr.) the bridge. 

Nymphenburg, founded in 1663 , and once a favourite chateau of 
Max Joseph I., 3 M. to the W. of Munich (cab, see p. 140; steam-tramway, 
see p. 140), has well-kept grounds, two fountains 100 ft. high, and fine hot- 
houses (numerous Brazilian plants). In the central part of the chateau 
tickets are issued (9-11 and 1-5) for the Nymphenburg itself (uninteresting), 
and for the Pagodenburg, Amalienburg, and Badenburg (50 pf. ; park free). 
In the nearer part of the park are the Magdalen Chapel, built to imitate a 
ruin, and the Pagodenburg, farther to the W., on a small pond. In the 
farther part of the park are the Amalienburg, a pretty Renaissance struc- 
ture by Cuvillier (1737), the Badenburg (1718), on a large pond, and a cir- 
cular Corinthian temple. — At the terminus of the tramway is the "Volkt- 
garten, with a restaurant, a small zoological garden, concerts, etc. Near 
the chateau, on the left, is the Restaurant zum Controlor. On the N.E. 
side of the chateau is a Porcelain Manufactory, formerly belonging to the 
king, now in private hands. In the O/2 M.) Deer Park (Restaurant) are 
kept tame stags and white deer. 

The chateau of Schleissheim (Schlosswirth ; Blauer Karpfen; Traveller's 
Some; Restaurant zum Bergl, l ! /2 M. from the Schloss), a station on the 
Ratisbon railway (p. 136, reached in 20-30 min.), erected by Elector Max 
Emmanuel at the end of the 17th cent., possesses a pleasant garden, a 
picture-gallery, etc. (in the lower rooms, early German and Italian masters, 
open 11-12.30; in the upper, Dutch, etc., open 3-5). 

From Munich to Wolfratshaosen, 17 M., Isarthal Railway in 1 hr. 7min. 
(best views to the left). The trains start from the Isarthal Station (PI. B, 
10, 11 ; p. 137), reached from the Farbergraben in 1 /t hr. by electric tram- 
way (p. 140 ; 10 pf.). — The train passes Thalkirchen (Deutsche Eiche), with 
a hydropathic, and beyond St- Maria- Einsiedel ascends through wood to the 
top of the plateau, crossing the state - railway near the Grosshesselohe 
station (p. 137). — 4*/2 M. Grosshesselohe (p. 193); footpath to the state- 
railway-station and to the Isar bridge, 8-10 min. ; past the brewery to the 
restaurant in the wood, ] /i hr. — Farther on we traverse wood and pass 
the chateau of Schwanegg (see above). — 5'/2 M. Pullach (1910 ft. ; 'Raben- 
wirt, with view-terrace; Hydropathic, on the Isar), charmingly situated 
on the high left bank of the Isar. The church contains two early-Bavarian 
altar-pieces (1489) and a figure of the Salvator Mundi of the beginning of 
the 15th century. — 7 M. LTollriegelskreut- Grunwald (1955 ft.; Restaurant 
zum Forsthaus, near the rail, station). About 1/2 M. to the E. (left) is the 
Hollriegelskreut Inn, whence a ferry crosses to Grunwald (see above). — 
91/2 M. Baierbrunn; II1/2 M. Hohenschaftlarn (2150 ft.; Hafele's Rail. Re- 
staurant; Kapuziner) , a high -lying village with a fine view. — From 
(12'/2 M.) Ebenhausen (Post) we may descend to O/2 M.) the convent of 
Schaftlam, with an interesting church (1733-64) and a frequented brewery. 
Fine view from the Rbschenauer Hbhe (2130 ft.; Inn), 1/2 M. to the N.W. 
of the rail, station. From Ebenhausen a marked path leads, via Irschen- 
hausen, Merlbach, and Aufkirchen, to (2 hrs.) Leoni, on the Lake of Slarn- 
berg (p. 196). — Farther on we enjoy a fine view of the Isar valley and 
the mountains. Beyond (14^2 M.) Icking the line descends through deep 
cuttings and along the hillside (gradient 1:33), affording a good survey 
of the wide valley of the Isar, with its grey sandy and gravelly islets, and 
the confluence of the Loisach and the Isar. We then cross the Loisach 
and reach — 

17 M. Wolfratshausen (Restaurant), the station for which is 1/2 M. 
from the prettily-situated town (1890 ft. ; 1750inhab. ; ffdt.-Pens. Kronmiihle, 
with garden; * Haderbrau ; Humplbrau; Botengarten). Above, on the Cal- 
varienberg, are shady walks affording delightful views. The Lake of Starn- 
berg may be reached hence by pleasant routes via if anting (Inn) to (2 hrs.) 
Ammerland (p. 196), via Dorfen, Hbhenhain, Aufhausen, and Aufkirchen to 
(2 hrs.) Leoni, or direct from the Calvarienberg to (l 3 /i hr.) Rottmanns- 

LAKE OF STARNBERG. 29. Route. 195 

hShe (p. 196). A road (diligence in 2 hrs.) leads to the S. from Wolfrats- 
hausen through the valley of the Loisach to (5'/4 M.) Euraiburg and 
(3Vi M.) Beuerberg; another leads to the S.E. through the Isar vallev to 
(9 M.) Konigtdorf (2053 ft. ; Post) and thence via Untertvchen to (10 M.) 
Tblz (p. 215). 

Paging, the first station on the Starnberg, Lindau, and Augsburg lines 
(see below and pp. 198, 134; 5 M., in about i/ 4 hr.), is the starting-point 
for a visit to the churches of Pipping and Blutenburg, which possess con- 
siderable artistic interest. The church of Pipping, 1/2 M. to the N. of 
Pasing, was built in 1478-79. The interior has remained unchanged, and, 
with its old stained glass, altars, choir-stalls, and frescoes, affords a charm- 
ing picture of a late-Gothic country-church of the 15th century. — A few 
hundred yards to the N. of this lies Blutenburg, now a school of English 
nuns. The church (fee 50 pf.), built in 1490, contains a high-altar and two 
side-altars of 1491 , with paintings of the Munich school ; fine wooden 
figures of the Apostles, the Virgin, and the Risen Christ, of the same 
period ; and stained-glass windows of 1497, 

Excursion to Dachau, see p. 133. 

29. The Starnberger See and Ammersee. 
The Hohe Peissenberg. 

RailwaT from Munich (Starnberg Station, p. 137) to Starnberg (17!/2 M.) 
in 34-65 min. ; to Peissenberg (38'/2 M.) in 2-2V4 hrs. — Steamboat from 
Starnberg to Seeshaupt and back (round the whole lake, 2 Jl 80, 1 M 
80 pf.), 10 times daily in summer (oftener on Sundays) in 3 hrs. Steamboat- 
tickets may be purchased at the railway-station in Munich as well as on 
board the steamers. A circular ticket entitles the holder to break the 
journey twice, but a fee of 60 pf. must be paid for each additional halt. 

The train quits the Lindau line (p. 198) at (4V2 M.) Posing. 9 M. 
Planegg ; 12 M. Gauting, with a sulphur-spring. Near (I41/2 M.) Milhl- 
thal we have a glimpse of the pretty, wooded Wiirmthal to the left. 

7V2 M. Starnberg (*Bayrischer Hof; *Bellevue; *Zum Deut- 
schen Kaiser, all on the lake; *Zur Eisenbahn; *Pellet; Tutzinger 
Hof), a considerable place at the N. end of the lake, is generally 
crowded in summer. Swimming and other baths next the steam- 
boat-quay. Rowing boat 80 pf. per hour. 

The *Lake of Starnberg, or Wurmsee (1920 ft.), 12y 2 M. long 
and 2-3 M. in width, is enclosed by banks of moderate height, 
which are covered with villas and parks, especially at the N. end. 
The principal charm of the scenery is the view of the distant moun- 
tains in clear weather. The following are the conspicuous peaks, 
from E. to W. : Wendelstein, Brecherspitze, Kirchstein, Benedikten- 
wand , Karwendel - Gebirge, Jochberg , Herzogstand, Heimgarten, 
Krottenkopf, "Wetterstein range with the Zugspitze, and Ettaler 

Steamboat Jodbney. On the hill to the right, immediately 
beyond Starnberg, rises the chateau of Count Almeida. On the bank, 
farther on, are a number of other villas. Stat. Niederpocking. Pos- 
sennofen (Inn) lies about V2 M. from the railway-station of that 
name (p. 196). Duke Carl Theodor of Bavaria has a chateau here. 
The garden, enclosed by a high wall, is not shown; but the park, 
about 2 M. in length, is open to the public. Pleasant walk through 


196 Route 29 TUTZING. 

wood, ascending to the right (way-posts), to (1 M.) Feldafing (see 
below). In the lake below lies the Eosenimel (shown by order 
obtained at the 'Oberst-Hofmarschallamt' at Munich, or from the 
'Rentamt' at Starnberg). 

The first station on the E. bank is Scbloss Berg (Wiesmayer's 
Inn, l ji M. from the lake, with garden). 

About '/4 M. from the pier is Schloss Berg (adm. 50 pf.), a royal chateau 
with a large park, where King Lewis II. of Bavaria perished in the lake 
on June 13th, 1886. The chateau is plainly fitted up, and contains paint- 
ings and statuettes, for the most part of scenes and characters from Wag- 
ner's operas. — A road leads through the park to (1 M.) Leoni (see below), 
passing the spot where the bodies of King Lewis II. and Dr. von Gudden 
were found (indicated by a stone column with a cross). 

Farther on, opposite Possenhofen (boat in 1 /t'hi., 1 Jf), lies the 
neat little village of Leoni Q f H6tel Leoni, pens. 5 Jf). On the hill 
above it rises the church of Aufkirchen. 

-Rottmannshohe (2195 ft. ; 20 min.). The path ascends opposite the 
landing-place, and at the top of the hill turns to the right to the Hotel, 
the roof of which commands a beautiful survey of the lake and Alps (fee 
10 pf.). On a platform in front of the hotel-veranda stands a simple mon- 
ument erected by the artists of Munich to Karl Rottmann (d. 1850), the 
famous landscape-painter. 

On the W. bank a number of parks and gardens extend from 
Possenhofen to (2^4 M.) Oaratshavsen, with a chateau of Prince 
Thurn and Taxis. Next stat. Tutzing (*H6tel am See, with a 
garden; *Simson's Bahnhdtel, at the rail, station, l /-2 M. from the lake, 
with *View from the terrace ; Bierkeller, a restaurant with groups of 
fine trees. 1/4 M. to the S. of the station), with Hr. von Hallberger's 
chateau, the pleasant grounds of which are open from 12 to 3 p.m. 
Below the landing-stage are a bathing-place and swimming-baths. 
— The Johannesberg, 3 / 4 M. to the S. of the railway-station, com- 
mands a charming view (still finer from the *Ilkahbhe, near Ober- 
zeismering, 1 hr.). The lake, which forms a bay here towards the 
"W. , called the Karpfenwirikel, has now attained its greatest width 
(3 M.). 

Stat. Bernried (Altwirth; Neuwirth), with a chateau of Hr. von 
Wendland and a fine park, open to the public (good beer at the 
brewery). The banks become flatter, and the mountains more con- 
spicuous. Stat. Seeshaupt (Post) lies at the S. end of the lake. The 
steamer now steers along the wooded E. bank, passing Ambach, 
Ammerland, with a chateau of Count Pocci, and AUmannshausen, to 
Leoni and Starnberg. 

Railway Journey. — 17 1 /, M. Starnberg, see p. 195. 2OV2 M- 
Possenhofen (p. 195; Hot. -Restaurant Pocking, ^4 M. to the right 
of the station; Bellevue, in the village of Pocking, ^4 M. farther on, 
both with fine views). — 22 M. Feldafing (2160 ft. ; *Strauch's Hotel, 
I/ 2 M. from the station, with terrace; *H6t.-Pens. Neuschwanslein; 
fine view from both), 1 M. from the lake (see above). At (25 M.) 
Tutzing passengers for Penzberg (p. 213) change carriages. The Weil- 
heim line turns towards the W. (view of the Zugspitze, etc., to the left). 

AMMERSEE. 29. Route. 197 

271/2 M. Diemendorf; 30i/ 2 M. Wihhofen (to the Ammersee, see 
below). — At (331/2 M.) Weilheim (1845 ft.; *Post; *Traube; 
*Brauwastl, with garden), a small town on the Ammer, we change 
carriages for Peissenberg. (Route to Murnau and Partenkirchen, see 
p. 207.) Passing Unter- Peissenberg (Post), the train stops at (381/ 2 M.) 
Peissenberg (1930 ft.), where the railway ends. About 1/4 M. from 
the station is Bad Sulz (2020 ft. ; *Hotel, pens. 4 Jf), with mineral 
springs and shady walks. 

The best Route to the Hohe Peissenberg (mountain-railway pro- 
jected), indicated by red and white marks, leads via Bad Sulz, the Sulz- 
bach Waterfall, the Quellenhaus, and the Schone Aussicht (to the top l 1 /* hr. ; 
donkeys at Bad Sulz). The descent (blue marks) may be made to the 
S.E., across the ridge (fine views) to the Weinbauer (Inn, good wine), and 
thence in windings to (1 hr.) the railway-station of Peissenberg. 

The *Hohe Peissenberg (3190 ft,), the Rigi of Bavaria, affords a 
remarkably extensive panorama owing to its isolated position oppo- 
site the centre of the Bavarian Alps. On the summit are a pil- 
grimage-church, a school (with an observatory on the roof; adm. 
20 pf.), and an Inn (35 beds). 

View. The principal mountains visible are, from E. to W., the Wen- 
delstein, Benediktenwand, Jochberg (beyond which in the extreme distance 
peeps the snowy Venediger), Herzogstand, Heimgarten (in front of which 
lies the Staffelsee), Karwendelgebirge, Kistenkopf, Krottenkopf, Dreithor- 
spitze, Wetterstein range (with the Zugspitze), Daniel, Hochplatte, Hohe 
Bleiche, Gabelschroffen, Sauling, Griinten, and Stuiben. To the N. an 
extensive survey of the plain, embracing the Ammersee, Starnberger See, 
and innumerable towns and villages as far as Munich and Augsburg. 

Fhom Peissenberg to Ober-Ammergao. A carriage-road (diligence 
daily to Bayersoyen) leads round the E. flank of the Hohe Peissenberg to 
Bbbing (Hydropathic) and (9 M.) Rottenbuch ('Post), with its ancient con- 
vent, picturesquely situated on the left bank of the deep Ammerthal. 
Thence past (4V2 M.) Bayersoyen (Inn), near the little Soyen Lake, and 
(3 M.) Saulgrub (p. 212), to (iV2M.) Unter- Ammergau and (3 M.) Ober-Am- 
mergau (p. 211). 

The Ammersee (1750 ft.), 10 M. long and 33/ 4 M. broad, is in- 
ferior to the Starnberger See in landscape beauty. The banks are 
flat and wooded. It commands a view of the distant Alps to the S., 
while the Hohe Peissenberg rises in the foreground. A small steam- 
boat plies on the lake (3-4 times a day between Diessen and Stegen 
in IV2 hr.; fares 1 1/ 2 or 1 Ji). 

From stat. Wihhofen (see above) a diligence runs thrice daily in 
2 hrs. via Paid, a pleasant village commanded by the Gothic *Hoch~ 
schloss (fine view from the adjoining Sonnenhiigel), and Fischen to 
(71/2 M.) Diessen, or Bayerdiessen (*Post; *Oattinger; Pens. See- 
richterhaus) , a straggling market-town and summer-resort at the 
S.W. end of the lake, with the extensive buildings of an old mon- 
astery (now a chateau of Count Pestalozza). Baths in the lake at the 
N. end of the town (20 pf.), and at St. Alban, 1/2 M. farther on. 

The Steamboat crosses the lake to Fischen (see above), and then skirts 
the E. bank to Milhlfeld and Hersching ('Post, moderate), the station for 
(3 M.) Andechs (2335 ft.), once the seat of the powerful counts of that 
name, and now a Benedictine monastery, with a favourite pilgrimage- 
church. The next stations are Ried on the E. bank, with a fine chateau 
and park (Inn), Utting (Inn) on the W. bank, and Breitenbrurm ("Belle), 

198 Route 30. BRUCK. 

on the E. bank. Then, on the W. hank, Schondorf (Inn), above which, 
to the left, are the village and chateau of Grei/enberg (1920 ft. ; Post) ; at 
the foot of the hill are the chalybeate batha of that name. The Amper 
emerges from the lake near stat. Stegen (Inn), at the N. end. A small 
steamboat plies on the Amper ( : /2 hr. ; fares, 90, 60 pf.) to Grafrath (Inn), 
1 M. from the railway-station of the same name (see below ; omnibus from 
the landing-place to the station, or vice versa, 25 pf.). 

30. From Munich to Lindau. 

137 M. Railway (Bayrische StaaUbahn) in 5>/4-8hrs. (fares 17 J? 70, HJt 
80, 7 Jl 60 pf.). Views to the left. 

Munich, see p. 137. Soon after leaving the station we see on the 
right the park and chateau of Nymphtnburg (p. 194). 41/2 M. Pasing 
is the junction for Augsburg (R. 26) and Starnberg (R. 29). After 
crossing the Wurm and passing (7 M.) Aubing, the train enters the 
boggy Dachauer Moos. — 14 1/2 M. Bruck (Marthabrau; Post; Lud- 
wigshohe), or Fiirstenfeldbruck, pleasantly situated on the Amper, is 
visited for its river-baths. Near it is the old Cistercian abbey of 
Fiirstenfeld, now a barrack, with an interesting church of 1673- 
1732. — Then across the Amper to (20 M.) Grafrath, station for the 
Ammersee, which is visible to the left (see above). 24*/ 2 M. Tilrken- 
feld; 28 l / 2 M. Schwabhausen ; 31^2 M. Epfenhausen. The train 
crosses the Lech to (35 M.) Kaufering (1939 ft.). 

Branch Railway to Schongad (21 M., in l 3 /4 hr.). — 3 M. Landsberg 
("Goggl; "Zederbrdu), a quaint old town on the Lech (5300 inhab.), with 
the late-Gothic Liebfrauenkirche, founded in 1498. The Rathhaus, recently 
restored, contains frescoes by Piloty and Schwoiser and an excellent paint- 
ing, by Hubert Herkomer, of a 'Sitting of the Landsberg Magistrates. Her- 
komer, who is a native of Waal, 6 M. from Landsberg, has built the so- 
called ' Mutterthurni , in the English castellated style, adjoining the house 
at Landsberg in which his mother died (fine views of the town and valley). 
On the hill is the Bayerthor, a picturesque Gothic gate-tower, with carv- 
ings in wood. Several small stations. — 21 M. Schongau ("Post; Stern), 
an interesting and ancient little town, lies picturesquely on a hill on the 
Lech. The "Johannisbad here is well fitted up. 

From Kaufering to Bobingen, 14 M., branch-railway in 1 hr., cross- 
ing the Lechfeld. 14 M. Bobingen, see below. 

Near (38 M.) Igling is the chateau of that name on the left. — 
42Y2 M. Buchloe (Rail. Restaurant ; Hotel Ensslin, near the station), 
the junction of the lines to Augsburg and Memmingen. 

From Adgsbdrg to Buchloe, 25 M. , railway in 50-70 min. (from 
Augsburg to Lindau in 5-8 hrs.). The line traverses the Lechfeld, the plain 
between the Wertach and Lech, where Otho I. defeated the Hungarians 
in 955. Near stat. Inningen, to the right, beyond the Wertach, rises the Wellen- 
burg, a chateau of Prince Fugger. Stations Bobingen (branch-line to Kaufer- 
ing, see above), Grossaitingen , Schwabmiinchen (a manufacturing place), 
Westereringen. The line then crosses the Gennach, and reaches Buchloe. 

From Buchloe to Memmingen (29 M. , railway in I1/2 hr.). Beyond 
(2'/2 M.) Wiedergeltingen the train crosses the Wertach. 5 M. Tiirkheim. 
12 M. Mindelheim, an old town with 3400 inhab. ; in the church is the tomb 
of Georg von Frundsberg (d. 1528) , a distinguished general. Stations 
Stelten, Sontheim, Ungerhausen, Memmingen, see p. 33. 

The train enters the broad valley of the Wertach. 46'/ 2 M. Beck- 
stetten; 50 M. Pforzen. Beyond the river is the monastery of Irrsee, 

KEMPTEN. 30. Route. 199 

now a lunatic asylum. The background of the landscape is here 
formed by the Zugspitze (9761 ft.), the Hochplatte (9837 ft.), the 
Sauling (6683 ft.), and other imposing mountains. 

Near the old town of (541/2 M.) Kaufbeuren (2241 ft. ; Sonne; 
HirscK) the line crosses the Wertach, and then winds between dense- 
ly wooded hills. 58 M. Biessenhofen (Post; branch-line to Fussen, 
see p. 202); 61 M. Ruderatshofen ; 69^2 M. Aitrang. A deep cutting 
penetrates the watershed between the Wertach and the Iller. 69 Y2 M. 
Oiinzach, with an old monastery, now a brewery, is the highest point 
(2628 ft.) of the line ; fine view of the Giinzthal ; to the right Ober- 
gunzburg. The Mittelberg, 1 /^ hr. to the S.W., is a fine point of view. 

The line descends, at first among wooded hills, and then through 
a broad grassy valley with large beds of peat. 76 M. Wildpoldsried ; 
77 l l>2 M. Betzigau. The Iller is crossed. 

8I1/2 M. Kempten (2287 ft. ; *Algauer Hof, Kronprinz, at the 
station ; *Krone, Post, in the new town ; Deutscher Kaiser, *Haase, 
in the old town ; Frommlet's old-German wine-room, near the sta- 
tion ; Rail. Restaurant), the capital of the Algau, with 15,700 inhab., 
picturesquely situated on the Iller, which here becomes navigable for 
rafts, was a free town of the empire down to 1803. It consists of 
two parts, the Neustadt, on the high ground near the station, and 
the Altstadt on the Iller. In the Residenz-Platz in the Neustadt 
stands the old Palace of the once powerful Prince-Abbots of Kemp- 
ten, built in the 18th cent.; adjacent is the handsome Abbey Church, 
with a dome in the Italian style (1652). In the Altstadt are the 
Rathhaus, lately restored, and the Protestant Church in the St-Mang- 
Platz. In front of the Real-Schule is a War Monument of 1870-71. 

To the S. of the town, 10 min. from the station, rises the 'Burghalde. 
a hill with new promenades and remains of old walls and towers. Splendid 
view of the Algau Alps. Still finer from the "Marieriberg (3035 ft.), 1 hr. 
to the W., best reached by Feilberg and Eggen. 

From Kempten to Ulm, railway via Memmingen in 4 hrs., the direct 
route from Stuttgart to the Algau, Hohenschwangau, etc., see p. 33. — From 
Kempten to Fiissen and Reutte, see p. 202. 

Beyond Kempten, from which the train backs out, the line fol- 
lows the left bank of the Iller. Finest views to the left. Beyond 
(85 M.) Waltenhofen (2362 ft.) the Niedersonthofer See (2240 ft.) 
is seen on the right, at the foot of the Stoffelsberg (3900 ft.). 88 M. 
Oberdorf. The line approaches the Iller. To the left is the green 
and sharp-edged Griinten (p. 200). 

95 M. Immenstadt (2395 ft. ; *Kreuz or Post; *Hirsch; Engel; 
Traube, with beer-garden), a busy town of 3000 inhab., lies pictur- 
esquely on both banks of the Steigbach , near the confluence of the 
Konstanzer Ach and the Iller, at the foot of the Immenstadter Horn 
(5050 ft.) and the Mittag (4688 ft.). 

Fine views from the Calvarienberg ('/< hr. to the N.) and from the 
Rolhenfels (Vz hr. to the N.W., near the E. extremity of the Alpsee, see 
below). — The ascent of the "Stuiben (5790 ft.; 3-372 hrs., guide unneces- 
sary) is recommended. Cart-road up the Steigbach valley to the (l 8 /4 hr.) 
Mmagmuch Inn (3385 ft.) , and footpath thence to the (l'/i hr.) Stuiben- 

200 Route 30. OBERSTDORF. From Munich 

Butte (Inn in summer), about 20 min. below the summit, which commands 
a splendid view. 

From Immenstadt to Obeestdoef, 13 M., railway in l 1 /* hr. — 3 M. 
Blaichach; 5'/z M. Sonthofen (Deutsches Hans, at the rail, station; Engel), 
whence the "Griinten (5710 ft.), another excellent point of view, may be 
easily ascended via (2'/2 M.) Burglerg in 21/2-3 hrs. (Inn near the top). — 
9 M. Fischen. — 14 M. Oberstdorf (2665 ft.; Mohr; Birsch; Sonne, etc.), a 
favourite summer-resort, beautifully situated in the midst of the Algau 
Alps, near the confluence of the Trettach, Stillac/t, and Breitach, the val- 
leys of which with their ramifications afford a great variety of excursions: 
To the Falterbach Waterfall, 25 minutes. — Bofmannsruhe (2885 ft.), fy hr., 
via St. Lorelto (fine view from the hill; on the S. side is the Alpenrose 
Inn). — "Wasach, 1 hr. "We follow the Fischen road and beyond the 
Breitach bridge ascend to the left by a shady path to the Inn, where we 
enjoy a beautiful view of the Algau Alps (best by evening -light). We 
may return via Tiefenbach (I72 hr.). — 'Freiberg-See (3085 ft. ; l l /t hr.) ; 
beyond (V4 hr.) St. Lorelto (see above) a footpath diverges to the right from 
the Birgsau road, crosses (10 min.) the Stillach, and ascends through wood 
to the charming, dark-green lake (Restaurant and bathing-house). — "Spiel- 
mannsau (Trettach-Thal), 2 hrs., carriage-road via St. Loretto (see above) 
and the Burgstall, skirting the N. foot of the Himmelschroffen , to the 
hamlet of Spielmannsau (3510 ft. ; *Inn), amid grand scenery. — "Bblltobel, 
IY2 hr., attractive. Beyond the Burgstall (see above) we diverge to the 
left from the Spielmannsau road, cross the Trettach, and ascend (right) to 
the picturesque ravine in which the Dietersbach forms three beautiful 
waterfalls. — Oythal (to the Stuiben Fall 3 hrs.), repaying; carriage-road 
half the way. — Zwingsteg and Walser Schdnzle, l'/2 hr. A carriage-road 
crosses the Stillach to the W. of Oberstdorf and ascends along the hill- 
side to the Walser Schdnzle (Inn, good wine), just beyond the Austrian 
frontier, in the valley of the Breitach or Kleine Walser-Thal. About 8 min. 
before it is reached, a path descends to the right to the Zwingsteg, a 
bridge over the deep and narrow gorge of the Breitach. Crossing the 
bridge, we may descend along the left bank and return to (1 hr.) Tiefen- 
bach, or (l!/4 hr.) Oberstdorf. — Birgsau (Stillach-Thal), by road 6 M. ; 
footpath thence to the left along the wild gorge of the Stillach to (Y2 hr.) 
Finodsbach (3745 ft. ; Schraudolph's Inn), grandly situated at the mouth of 
the huge Backer Tobel, near the foot of the Madelegabel. — For details, 
mountain-ascents (Nebelhorn, Madelegabel, Bohe Licht, etc.) and the passes 
to Hinterstein, the Lech Valley, and the Bregenzer-Wald, see Baedeker's 
Eastern Alps. 

The train now turns to the W. into the valley of the Ach, 
reaches the village of Buhl, on the Alpsee (2355 ft. ; 2M. long), and 
runs through the pleasant Konstanzer-Thal, flanked with green hills, 
to (102 M.) Thalkirchdorf. It then ascends to (105i/ 2 M.) Ober- 
staufen (2598 ft. ; *Buttner) , the watershed between the Danube 
and the Rhine. At the end of a short tunnel, just before Ober- 
staufen is reached, and at several points beyond it, we obtain strik- 
ing views of the deep Weissach-Thal, the wooded mountains of Bre- 
genz, and the snow-clad peaks of Appenzell beyond. From Ober- 
staufen to the Lake of Constance the line descends 1280 ft. 

Beyond (110 M.) Harbatzhofen the valley is crossed by the 
Rentershofener Damm , an embankment 577 yds. in length and 
174 ft. in height. 114 M. Rothenbach (2319 ft.). Farther on we 
obtain another view of the Appenzell mountains. 123 M. Hergatz 
(1815 ft.; branch-line via Wangen to Kisslegg, p. 54) ; 128 M. Schlach- 
ters ; 132 M. Oberreitnau. The line skirts the Hoierberg (p.201) and 
then turns to the S.E. Beautiful view of the Lake of Constance; on 

to Lindau. LINDAU. 3U. Route. 201 

the left Bregenz, in the foreground Lindau, and beyond it the 
mountains of St. Gallen and Appenzell. An embankment 605 yds. 
long crosses an arm of the lake to the station of — 

137 M. Lindau. — "Bayeischee Hof, on the lake, near the station 
R., L., & A. 3-4, D. 3 Jl ; "Krone, "Hotel Reutemann, "Lindauer Hop, R. 
I'M 1 /*) D. 21/2 Jl, Helvetia, R. V/i-Vfa Jl, all on the lake ; Sonne, in the 
Reichsplatz ; Pension Gaetchen auf dee BIauer, on the mainland. — Beer 
at the Krone, and in the Seegarlen, next the Bayrischer Hof; Schiitzengarten, 
with view ; adjacent, Riipflin's wine-saloon; Rail. Restaurant. — Lake Baths 
on the N.W. side of the town (30 pf.). — English Church Service in summer. 

Lindau (1306 ft.; pop. 5400), formerly a free imperial town 
and fortress, and in the middle ages a busy trading place, lies on 
an island in the Lake of Constance, 240 yds. from the mainland, 
with which it is connected by the railway-embankment and a 
wooden bridge. It is now a favourite summer-resort and bathing- 
place. The Romans under Tiberius defeated the Celtic Vindelici 
in a naval battle on the lake, and founded on the island a fort, of 
which the ancient tower by the bridge (the so-called Heidenmauer) 
is a relic. On the quay is a Statue of King Max II. (d. 1864) in 
bronze, erected in 1856. At the end of the S. pier is a large lion in 
marble, and on the opposite pier a lighthouse. The harbour is ad- 
joined to the S. by the Alte Schanz, which commands a *View of the 
Alps from the Scesaplana to the Sentis (mountain indicator). In the 
neighbouring Reichs-Platz is the Beichsbrunnen, erected in 1884 
from a design by Thiersch and Riimann, with a bronze statue of 
'Lindauia' and other allegorical figures. The handsome Rathhaus 
in the Renaissance style, erected in 1422-36, restored and adorned 
with frescoes in 1885-87, contains an interesting collection of anti- 
quities (open 11-12, Sun. 2-5). Pleasant grounds by the Landthor, 
with a monument for 1870-71. 

Excursions. Pleasant walk on the W. bank of the lake (crossing the 
railway -embankment, and turning to the left), to the (2 31.) charmingly 
situated Schachenbad ("Restaurant <k Pension Freihof, 22-30 Jl per week), with 
mineral and lake-haths. Near it OA 31) is the Lindenhof, or Villa Gruber, 
with a beautiful park, hot-houses, etc. (adm. Frid. free, on other days 1 Jl; 
closed on Sundays). Thence along the bank of the lake, by Tegelstein (to tho 
right the finely situated Schloss Alwind) and Mitten, to (2 31.) Wasserburg 
("II6t.-Pens. Springer, with terrace), with a chateau and church, situated on 
a peninsula. Back by steamer. — Beautiful view from the ( 3 /4 hr.) 'Hoier- 
berg (1496 ft.), reached either by the path parallel with the railway, or by 
the road from the Landthor through Aeschach (Schlatter) to the hamlet of 
Hoiren at the foot of the vine-clad hill. Two inns and a belvedere at the top. 
Return via Enzisweiler ("Schmid's Restaurant) and Schachen (Schlossle). 

To Bregenz (the Oebhardsberg, Pf Under, etc.), see Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

The Lake of Constance (1300 ft.) is about 40 M. in length, 71/2 31. in 
width, and at the deepest place (between Friedrichshafen and Utweil) 837 
ft. in depth. Its principal feeder is the Rhine, the deposits of which have 
formed a broad delta at its influx between Bregenz and Rorschach. The 
river emerges from the lake at Constance. This vast sheet of water, with 
its picturesque and well-peopled banks, its green and wooded hills on the 
S. side, and the view it commands of the distant snow-mountains, presents 
a very striking scene to the traveller approaching the Alps for the first time. 

The principal places on the lake are Friedrichshafen, Lindau, Bregenz, 
Rorschach , Romanshorn , Constance , Meersburg, Ueberlingen , and Lndwigs- 
hafen, between which steamboats ply at least once a day. On the more 

202 Route 31. OBERDORF. 

important routes, Lindau-Rorschach (li/ihr.), Lindau-Romanshorn (l'/shr.), 
Friedrichshafen-Rorschach (l>/4 hr.), Friedrichshafen-Romanshom (1 hr.), 
Friedrichshafen-Constance (i l /2 hr.), there are 3-4 trips daily. The lake 
being neutral, passengers 1 luggage is liable to examination at the custom- 
house wherever they land; but those proceeding from one German port 
to another obtain exemption by procuring a ticket for their luggage on 
starting. The banks of the lake belong to five different states: Bavaria, 
Wurtemberg, Baden, Switzerland, and Austria. (See Baedeker's Switzer- 
land, and comp. p. 57.) 

31. From Munich to Fiissen (Hohenschwangau) 
and Reutte. 

90V2 M. Railway to Biessenhofen, 53 M., in 13/ 4 -3i/4 hrs. (fares 7 Jl 
60, 5 J?, 3JI 20 pf.); from Biessenhofen to Fiissen, 23 M., local railway 
in l 3 /4 hr. (4 Jl, 'ZJl 90, IJl 80 pf.). — Diligence from Fiissen to Reutte 
(9'/2 M.) twice daily in 2 hrs. (fare ijl 50 pf.). — Carriage from Fiissen 
to Hohenschwangau with one horse 3, with two horses 5 Jl; to Neu- 
Schwanstein 7 or 10 Jl; to Reutte 6 or 10 Jl; to Linderhof 18 or 30 Jl; 
to Oberau 36 or 50 Jl. Return-journey in each case one-half more ; but 
an arrangement must be made as to the length of the halt. Driver's fee 
10 per cent of the fare. 

From Kempten (p. 199) to Fossen (25 M.), carriage-road (railway to 
Pfronten under construction) ; carr. to Hohenschwangau, with one horse 
20, with two horses 36 Jl. We cross the railway -bridge (fine view) and 
in 12 min. reach the road to (3 M.) Durach (3 M. to the S. of which, near 
Sulzberg, lie the small but well-equipped iodine baths of Sulzbrunn). 
Thence we ascend through wood, pass Zollhaus, and reach (7'/2 M.) Oy, a 
lofty village with a fine view, beyond which we descend to cross the 
Wertach, remounting again to (3 3 /4 M.) Nesselwang (2845 ft. ; "Post; "Krone; 
*Bar), with 1200 inhab., 7'/2 M. from stat. Weizern-Hopferau (diligence 
twice daily in 2 hrs., via. Weissbach; see below). The ascent of the 
''Edelsberg (5330 ft.), which commands a splendid view extending to the 
Sentis and the Lake of Constance, may be made hence by an easy mark- 
ed path in 2 hrs. (10 min. from the top is the open Edelsberg Pavilion; at 
the top an 'orientation' table). Descent to Pfronten (see below). — The 
road now leads through Kappel and (3 J /»M.) Weissbach ( 4 Haf) and past the 
Weissensee to (7'/2 M.) Fiissen. — To Reutte, a direct road diverges to 
the right at Weissbach (see above), which with the following villages of 
Kirchdorf and Steinach belongs to the parish of Pfronten (From Raetiae), 
consisting of thirteen villages. From Pfronten-Halden (I1/2M. from Weiss- 
bach) we may ascend the Edelsberg (see above) in 3 hrs. Pfronten-Steinach, 
2'/4 M. from Weissbach, is a good starting-point for the attractive ascent 
of the Aggensfein (6505 ft.; 4 hrs., with guide). From Pfronten-Meitlingen, 
Wit M. from Weissbach, a road, constructed by King Lewis II. along with 
an aqueduct 450 yds. long, ascends the "Falkenstein (4190 ft.), at the top 
of which, commanding a splendid view, is a ruined castle (restaurant). 
The descent may be made to (I hr.) Schonbichl (see below). — A pleasant 
path leads on the right bank of the Ach from Pfronten-Dorf to the (1 hr.) 
Fallmiihle (3260 ft.; Inn, with pretty grounds), whence we may go on to 
the Kothbach Fall. — Beyond (2 M.) Steinach the road follows the broad 
valley of the Tils, crosses the Austrian frontier to the (2 M.) 'Schonbichl 
Tavern, and leads via (3 M.) the small town of Vils (2735 ft. ; Huter) to 
the (IV2 M.) Ulrichs-Briicke (p. 206). 

From Munich to (58 M.) Biessenhofen, see p. 199. The Branch 
Railway to Fussen diverges here to the left. — iy 2 M. Ebenhofen; 
4 M. Oberdorf (2395 ft. ; AltePost; NeuePost), a market-town with 
a loftily situated church and an old chateau. — 7 M. Leuterschach ; 
9 M. Balteratsried ; 11 M. Lengenwang ; Ml/4 M. Seeg, a well-built 

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FUSSEN. 31. Route. 203 

village on the hill to the right. Beyond (16 M.) Enzenstetten the 
ruin of Falkenstein (p. 202) appears to the right. I71/2 M. Weizern- 
Hopferau; in the distance, to the left, the chateau of Neu-Schwan- 
stein is •visible. 20 M. Reinertshof, on the E. bank of the Hopfensee. 

23 M. Fussen. — The Railway Station, (omn. of the Hohenschwangau 
Inns, see below; carr., p. 202) lies a short distance from the town, at 
the entrance to which we follow the main street, reaching the bridge 
over the Lech in 6-8 minutes. — Hotels. Post, Mohren, both in the main 
street, E. I 1 /? «* >' Neue Post ; Keone ; Lowe ; Sonne, etc. 

Fussen (2615 ft.), a small town (3000 inhab.) on the Lech, with 
a castle erected by the bishops of Augsburg in 1322, restored by 
King Max II., and the remains of its old walls, presents an attractive 
picture of a medieval fortified town. Below the castle are the sup- 
pressed Benedictine abbey of St. Mang, founded in 629 (present 
building, 18th cent.), and the Church of St. Magnus, erected in 
1701 on older foundations. The gate in the town-wall between the 
castle and the church commands a fine view. — About V2M. to the 
W. is the small sulphur bath of Faulenbach. 

On the right bank of the Lech, a few hundred paces above the bridge, 
a path (guide-post) with pilgrimage-stations ascends from the church to 
the Calvarienberg (s/4 hr.), surmounted by three crosses, and command- 
ing a beautiful view : N. the valley of the Lech and Fussen, S.W. the 
Schwansee, Hohen-Schwangau, and Nen-Schwanstein. A footpath leads 
hence, skirting the Schwansee, direct to (1 hr.) Hohenschwangau. 

The Road fromFOssbn to Hohenschwangau (3M.) crosses the 
Lech, turns to the left, and ascends the right bank of the Lech, pass- 
ing the Alterschroffen Inn. It then turns to the right, skirts the 
Schlossberg, and leads through the park to Hohenschwangau. — 
Pedestrians follow the road to Beutte (p. 206), to the right beyond 
the bridge, for 5 min., then ascend the path to the left on the slope 
of the Calvarienberg, which leads past the (7 min.) view-point 
known as the 'Kanzel', crosses a cart-track, and passes through wood 
to (25 min.) the saddle between the Calvarienberg and the Schwar- 
zenberg. Here we reach the so-called Konigliche Reitweg, which 
begins at the Schwarzbriicke (p. 206). "We descend this path, with 
a view of Neu-Schwanstein and (farther on) of Hohenschwangau (to 
the right), and before reaching the Schwansee take the footpath to 
the right across the ridge, where the 'Alpenrosen-Weg' (see below) 
joins our route, to (1 hr.) the village of Hohenschwangau. — A 
longer route (2 hrs.) is offered by the Alpenrosen-Weg, which begins 
at the Weisshaus (p. 206) and winds along the slope of the Schwar- 
zenberg, commanding beautiful views. This route may be joined 
from the Schwarzbriicke or from the saddle between the Calvarien- 
berg and the Schwarzenberg (see above). 

Hohenschwangau. — Hotels. Schwegeele zue Alpenrose, beauti- 
fully situated on the Alpsee, R. from 3, B . 1 M 20, pens, from 6 M ; 
"Schwansee, '/« M. from the Alpsee, quieter, E., L., & B. l>/2-3, D. 3, 
pens. 6-8 JU (in May and June 5 M) ; "Liesl Inn, plainer. — All these 
have omnibuses at the station of Fussen (1 M). 

Tne castles of Hohenschwangau and Neu-Schwanstein are ope from 

204 Route 31. HOHENSCHWANGAU. From Munich 

May 1st to Oct. 15th, week-days 9-12 and 2-5, Sun. 10-12 and 2-5; closed 
on June 13th, the anniversary of King Lewis II. 's death. 

Hohenschwangau (2735 ft.), a small village at the foot of a hill 
crowned by the castle of the same name, is a pleasant summer-resort 
with numerous attractive walks in the vicinity. It lies near the 
beautiful blue *Alpsee, which is girdled with fine woods, while the 
steep crags of the Pilgerschroffen rise above its S. end. Opposite 
the Alpenrose Hotel begins the 'Fiirsten-Strasse' (open to pedes- 
trians only), from which (3 min.) a road to the right to Schloss 
Hohenschwangau and (8 min.) the above-mentioned footpath to 
Fiissen diverge. About 40 paces farther on a footpath leads to the 
left to the 'Pindar-Platz', a rocky projection with a fine view of the 
lake (p. 206). Well-made paths make the entire circuit of the lake 
(IV4 nr 0- — The footpath to the old Schloss ascends opposite the 
Liesl Inn. Tickets (50 pf.) to the right of the vestibule. 

*Schloss Hohenschwangau (2930 ft.), formerly called Schwan- 
stein, originally belonged to the house of Guelph, but in 1191 came 
into the possession of the Hohenstaufen dukes of Swabia and in 
1567 passed to the dukes of Bavaria. In the 17th and 18th cent, it 
was several times besieged and captured. It was destroyed by the 
Tyrolese in 1809, sold for a trifling sum in 1820, and in 1832 pur- 
chased by King Max II. of Bavaria (d. 1864), then crown -prince, 
who caused the ruin to be entirely re-constructed by Quaglio, Ohl- 
milller, and Ziebland. and decorated with frescoes from German le- 
gend and history by Schwind, Lindenschmit, Ruben, Monten, and 
other Munich artists. The castle commands charming views of the 
plain, the Alpsee, and Neu-Schwanstein. It was the favourite re- 
sidence of King Max II. and Lewis II., the latter of whom spent his 
later years almost exclusively here. The little garden, to the left of 
the entrance to the castle, contains a Marble Bath, cut out of the 
rock, with two nymphs, by Schwantlialer, and an imitation of the 
Lion Fountain of the Alhambra, by the same artist. 

Opposite the ascent to Hohenschwangau, near the Liesl Inn, 
begins the road to (35 min.) Neu-Schwanstein, from which (5 min.) 
the road to the Blbckenau (p. 205) diverges to the right; 6 min. 
farther on (opposite the footpath from the Hotel Schwansee) a steep 
footpath ascends on the right to the Jugend; and 12 min. farther 
on a bridle-path diverges to the right, near a workmen's barrack on 
the left side of the road, to the Marienbriicke and the Jugend. The 
road next passes a restaurant (open in summer only) and in 8 min. 
reaches the castle of — 

*Neu-Schwanstein (3300 ft.), begun by King Lewis II. in 1869 
on the site of the old castle of Vorder-Hohenschwangau, and beauti- 
fully situated on a precipitous rock above the profound ravine of 
the Pollat. The castle, built in the Romanesque style by Yon Doll- 
rnann, Riedel, and Hofmann, is planned somewhat after the style 
and arrangement of the Wartburg, but on a much larger scale. 

I joiija-DinTi 

to Reutte. NEU-SOHWANSTEIN. 31. Route. 205 

Through the Thorbau or Gatehouse on the N.E. (where tickets are 
obtained ; 3,//,- adm., see p. 204) we enter the first court, in which 
to the right (N.W.) is the Palas or main building, to the left (S.E.) 
the Kemenate or women's apartments, and in the middle the Ritter- 
bau. The visit takes 3/ 4 -l hr. The castle is splendidly fitted up, and 
its windows command beautiful views, especially of Hohenschwan- 
gau and the Alpsee to the S., and of the profound gorge of the Pollat 
and its waterfall, spanned by the Marienbriicke, to the E. 

The imposing Palas has four stories : the groundfloor contains the 
offices, the first floor is occupied by the attendants, the second is un- 
finished, and the royal apartments are on the third. Visitors ascend to 
the third floor by a staircase of 96 steps in the massive N. tower, 195 ft. 
high. The landing at the top of the staircase is adorned with frescoes 
by Hauschild, illustrating the legend of Sigurd. To the left we pass through 
the Adjutant's Room to the King's Study, with scenes from the story of Tann- 
hauser by Aigner; and thence through the Stalactite Grotto to the former 
Winter Garden, a balcony commanding a fine view of the plain. Next 
follow the Sitting Room, with pictures from the Lohengrin legend byHau- 
schild; the Dressing Room, with scenes from the lives of Walter von der 
Vogelweide and Hans Sachs by Ille ; the Gothic Bedchamber, with illustra- 
tions of the story of Tristan and Isolde by Spiess ; the Oratory, with scenes 
from the life of Lewis IX. by Hauschild (fine view of the valley of the 
Pollat from the balcony). The Dining Ball is embellished with scenes 
from the Wartburg under the Landgrave Hermann, by F. Piloty. The 
ante-chamber leads back to the landing, whence we enter the (unfinished) 
Throne Room, fitted up in the Byzantine taste, with pictures by Hauschild, 
representing the relations of monarchy to religion. It has a mosaic floor 
and an open loggia. — Aigner has also adorned the landing at the top of 
the staircase on the fourth floor with a series of 12 pictures from the 
story of Gudrun. On this floor is the "Festsaal or Sdngersaal (Minstrels' 
Hall), 90 ft. long, with pictures from Wolfram von Eschenbach's 'Parzival 
by Spiess, Munsch, and Piloty. 

A footpath, leaving the road at the N. angle of the castle and run 
ning under the N.W. facade, brings us to the S.W. side, near which the 
above-mentioned bridle-path ascends. [Before the latter is reached, a 
poor footpath descends to the left to the Gorge of the Pollat, where we 
have a view of the castle and of the Pollat Waterfall from below.] We 
ascend by the bridle-path and in 5 min. reach a point whence two foot- 
paths diverge : one, to the right, leading down to the "Jugend, a clearing 
in the wood commanding a view of Hohenschwangau and the Alpsee, like 
that from Neu-Schwanstein (the path descends still farther to the road, 
see below); the other, to the left, ascends to the "Marienbriicke, a hand- 
some iron bridge 138 ft. long, which boldly spans the rocky gorge of the 
Poll.' t at a height of 295 ft. above the waterfall and affords the best view 
of the castle of Neu-Schwanstein. — Returning from the bridge, we take 
the path to the left, which brings us in 4 min. to the Blbckenau road, 
at which also the bridle-path ends (to Hohenschwangau by this 
road >/2 !"■•)■ 

From Neu-Schwanstein a direct footpath leads to Linderhof (p. 212) 
in 6 hrs. (to the Ammerwald Inn, 31/2 hrs.), through the Blbckenau and 
across the Schiitzensteig or Jagersteig (4660 ft. ; guide unnecessary). 

To the Tegelberg Alp, 3 hrs., a pleasant excursion. We ascend the 
road to (3 I.) the Blbckenau (see above), diverging to the left at the'Ver- 
botener Weg 1 placard (permission obtained from the forester) and ascend- 
ing in windings to the (2 hrs.) royal hunting-lodge on the Tegelberg Alp, 
which commands a beautiful view of mountain and plain. Hence to the 
top of the Tegelberg (Brandschrof en, 5925ft.), marked by a cross, in20-30min. 
more (guide convenient for the inexperienced). 

Other excursions (Sauling, Schlicke, etc.), see Baedeker's Eastern 

206 Route 31. REUTTE. 

Pedestrians proceeding from Hohenschwangau to Reutte (8M.) 
need not return to Fiissen, but may either follow the 'Fiirsten- 
Strasse' (p. 204) high on the W. bank of the Alpsee, or the good 
path past the 'Pindar-Platz' (p. 204), to the end of the lake, and 
then return to the road. "We pass the (l 3 /4 M.) Austrian frontier- 
station and descend in windings, turning to the left at the ('^hr.) 
Schluxenwirth (good wine) and following the Pinswang road to (3 M.) 
Pflach (see below). 

The Road from Fiissen to (9^4 M.) Reutte leads up the right 
bank of the Lech to (7 min.) a narrow ravine (on the left bank a 
bust of King Max II. ; on the right bank a war-monument). We then 
cross the (5 min.) Schwarzbrucke (p. 203) and reach the Austrian 
frontier at the (10 min.) Weisshaus (good wine). The main road then 
crosses the Lech by the (l^M.) Ulrichs-Brucke, passes Musau and 
the Rossschldg Pass, and at TJnterlotzen, shortly before reaching (5 M.) 
Pflach (2745 ft. ; Schwan), recrosses to the right bank. Pedestrians 
will find it shorter and pleasanter to diverge to the left before reach- 
ing the Ulrichs-Brucke, and proceed by Pinswang and the Kniepass 
(3030 ft.), a rocky barrier narrowly confining the Lech, to (4i/ 2 M.). 
Pflach. Beyond Pflach the Arch-Bach, issuing from the Plansee, is 
crossed (see below). Then (2^4 M.) — 

32i/ 2 M. Beutte (2795 ft.; Post, R. 70 kr.-l fl. 20 kr., D. In.; 
Hirsch; Krone; *Adler, plain; Qlocke; Mohren, well spoken of), a 
small town in the bed of an ancient lake, intersected by the Lech, 
and surrounded by lofty mountains: N. the Sauling and DiXrreberg, 
E. the Zwieselberg and Tauern, S. the Axljoch, Thaneller, and 
Schlossierg, S.W. the Schwarzhanskarkopf, W. the Gachtspitz, Gem- 
spitz, and Gimpel. 

At the church of Breitenwang, V2 M. to the E. of Reutte, is a mon- 
ument to the Emp. Lothaire, who died here in 1137, on his return from 
Italy. The mortuary chapel contains a Dance of Death in relief. About 
3 /4 M. farther on, at the foot of the Tauern, is Bad Krekelmoos, with 
mineral springs. 

To the "Stuiben Falls, a pleasant walk of 2-2>/2 hrs., there and back. 
We follow the field-path, crossing the Arch above Muhl and recrossing to 
the left bank at the O/2 hr.) paper-factory, and then follow the 'Hermann- 
steig' along the river (numerous rhododendrons) to the O/2 hr.) 'Lower 
Stuiben Fall, a cascade 100 ft. in height, finely framed with trees. A foot- 
path (finger-post) ascends hence to the right to the road to Reutte, which 
is 3 M. distant. Those who are bound for the Plansee ascend the left 
bank of the Arch to the O/4 hr.) smaller Upper Fall, and turning to the 
right regain the (4 min ) road near a small chapel (p. 213), 10 min. from 
the Little Plansee. 

From Reutte to Linderhof and Partenkirchen, see R. 33. Upper Lech- 
thai, Pass Oacht, and via Tannheim to Immenstadt, see Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

From Reutte to Imst (35 M), diligence twice daily in 10 hrs. The 
road passes the (2 M.) Ehrenberger Klause, a defile formerly defended by 
a castle (now in ruins), and leads via, (3 M.) Heiterwang and (3 SI.) Bichel- 
bach to (5!/2 M.) Lermoos (3245 ft.; "Drei Mohren; "Post), a village situated 
in a wide green valley, from which on the E. rise the barren rocky walls 
of the imposing Wetterstein Chain, culminating in the Zugspitze (9725 ft.) 
to the K. (To Partenkirchen via Oriesen, see p. 210.) The road toNasse- 
reit, the finest mountain-pass between Bavaria and Tyrol, should be tra- 

MURNAU. 32. Route. 207 

versed on foot (4 hrs.) or in an open carriage (from Lermoos to Nassereit 
41/2, with two horses 7>/2 fl.). Beyond (I1/2 M.) Biberwier it ascends, pass- 
ing the Weissensee (left) and the beautiful Blindsee (right), to the (5 M.) 
Fern Pass (3970 ft. ; poor Inn), and descends in wide curves, which pedes- 
trians may avoid by short-cuts. In the bottom of the valley we pass the 
picturesque castle of Fernstein, on the right; at its base is the Fernstein 
Inn, containing two rococo rooms fitted up by King Lewis II. (adm. ijK). 
To the left, the ruins of the Sigmundsburg rise from the small, wood-girt 
Fermtein Lake, the outlet of which we cross by a stone bridge. At (5!/4M.) 
Nassereit (2765ft. ; "Post) the road divides, the right branch leading through 
the Ourgler- Thai to (SJ'/zM.) Imsl, while the left branch (preferable) crosses 
the saddle of Obtteig to the E. and leads via Ober-Mieming (2840 ft.; 'Post) 
to (13 3 /« M.) Telfs. For details, see Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

32. From Munich to Partenkirchen and Mittenwald. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 194, 202, 208. 

72 M. From Munich to Partenkirchen, 62 M , Railway in 3-4 hrs. (fares 
6 M, 3 M 85 pf.); from Partenkirchen to Mittenwald, 10 M., Diligence 
twice daily in 21/2 hrs. ; carriage with one horse 10, with two horses 14 Jl. 

Beyond (33!/2 M.) Weilheim (p. 197) the train diverges to the 
left from the Peissenberg line, and traverses the wide valley of the 
Ammer. 36 M. Polling; 39 M. Huglfing ; 431/2 M. Uffing. The line 
runs at some distance from the E. bank of the Staffelsee (2160 ft.), 
with its islands, passing the villages of Rieden and Seehausen, to — 

47 M. Murnau (2265 ft. ; Restaurant), at the S.E. end of the 
Staffelsee, and 105 ft. above it. (*Curhaus Staffelsee, with chalybeate 
springs, on the lake, ^ M. from the railway-station ; *Fuchs, mod- 
erate; good baths in the lake.) About 3 /4 M. from the station and 
the lake is the prettily-situated village of Murnau (*Post; *Pantl- 
brdu; *Griesbrau ; Zacherlbrau ; Angerbrau). The Vier Linden (lime- 
trees), to the W., and the Asamshbhe (with tower 60 ft. high), com- 
mand a •View of the mountains (left the Heimgarten, Kistenkopf, 
and Krottenkopf; right the Ammergau Mts. ; in the background of 
the Loisach-Thal the Wetterstein range). 

To the W. of Murnau a road (diligence daily) crosses the hills between 
the Staffelsee and the Murnauer Moos to (9 M.) Kohlgrub (2690 ft. ; Adler); 
V2 M. to the S.W. is the chalybeate bath and health-resort of the same 
name (2850ft; "Curhaus, pens. H'/sJ; "Hdl.-Pens. Lindenschlosschen, 
with shady grounds; 'Hdl.-Pens. Hinterlinderhof), at the N. base of the 
Hornle (5135 ft.). The road goes on via, Saulgrub to (15 M.) Ober-Ammergau 
(p. 212). Walkers to Ammergau save V2 hr. by following from the baths 
the direct path, which strikes the Ammergau road at Wurmesau. 

The railway descends in a wide curve to (49t/ 2 M.) Hechendorf 
(2040 ft.), crosses the Ramsau and the Loisach and proceeds on the 
E. side of the broad and marshy Loisach valley to (52 M.) Ohlstadt, 
situated at the foot of the Heimgarten (5870 ft.). The Loisach is 
crossed before (54 M.) Eschenlohe (Altwirth), where the valley con- 
tracts ; to the left rise the roof-shaped Kistenkopf and the Hochriess- 
kopf ; in the background the imposing Wetterstein range with the 
Zugspitze ; on the right the Ettaler Mandl. — 57 M. Oberau (2180 ft. ; 
•Post) is the station for Ober-Ammergau, Linderhof, the PLansee, 
etc. (comp. E. 33). 

208 Route 32. PARTENKIRCHEN. From Munich 

Beyond (60 M.) Farchan.t the broad basin of Partenkirchen opens 
to the S. On the left is the Kuhflucht, a gorge with waterfalls, descend- 
ing from the Hohe Fricken. Fine view of the Wetterstein range from 
the Dreithorspitze to the Zugspitze. The train again crosses the 
Loisach. 62 M. Garmisch-Partenkirchen (2295 ft,), V2 M - f rom the 
villages of those names (*Bayerischer Hof; Hot. & Cafe' Bauer, with 
baths; Zum Werdenfelser Michl, second-class, all at the station). 

Partenkirchen. — Hotels. Post, R. 2-4 Jl, B. 70, omn. 50 pf.; 
Stern, R. from 2, B. 1, pens. 6JI; Bellevue, in an open situation above 
the village, R. 2, B. 1, D. 2, pens. 6 Jt ; 'Kainzenbad, see p. 210; Baum- 
gabtneb, moderate; Zum Rassen ; Melbeb, well spoken of; Werdex- 
felsee Hof, Pisohl, unpretending. — Pensions. Schweizerhaus, 5-6 M; 
Panorama, above St. Anton, with cafe and attractive view, etc. — Private 
Apartments numerous; apply at Th. Riedl's book-shop. — Engl. Church 
Service in summer. 

Partenkirchen (2350 ft.), a favourite summer-resort, is beautifully 
situated at the base of the Eckenberg, a spur of the Krottenkopf. 
Handsome modern Gothic church (1865-71) ; new Protestant church, 
near the station. A visit may be paid to the school of carving and 
design, on the way toGarmisch. Good photographs sold by Johannes. 

Garmisch. — Hotels. *Westermeier zum Husaren, R. jU/2-3, pens. 
6-8./$; Post; 'Lamm, pens. 4 Jl; "Reiser zue Zogspitze; ,;, Drei Hohren; 
Colosseum, with theatre and concert room, R. I-IV2, pens, from Z^jiM; 
Kainzenfranz. — *H6t. Riesserbaoer (see below). — Pensions. Villa Sophia ; 
Malerheim; Hohenleitner, etc. 

Garmisch (2290 ft.), a thriving village 1 M. to the W. of Parten- 
kirchen, with picturesque old houses, the seat of the district-court, 
is another favourite resort. On the E. side of the village is the 
Wittelsbach Park, with a bust of Prince-Regent Luitpold. 

Carriages are to be obtained at both Garmisch and Partenkirchen and 
at the railway-station. One-horse carr. to the Badersee 6, two-horse 10 Jl, 
two-horse carr. to Walchensee (3 3 /i hrs.) 20, Ober-Ammergau 20, Lermoos 
20, Reutte 30, Imst via Lermoos 55 M- (The driver expects a fee of 10 pf. 
for each mark of the fare.) 

Excursions (for details, see Baedeker^t Eastern Alps). Finest *View 
from the pilgrimage-church of St. Anton (2400 ft.), to which a shady path 
ascends in 10 min. from Partenkirchen. The peaks, from left to right, 
are the Wetterwand, Dreithorspitze, Alpspitze, Waxenstein (behind it the 
Zugspitze), the pointed Upsberg (in the distance, beyond the Eibsee-Thorlen) ; 
to the right the Kramer, in the foreground Garmisch. 

Faukenschlucht. Beyond Partenkirchen a path ascends to the E. to 
the ravine, and then leads on its right side to the (20 min.) waterfall of 
the Faukenbach. Through the Faukenschlucht to the ( 3 /4 hr.) Lukai Terrasse 
(line view of the villages and mountains) and thence back in 1/2 hr. via 
the Schalmei- Schlucht. 

The "Riesserbauer (2535 ft.) is a good point of view, !/ 2 hr. from Garmisch. 
From the post-office we cross the meadows towards the S.W., in the direc- 
tion of the Riesserkopf (3690 ft.), a wooded height immediately below the 
Alpspitze. The charming little 'Eiesser-See (boating ; baths) lies in a hollow 
behind the *Inn (also Pension), in the direction of the mountain. 

*Partnaehklamm and "Vorder-Graseck (U/ 4 hr. ; guide unnecessary). 
After following the Kainzenbad road (p. 210) to the S. of Partenkirchen 
(see below) for about 60 paces, we turn to the right at a finger-post, and in 
!/2 hr. reach the first bridge, at the mouth of the Partnach Valley. (From 
the station of Garmisch-Partenkirchen a good, and in part shady footpath, 
turning to the left at the Hotel Bauer, leads along the bank of the Part- 
nach, joining the route from Partenkirchen about 10 min. before the 


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above-mentioned bridge is reached.) Beyond the bridge a finger-post in- 
dicates our path to the left ('nach Graseck'); after 1/4 hr. we cross the 
stream by a second bridge, beyond which the road to Graseck ascends 
abruptly to the left, while the path to the 'Klamm', or gorge, leads to the 
right; 6 min., third bridge. The (10 min.) fourth (iron) bridge (Klamm- 
brilcke), 50 ft. long and 220 ft. above the Partnach, is the finest point. 
Beyond the bridge the path ascends in 10 min. to the forester's house 
of Vorder-Qraseck (2920 ft. ; 'Restaurant), where a fine view is enjoyed. — 
A narrow path (Triftweg), constructed for the use of the 'lumberers' and 
diverging to the left before the third bridge, leads along the bottom of 
the gorge, close to the water, revealing the grandeur of the ravine to 
great advantage. It is provided at places with wire-ropes and is quite 
safe for those reasonably free from giddiness. The best plan to see the 
ravine is to follow the upper path to Graseck, descend thence into the 
Partnach valley, and return by the path at the bottom of the gorge (in 
all 3 hrs. from Partenkirchen). — From Graseck to Mittenwald via 
Elmau, 3V2-5hrs., a much better route for pedestrians than the high-road 
(p. 210). From the forester's house we ascend the pastures for a short 
distance, and then turn to the right. After 20 min. we go straight on (not 
to the right to Mitlel-Oraseclc) to (10 min.) Hinter-Qraeeck ; s/4 hr., bridge 
over the Ferchenbach ; then for 1/4 hr. straight on through the wood, and 
down to (7 min.) Elmau (3345 ft. ; Inn). From this point a road ascends 
slowly, at first through wood but afterwards shadeless, to (4 J /2 M.) the 
Ferchen-See, and theu descends, past the Lauter-See, to (3 M.) Mittenwald 
(p. 210). — From Elmau to the Schachen (3^2 hrs.), see p. 210. 

The 'Eckbauer (4062 ft.). We may either follow a steep marked path 
from the Kainzenbad in l'/2-2 hrs., or take another steep path (also marked, 
usually shady in the afternoon) from Graseck (see above), which turns to 
the left at a (V4 hr.) finger-post, ascends the grassy slopes in windings, 
passes through wood, and reaches the Eckbauer in >/£ hr. (Inn, with 
6 rooms). The top of the hill, 2 min. beyond the house, commands an 
admirable panorama of the mountains : Karwendelgebirge, Wettersteinwand, 
Dreithorspitze with the Schachenalp and Frauenalple, Alpspitze, Zugspitze, 
Kramer, and Krottenkopf; below lie3 the deep, wooded valley of the 

Schlattan and Gschwandner Bauer (2>/4 hrs.). From Partenkirchen 
we ascend to the right through the Bremstall- Wald (finger-post) to (l 3 /4 hr.) 
the Schlattan Restaurant, and thence via, Hofie to the ('/» hr.) Gschwandner 
Bauer (3345 ft.; *Inn, rustic), which affords a fine view of the Wetterstein 
and Karwendel ranges. We may return by the Mittenwald road (shady 
in the evening). 

"Badersee (2720 ft; 4'/j M. from Garmisch; omnibus twice daily from 
Partenkirchen in l'/j hr., starting at 7.30 a.m. and 2 p.m., returning at 
noon and 6 p.m. ; fare 1 Jt, return 1 Jt 80 pf.). The road diverges to the 
left from that to Lermoos, a few hundred yards beyond the (2 l /z M.) Schmelz 
(Inn), and leads via Unter-Orainau ("Inn) to the small, emerald-green lake, 
1 M. round and 60 ft. deep. The "BStel- Pension Schd/ter (pens. 6>/2 Jt), on 
its bank, is pleasant for a prolonged stay. — Road hence to the (3 M.) 
Eibsee (see below). 

The "Eibsee (3145 ft.), 7 M. from Garmisch, is reached by the road 
via Unler-Grainau (omnibus from the Post at Partenkirchen twice daily 
in 21/2 hrs., returning in 2 hrs. ; fare each way l>/2 Jt) \ or, from Garmisch, 
by the path to the left at the W. end of the village, which leads across 
meadows to (f/4 hr.) Ober- Qrainau (2480 ft.; Wackerl's Inn), and thence 
to (l'/» hr.) the lake. The Eilisee, 3 M. long, 2 M. wide, and 90 ft. deep, 
has seven small islands and is enclosed by dark, wooded hills, above which 
tower the enormous rocky walls of the Zugspitze ("Terne's Inn, with 
veranda, boats, and baths, R. l>/2-2, pens. 5-6 Jt). Travellers are rowed 
(50 pf. each) to the Ludwigs-Insel in the middle of the lake, where the 
echoes are awakened by a shot (50 pf). The huge Zugspitze is seen to great 
advantage from the lake, but on summer afternoons is usually shrouded 
in clouds. 

The "Krottenkopf (6880 ft.; 5 hrs.; guide 4V2, if a night is spent, 7 Jt). 

BaedekkkTW (JettulW.- oin J4it. 14 

210 Route 3-2. MITTENWALD 

A marked bridle-path leads from Partenkirchen via St. Anton, passing the 
parsonage, to the (2 hrs.) Esterberg-See (generally dry in summer) and the 
(10 min.) Esterberg-Bauer (1335 ft. ; poor inn). Bridle-path thence, steep and 
stony at places, through the hollow between theBischof and the Krotten- 
kopf to the (21/4 hrs.) Krotlenkopf Club-Hut (6450 ft. ; Inn in summer), on 
the saddle between the Krottenkopf and the Oberrisskopf, and to (25 min.) 
the top (pavilion; fine "View). 

'Kbnigshaus am Schachen (6125 ft.; 5V2-6hrs.; guide, 4>/2 Jl, unneces- 
sary). We follow the Triftweg (p. 209) through the Partnachklamm in l>/4 hr. 
to the bridge over the Ferchenbach , the left bank of which we skirt to 
(3/4 hr.) the SlHUnf&lU (sometimes dry). The path then ascends rapidly 
to the right through the Wettersteinwald to a small shrine, turns to the 
left, and crosses a clearing after a few minutes, from which a broad path 
through the wood leads past the Wetterstein-Alp (4820 ft.; rfmts.), to the 
(3 hrs.) Schachen-Alp, with the small Schaehen-See, and (3/ 4 hr.) the Kbm'gs- 
haus, built by King Lewis II. and containing a sumptuous room in the 
Oriental style (adm. 1 Jl; Restaurant, with 14 beds). The Belvedere, a few 
hundred paces to the W., on the brink of the abyss, commands a magni- 
ficent "View of the Reinthal below us, with the Plattach-Ferner, Schnee- 
fernerkopf, and Wetterspitzen, the Hochblassen to the right, and (to the S.) 
the Dreithorspitze and Wetterstein. To the N. stretches the vast Bavarian 
plain. — From Elmau (p. 209) a good bridle-path (driving practicable, but 
not agreeable; carr. and pair for 2 pers. 15, for 3 pers. 18 UK) ascends to 
the Schachen-Alp in 3!/2 hrs. 

Longee Excdesions (Hollenl/ial-Klamm, Rainthal and Blaue Oumpen, 
AlpspiUe, Zugipitze, etc.), see Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

To Lebmoos (p. 206), 18 M., by a good road through the wooded Loisach- 
Thal (omn. daily in 3 3 A hrs. ; carr. 10-12 JQ. At (10 M.) the frontier-inn 
at Griesen (p. 212) we turn to the left (to the right the road to the Plansee, 
p. 212), cross the Austrian frontier, and proceed via the (3>/2 M.) old Ehr- 
walder Sclianze (2950 ft. ; Neuner's Inn) to (41/4 M.) Lermoos (p. 206). — A 
shorter, but unattractive path leads from the Eibsee over the ThSrlen 
(5230 ft.) to Ehrwald and (3>/2 hrs.) Lermoos. 

The road to Mittenwald (diligences, etc., see p. 207) begins to 
ascend at once. To the right in the valley, 1 M. from Partenkirchen, 
lies the Kaimen-Bad (*Inn, pens. 6 M), with a spring containing 
iodine, natron, and sulphur, used as a remedy for gout and cu- 
taneous diseases. On the top of the hill, the road traverses undu- 
lating pastures; on the right rises the Wetterstein, and in front are 
the hold peaks of the Karwendel range. 3y 2 M. Kaltenlrunn; 2 M. 
Oerold (on the left the small Wagenbrech-See) ; l'/ 2 M. Klais. 

To the left, a road diverges here to the (I1/2 M.) Barmsee (3070 ft.), 
a pretty little lake embosomed in wood (fine view from the */»»). The 
lake affords boating and bathing, and there are pleasant walks on its 
banks. Remains of lake-dwellings have been discovered here. 

The road passes the small and marshy Schmalsee, and winds 
down into the Isar-Thal, where it unites with the road from Benedikt- 
beuern and Walchensee (p. 214). Then (4 M.) — 

10 M. Mittenwald (3020 ft.; Post, with clever animal-paintings 
by Paul Meyerheim in the veranda; Zum Karwendel; Zum Wetter- 
stein. plain; Pennon Villa Neuner), the last Bavarian village 
(1750 inhab.), overshadowed by the precipitous Karwendel-Oebirge 
(7825 ft.). The manufacture of violins and guitars, which are chiefly 
exported to England and America, forms the main occupation of the 
inhabitants. A bronze statue of Michael KLotz (d.1743), who intro- 
duced the violin-industry, has been erected in front of the church. 

OBER-AMMERGAU. 33. Route. 211 

Excursions. To the "Lauter-See (3365 ft.), 3 Ahr., and the Ferchen-See 
(3400 ft.), i/s hr. farther up (see p. 209); to the "Hohe Kranzberg (4525 ft.), 
i'/2 hr. (splendid view); to the "Leutasch-Klamm, near the Scharnitz road 
(see below; l l /i hr. there and back); Barmsee (p. 210), l'^hr. ; Leutasch 
Valley, Vereins-Alpe, Karicendel-Spitze, etc., see Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 
From Mittrnwald to Zirl, 16 M., diligence daily in 3'/8 hrs. (carriage 
with one horse 17, with two horses 22 Jt). The road crosses the Isar 
(before the bridge, to the right, the path to the Leutasch-Klamm, see 
above) and traverses the level bottom of the valley as far as the (3 M.) 
Defile of Scharnitz, the boundary between Bavaria and Tyrol, formerly 
protected by a strong fortress which was completely destroyed by the 
French in 1805. Beyond the adjacent village of Schnrnitz (3160 ft.; Adler) 
the road quits the Isar and ascends to the left to (9'/2 M.) Seefeld (3860 ft. ; 
"Post), a summer- resort beautifully situated on the watershed between 
the Isar and Inn. It then leads past the small Wildsee to (12>/2 M.) Keith, 
beyond which it descends via Leiten in wide curves, affording magnificent 
views of the Inn valley and the Tyrolese Alps, to (16 M.) Zirl (see Baedeker's 
Eastern Alps). 

33. From Munich toOber-Ammergau and via Linderhof 
to Reutte-Hohenschwangau. 

Comp. Map, p. 202. 
Railway to (57 M.) Oberau in 3-3'/z hrs. ; from Oberau to Ober-Ammergau, 
6J/2 M. (on foot 2-2ty» hrs), to Linderhof direct 8'/a M , via Ober-Ammergau 
13>/2 M. (o;i foot 4 hrs.). — Omnibus from Oberau via Linderhof to Hohen- 
schwangau daily in 12'/2 hrs., starting at 7.30 a.m.; returning from Hohen- 
schwangau at 1 p.m. (night spent at Linderhof) and reaching Oberavi at 
2 30 p.m. ; fare 7 Jl. — Carriage from Oberau to Ober- Vmmergau with one 
horse 10, with two horses 15 M ; to Linderhof 18 and 30, to Reutte 30 and 
40, to Fiissen-Hohenschwangau 36 and 50 M- — Railway Circular Tickets 
may be obtained from Munich to Oberau and from Fiissen back to Munich 
via Oberdorf (2nd cl. 12 M, 3rd cl. 7 M 50 pf.). 

From Munich to (57 M.) Oberau, see p. 207. The road to Ober- 
Ammergau leads to the W.. passing the Vntermberg Inn C/2 M- from 
the station), crosses the Giessenbach, and ascends, at first in a wide 
sweep to the right, along the N. side of a wooded gorge. At the 
bottom of the valley runs the steep old road, which is shorter for 
walkers. The upper end of the gorge is closed by the Ettaler Berg, 
which the new road skirts, while the old read climbs over it. 3 M. 
Ettal (2880 ft. ; Landes, moderate) , a convent founded by Emp. 
Lewis the Bavarian in 1330, dissolved in 1803, rebuilt after a fire 
in 1844, and now the property of Count Pappenheim. The church, 
with a massive dome, was built in the Gothic style by Emp. Lewis, 
but was remodelled in the baroque style in the 18th cent. ; it contains 
frescoes by Knoller and a famous organ. On the N. side is a brewery 
of local repute. The village lies at the base of the Ettaler Mandl 
(5385 ft.), a rocky peak, the ascent of which is difficult (2'/o-3 hrs., 
with guide). 

About 3/4 M. farther on the road forks, the left branch leading 
direct to (4»/ 2 M.) Linderhof, the right to (2 1 /* M.) Ober-Ammergau 
(2760 ft.; *AltePost or Schwabenwirth; Wittelsbacher Hof ; Stem, and 
others), celebrated for the passion plays performed here every ten 
jears (1890,1900, etc.) Wood and ivory carving is the chief occu- 


212 Route 33. LINDBRHOF. 

pation of the inhabitants. — About */4 hr. to the W., on the Oster- 
buhl, at the base of the Kofel (3545 ft.), stands the *Crucifixion, a 
colossal group in Kelheim sandstone, executed by Halbig, and pre- 
sented by King Lewis II. in 1875. 

From Ober-Ammergau a road runs to theN., through the monotonous 
and at places marshy Ammer-Thal, via (3 M.) Unter-Ammergau (2655 ft. ; 
Schuhwirth ; Eahe) and Wurmesau, to (4'/2 M.) Saulgrub. Thence either 
to the N. via Rottenbuch to (16 M.) Peissenberg (p. 197), or to the E. via 
Kohlgrub (p. 207) to (10 M.) Murnau (p. 207). 

The Road from Obbr-Ammergau to (9 M.) Lindbbhof diver- 
ges to the right at the S. end of the village from the road to Ettal 
(p. 211), and unites 2t/ 4 M. farther on with the direct Oberau and 
Ettal road (p. 211). 2y 4 M. Graswang (2885 ft.: Inn), a village 
•with the Bavarian custom-house, beyond which we ascend through 
the pleasant Graswang- Thai, or upper valley of the Ammer; to the 
left opens the wide Elmauer Gries, above which peeps the Zugspitze. 
Just beyond the (3 3 / 4 M.) forester's house of Linder (rfmts. and 
beds) we cross the Ammer to the right to (*/o M.) the royal *Schloss 
Linderhof (3080 ft.), erected and splendidly decorated in the rococo 
style by King Lewis II. in 1870-78 (adm. from May 1st to Oct. 15th 
daily, 9-5; fee 3 Jf, including grotto and kiosque; closed on June 
13th). To the left of the entrance are the office and the *Schloss 
Restaurant, with 50 beds (2-3 Jf). 

The Vestibule of the chateau (adm. in parties of at least 12 pers.) contains 
an equestrian statue of Louis XIV., after Bosio. On the First Floor is a 
series of finely fitted up rooms with paintings of French celebrities and 
events in the time of Louis XIV. and Louis XV. — The extensive Gardens 
are embellished with fountains, statuary, etc., and contain the Monopteros, 
a small temple with a figure of Venus (good view), and the Blue Grotto, 
with a subterranean lake, which can be illuminated with electric light. 
Near the grotto is the Moorish Kiosque, richly gilded and decorated, with 
stalactite vaulting, enamelled peacocks, etc. Behind the palace are the 
Cascades, where the fountains play at noon and at 6 p.m. — A visit to the 
palace and gardens, including the grotto and the kiosque, takes about 2 hrs. 

We continue to ascend the finely-wooded Ammerthal to the 
(4'/2 M.) Grenz-Briicke, or frontier bridge, about l/ 2 M. to the left 
of which (guide-post) is the Hunding-Hutte (3600 ft.), a blockhouse 
in the old German style (comp. Wagner's opera of the 'Walkyrie'; 
adm. daily 9-12 and 2-6, 50 pf.; xfmts.; adjacent a hermit's hut). 
We then skirt the N. base of the Geyerkopf (7095 ft.), traversing the 
thickly wooded Ammencald-Thal, and reach (3 M.) the Ammerwald 
Inn (3575 ft.; rustic), whence the 'Schutzensteig' leads to the right 
to (4 hrs.) Hohenschwangau (p. 205). About 3 M. farther on the 
road emerges from the wood and reaches the Great Flansee (3190 ft.), 
a fine sheet of water, 2% M. long by l / i - i / 2 M. broad and 250 ft. 
deep, enclosed by wooded mountains. On its bank is the Austrian 
Custom-House, near which is a monument to King Max II. of Bavaria 
(Forelle, boats for hire, lake-baths; Alpenrose). 

From the Plansee to Paetenkiechen (lo M.) a narrow riad descends 
the wuoded Naiderach- Thai to the (5 l /2 M.) Austrian and Bavarian custom- 
house of Griesen (Inn), where it joins the road from Lermoos to Parten- 
kirchen through the Loisach-Thal (n. 210). 

BENEDIKTBEUERN. 3d. Route. 213 

The road to Reutte, shadeless in the morning, skirts the N. bank 
of the Plansee, passing the Kaiaerbrunnen. At the (372 M.) W. end 
of the lake, in the Oschwdnd, is the *Seespitz Inn (R. from 60 kr.). 
Farther on we pass the Little Plansee, cross the Arch, which flows 
out of it, and reach (1 M.) a chapel, near a good spring. 

A footpath descends hence to the right, through wood, to the Upper 
and (20 min.) 'Lower Stuiben Fall, whence we may either ascend to the 
left to (10 min.) the road, or follow the Hermannsteig along the Arch to 
MUM and (1 hr.) Beutle (comp. p. 206). 

The road crosses the Rossriicken, affording a fine view of the 
Lechthal, with the Glimmspitze and Hochvogel in the background. 
We then descend the slope of the Tauern (6044 ft.), where the path 
from the lower Stuiben Fall (see above) joins the road at a stone 
with an inscription. The road afterwards proceeds past the small 
bath of Krekelmoos and via Breitenwang to (472 M.) Reutte (see 
p. 206). From Reutte to Fiissen and Hohenschwangau, see R. 31. 

34. From Munich to Mittenwald via Benediktbeuern . 

Kochelsee and Walchensee. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 1SS, 214, 202. 

66 ] /2 M. Railway to Peniberg (33y 2 M.) in 2 3 /i hrs. Post Ounibus 
twice daily from Penzberg to (5 M.) Benediktbeuern in i l /t hr. (90 pf.) ; 
thence to (11 M.) Walchensee in 3 hrs. (1 M 80 pf.); and thence to (12 M.) 
Mittenwald in 3 hrs. (I Jt 80 pf.). — Cakkiage and pair from Benedikt- 
beuern to Walchensee, 20 Jl. 

From Munich to (25 M.) Tutting, see p. 196. — 28 1/2 M. Bern- 
ried; 3172 M. Seeshaupt (p. 196), both 3 / 4 M. from the railway. Farther 
on, the country is uninteresting. On the right lies the little Oster- 
see. — 351/2 M. Staltach. — 38i/ 2 M. Penzberg (1980 ft. ; Bernrieder 
Hof; Zur Eisenbahri), the terminus of the railway. 

The road to Kochel crosses the Loisach and traverses a flat dis- 
trict to (4 1 /) M.) Bichl (*Lbwe ; Griiner Hut), where it joins the road 
from Heilbrunn (p. 216). Then (3/ 4 M.) — 

437a M. Benediktbeuern (2025 ft.; Post; *Zur Benedikten- 
wand), with a once wealthy and celebrated monastery, founded in 
740, and consecrated by St. Boniface, now containing a home for 
veteran soldiers and a stud. To the E. rises the Benediktenwand 
(5910 ft; fatiguing ascent of 472-5 hrs., with guide), to the S. the 
Jochberg, Herzogstand, and Heimgarten. 

Beyond Benediktbeuern the road skirts the E. side of an exten- 
sive marsh, and leads via Ried and Besenbach along the Rohrsee (N. 
end of the Kochelsee) to (48 M.) Kochel (Abenthum, moderate), 
which is separated by a hill from (3/ 4 M.) the lake {^Bad Kochel, 
with a chalybeate spring and grounds on the lake, R. I72 Jt; Pens. 
Natalie, also on the lake). The Kochelsee (1970 ft.), 33/4 M. long 
and 272 M. broad, is fed by the Loisach, and is bounded on the S. 
by the Jochberg, Herzogstand, and Heimgarten. The pavilion near 
Bad Kochel affords a good view. 

214 Route 34. WALCHENSEE. 

On the opposite bank of the lake lies Schlehdorf (Inn zum Hertogen- 
sland), V-ji hrs. from stat. Marnau (p. 207) and 3 hrs. from stat. Penzberg 
(omnibuses from both stations). The 'Herzogstand (see below) may be 
ascended hence in 4 hrs. by an attractive route. We follow the marked 
path along the lake for '/' nr -> tben ascend (guide-post) via the Jochplatte 
to the (1 hr.) Unterauer Alp (about 2850 ft.), whence the Pionier - Weg, 
constructed in 1892 by the 1st Battalion of Pioneers, gradually ascends 
through wood, crossing several streams, and commanding beautiful views 
of the Kochelsee and the plain. At (l 1 /* hr.) the Schlehdor/er Alpl we join 
the bridle-path ascending from Urfeld; thence to the top, see below. — 
From Schlehdorf ferry in '/znr., passing the Nate, which rises perpendic- 
ularly from the lake, to the Miiller am Joch (Inn), at the foot of the Kessel- 
berg. Footpath thence to the (20 min.) Kesselberg Inn. 

About 1 M. beyond Kochel, at the *Kneipp-Bad Kochelsee, the 
new road approaches the lake, and skirts it, passing the Inn zum 
Orauen Bdren, to the (20 min.) Kesselberg Inn (ferry to Bad Kochel 
80 pf. ; good echo on the lake). It then ascends in easy windings to 
the pass of the Kesselberg (2825 ft.). To the right of the road are 
the pretty falls of the Kesselbach, along which a path cutting off an 
angle of the road ascends. From the culminating point, where the 
bridle-path to the Herzogstand diverges to the right (see below), we 
obtain a view of the Karwendel and Wetterstein ranges in the dis- 
tance, and, below us, of the beautiful, deep -blue *Walchensee 
(2635 ft.), 4'/4 M. long and 3 M. broad, surrounded by forests and 
mountains. At the N. end are the houses of (l'/2 hr.) Urfeld (Zum 
Jager am See, R. l 1 ^ Jl; Inn at the fisherman's). 

The "Herzogstand (5695 ft.), a remarkably fine point of view, is ascended 
hence in 21/2-3 hrs. (guide unnecessary). A bridle-path (see above) diverges 
to the left (W.) from the road comiDg from the Kesselberg, about 8 min. 
from Urfeld (or a steep path leading from Urfeld direct to this bridle- 
track in >/i hr. may be taken). On the saddle, 1/2 hr. below the top, are 
the Herzogstand-Hauser (5100 ft.), belonging to the German Alpine Club 
(Inn with 50 beds at 2V2 *■#)• On the summit is a closed pavilion, and a 
little lower is an open hut. Admirable view of the mountains as far as 
the Oezthal glaciers, and of the plain with its numerous lakes. — A nar- 
row arete, protected by a wire-rope, but advisable for experts only, con- 
nects the Herzogstand with the (1 hr.) Heimgarten (5870 ft.), to the W. 
— From the Herzogstand-Hiiuser a narruw path to the right, affording at 
first a fine view of the Walchensee, and then leading through wood, 
descends to the hamlet of Walchensee in Vfe hr. 

From Urfeld to Jachenau and Tolz, see p. 216. — Boat across the lake: 
to Walchensee (for 1, 2, 3, or 4 pers.) 1 J( 20, 1 Jl 80, 2 M 10, 2 M 
40 pf. ; to Altlach 2, 3, 4, 4'/ 2 Jf; Obernach 2>/2 M, 31/2 J(, 4 Jl 80, 5 Jl 
30 pf. — Carriage from Walchensee to Wallgau 5, with two horses 8 Jl ; 
to Kochel, Kriin, and Jachenau 6 and 9, to Barmsee 7 and 11, to Benedikt- 
beuern and Mittenwald 10 and 15, to Vorder-Eiss 12 and 18, to Parten- 
kirchen 14 and 21, to Lenggries and Penzberg 17 and 22, to Murnau 15 
and 23, to Tolz 19 and 31, to Tegernsee 30 and 50, to Achensee 33 and 50 Jl. 

From Urfeld the road skirts the W. bank of the lake to (2 M.) — 
54V2 M. Walchensee (Post), a hamlet charmingly situated on a 
bay of the lake, and surrounded with beautiful woods. On the oppo- 
site bank are the church and parsonage of Klbsterl. 

It is preferable to proceed from Urfeld to Walchensee by boat in 3 / 4 hr. 
From the middle of the lake (the 'Weitsee') a fine view is enjoyed. On 
the S. bank are the houses of Altlach, whence a good bridle-path ascends 
the Hochtopf (4010 ft. ; IV2 hr. ; descent to Vorder-Eiss, see p. 216). Near 


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the 8. bank lies the wooded islet of Sastau (private; no adm.). Travellers 
bound for Mittenwald row from Urfeld (without going to Walchensee) in 
l'/2hr. to the mouth of the Obernach (see below). 

Beyond the hamlet of Walchensee the road is carried over the 
steep Katzenkopf (2775 ft.) to the ( 3 /d hr.) forester's house of Ober- 
nach, at the S. end of the lake. We now gradually ascend a lonely 
pine-clad valley. At (l^hr.) Wallgau (Altwirth), the broad valley 
of the Isar is reached (road to Vorder-Riss and Tblz, see p. 216). — 
From (l 1 ^ M.) Kr'xun (2895 ft. ; Inn) a road leads to the right, past 
the picturesquely situated Barmsee (p. 210), to (3 M.) Klais, on the 
high-road from Mittenwald to Partenkirchen. On the S. the pre- 
cipitous Karwendel-Gebirge is conspicuous; to the W. rises the 
Wetterstein-Gebirge. — 6 M. — 

661/2 M. Mittenwald (p. 210). 

35. From Munich to Tolz and Mittenwald. 

74 M. Railway to (36 M.) Tblz in l l /2-1 l /i hrs. Diligence from Tolz 
to (6V2 M.) Lenggriet twice daily, in l»/4 hr. ; to (10 M.) Benediktbeuern via. 
Heilbrunn and Bichl daily, in 2'/4 hrs. Diligence from Lenggries to Vor- 
der-Rist thrice weekly (Tues., Thurs., £ Sat.) in 4 hrs. One-horse carriage 
from Tolz to the Walchensee 10 J(, to Mittenwald 20 M. 

The train soon turns towards the S.; to the left are seen the Ba- 
varia and Ruhmeshalle, to the right the distant Alps. The line to 
Simbach (R. 40) and the direct line to Rosenheim diverge to the left 
(R. 38). — 3'/2 M. Mittersendling. At (6'/2 M.) Grosshesselohe the 
Isar is crossed ; to the left we obtain a view of the deep and gravelly 
bed of the river, with Munich in the distance. Then through wood. 
To the left, near (11 M.) Deisenhofen, is the large reservoir of the 
Munich water-works, with a capacity of 8,250,000 gallons. 16 M. 
Sauerlach. The Teufelsgraben ('devil's dyke'), a deep, dry hollow, 
is crossed, and the train reaches (23 M.) Holzkirchen (2245 ft. ; 
Post; Oberbrau; Rail. Restaurant), the junction of the lines to Ro- 
senheim (p. 222) and Schliersee (p. 220). 

The line skirts the E. side of the town, and diverges to the right 
from the line to Schliersee. 26 M. Ober-Wamgau; 30 M. Schaft- 
lach (2480 ft.; Rail. Restaurant; to Tegernsee, see p. 217). The 
mountains become grander; on the left rises the Benediktenwand. 
32 M. Reichersbeuern, with a handsome chateau. The (36 M.) Tblz 
station (2255 ft.; Rail. Restaurant; *Bellevue, with fine view, adja- 
cent) lies to the N. of the town, ife M. from the Isar bridge (omni- 
bus 20 pf.). 

Tolz (2160 ft. ; Post; *Biirgerbrau, *Bruckbrau, both with gar- 
dens; *Kolberbrdu ; Leehner, etc.), a small town (4092 inhab.), with 
breweries and a trade in timber, is prettily situated on a hill on the 
Isar. Many of the houses are frescoed with Biblical subjects. The 
garden of the Biirgerbrau and the *Calvarienberg (2320 ft. ; 1/4 hr.) 
command a fine survey of the Isarthal, stretching far into the dis- 
tance ; in the background, to the S.W., the long Benediktenwand 

216 Route 35. KRANKENHEIL. 

(p. 213) and the cone of the Kirchstein. On the left bank of the Isar, 
*/2 hr. from the station, are the baths of Krankenheil (*Cw-H6tel, 
with baths j *Sedlmair, with baths, R. 2, D. 2^4 Jl; *Arlmann, D. 
27-2 Jl; Actienbad; Pension Spenger, 5-7 Jl; Pens. Emilia, 5 Jl ; 
Pens. Villa Meister; furnished rooms at the Villa Belleoue, Daxen- 
lerger, etc.), with a Conversations-Saal, Trinkhalle, and Bath House 
(bath 2 Jl). The water is conducted in leaden pipes from the springs, 
4 M. distant, and contains natron and iodine. About l 1 /^ M. to the 
W. is the Zollhaus (*Inn, with baths), on a hill near which is the 
Alpenhaus Kogel (Restaurant, D. li/ 2 Jl)- The left bank of the Isar, 
close to the town, is laid out with extensive woods and promenades. 

From Tolz to the Walchensee there are two roads : by Kochel (21 M.), 
or through the Jachenau (25 M.) The Kochel Road (one-horse carr. 12, 
two-horse 18 Jl) leads to the W., past the Zollhaui (see above), Stallau, 
and (6 M.) the hatha of Heitbrunn (2235 ft.), with the Adelheidsquelle, 
containing bromine and iodine. We then pass Enzenau and Steinbach, and 
reach (3 M.) Bichl (p. 213). 

The Lenggeies and Jachenau Road (one-horse carr. to TJrfeld 18, 
two-horse 28 Jl) crosses the Isar beyond (6'/2 M ) Lenggries (see below ; on 
the opposite bank is the chateau of Hohenburg , see below), and reaches 
(2'/2 M.) Wegscheid (Zum Pfaffensteffl, rustic). The road now quits the 
valley of the Isar, skirts the wooded flanks of the Langenberg, and enters 
the Jachenau, a secluded valley watered by the Jachen, 10 M. in length. 
8 M. Zum Belch Inn. About 2 M. farther on is the village of Jachenau 
('2590 ft.; Neuwirth; Pfund). The road to Urfeld continues to ascend over 
the Fieberberg and then descends through wood to (4 M.) Sachenbach, at 
the E. end of the Walchensee, whence it follows the N. bank to (2 M.) 
Or/eld (p. 214). 

Fsom Tolz to Mittenwald (38 M. ; carr. to Vorder-Riss 18, 
with two horses 30 Jl). The road follows the right bank of the Isar 
to (672 M.) Lenggries (2230 ft.; Altwirth; Post), beyond which, on 
the left, is the Grand-Duke of Luxembourg's chateau of Hohenburg 
(with brewery and inn), and leads via Anger to (3 M.) Fleck (2275 ft. ; 
*lnn), with large saw-mills. Beyond (1 M.) Winkel the valley con- 
tracts and turns to the S.W. — The road crosses the Walchen or 
Achen, on the right bank of which a narrow road leads to (9 M.) 
Achenwald on the Kreuth post-road (p. 219), and reaches (6 M.) Fall 
(2435 ft. ; *lnn). 

The valley expands. 6 M. Vorder-Biss (2645 ft. ; Weiss, by the 
saw-mill), a royal shooting-lodge in a pine-clad dale, at the con- 
fluence of the Rissbach with the Isar. 

Through the Riss to the Achensee by road (30 M.). The road ascends 
the wooded valley past (3'/2 M.) the Oswald-Hiitte, and crosses the Tyrolese 
frontier to (5 M.) Hinter-Riss (3055 ft.), a shooting-lodge of the Duke of 
Coburg, in finely-wooded environs. At the foot of the small Gothic cha- 
teau are the low buildings of a Fr inciscan monastery (Inn, adjoining the 
monastery; ~Alpenhof, 20 min. farther on). — From Hinter-Riss the road 
ascends gently to the (2 hrj.) Hagel-Hiiite (3575 ft.), where the Rissthal 
turns towards the S. We then ascend in windings through wood to the 
(2 1 /:! hrs ) Plumser Joch (5410 ft), which commands a limited but fine view, 
and descend through the wooded Gernthal to (2 hrs.) Pertitau (p. 219). 

The road to Mittenwald crosses the Isar, and follows the left side 
of the secluded valley to (8 M.) Wallgau (p. 215), on the high-road 
from the Walchensee to (772 M.) Mittenwald (p. 210). 


36. From Munich to Tegernsee, Wildbad Kreuth, and 
the Achensee. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 214, 218. 
94 M. Railway to (34 M.) Omund in 21/2 hrs. Diligence from Gmund 
thrice daily to (31.) Tegernsee (i/j hr.) and (11 M.) Kreuth (2>/2hrs.; fare 
1 Jl 80 pf.). Post-Omnibus from Tegernsee (Guggemos) to Wildbad Kreuth 
twice daily in i 3 /4 hr., and from Kreuth to the Achensee (Scholastika) daily 
in 3'/2 hrs. — Carriage from Omund to Tegernsee with one horse 4 Jl, 
with two horses 1 Jl ; from Tegernsee to Kreuth onehorse 9, two horse 
12 Jl, to the Scholastika 16 or 24, to Jenbach 26 or 42 M ; from the Scho- 
lastika to Kreuth 6 or IO72, to Tegernsee 9 or 15, to Gmund 11 or 18 fl. 

— Steamboat on the Achensee from the Scholastika to the Seespitz (and 
hack) eight times daily in summer in 50 min. (90, 60 kr ). — Railway 
from the Seespitz to Jenbach (6 trains daily in 3/4 hr.) in connection with 
the steamboat (see p. 219). 

Railway to (30 M.) Schaftlach (change carriages), see p. 215. The 
branch-line to Tegernsee diverges to the left from the line to Tolz 
(on the right, the Benedikteivwand) and reaches the Tegernsee 
(33/4 M. long, I1/4 M. broad) at (34 M.) Omund (2430 ft.; Herzog 
Max; Bellevue; *Obermayer's Restaurant, at the station, with 'view), 
where the Mangfall emerges from the lake. 

Ealtenbrunn (Inn), a farm of Duke Charles Theodore, at the N.W. end 
of the lake, 1 M. from Gmund and 4 J /2 M. from Tegernsee by land, or reached 
by boat in 1 hr. (1 Jl 40 pf), commands the best survey of the lake. 

From Gmund a road leads along the E. bank, via St. Quirin, to — 

37 M. Tegernsee. — Hotels (omn. from Gmund station, 60 pf.). 
•Post, R. 2-3 Jl, B. 80 pf. ; 'Guggemos, R. 2, D. 1 Jl ; Tegeenseee Hof; 
"Steinmetz, R., L., & A. 3 Jl, B. 80 pf., pens. 5-8 Jl; Schandl, unpretend- 
ing; Pension Villa Helene, on the Lehber^. Lodgings may also be 
procured. — At Roltach: Scheuker, R. from l'/z Jl- — At Egern, at the 
S.K. end of the lake, on the road to Kreuth: Bachmaie, moderate; Gast- 
hof zue Uebekfahet; 'Villa Koen — Beer at the Sraustubl, in the 
brewery of the ducal chateau ; So/nmerkeller, with veranda, a little to the 
U. of the chateau (open on Sun., Wed., Frid., & Sat. afternoons). Cafi 
am See, with view-terrace; Maier, on the Albach, cafe and confectioner. 

— Boat, with rower, for 1-2 pers. 1 Jl per hr., 3-4 pers. 1 Jl 20, 5-6 pers. 
1 Jl 40 pf. 

Tegernsee (2400 ft.) , a large and charmingly situated village, 
attracts numerous visitors in summer. Beautiful walks in the 
environs. The imposing Schloss, formerly a Benedictine abbey, said 
to have been founded in 719, and suppressed in 1804, now belongs 
to Duke Charles Theodore of Bavaria; the N. wing contains a brew- 
ery (see above). Above the portal of the Church is an ancient relief 
in marble representing the princely founders of the abbey. Beautiful 

•Environs (numerous guide-posts). A favourite point is the Groase 
Parapluie, an open 'rondel', 20 min. to the S.K. The path ascends the right 
bank of the Albach, and in 3 minutes crosses a bridge (to the right) at the 
edge of the wood. Or the steps ascending to the left, about V2 M. to the S. 
of the S.E. angle of the Schloss, passing a memorial to the poet Carl 
Stieler (d. 1888), may be fallowed to the rondel (2680 ft.), which affords 
an admirable view of the lake and the encircling mountains. A path leads 
hence to tue Lehberger ('Restaurant) ; fine view of the head of the lake. 

— The Pflieglhof (2755 ft. ; rfmts.), 10 min. to the E. of the Parapluie, 
and the Westerhof (2920 f t. ; rfmts.), 35 min. above Tegernsee on the N.E., 
also cjmmand fine views. 

218 Route 36. WILDBAD KREUTH. Frcm Munich 

The Fall* of the Rottach are situated in a picturesque ravine, 51/2 M 
from Tegernsee. The road leads from the Schaaighof (see below) on the lef 
bank of the Rottach (or footpath on the right bank via the Duften-Muhle) 
passing Elmau, to (I1/2 hr.) Enter-Rottach (2565 ft ; Inn) ; 1 h M. farther 01 
(finger-post) the path to the falls descends to the right and rejoins the roat 
higher up. The road ascends hence to the Wechsel-Alp (3390 ft.), am: 
descends through the picturesque wooded valley of the Weisse Falepp U 
(3 hrs ) the foresters house of Falepp (p. 220). Thence by the Spilzing 
See to Schliersee 12 M. , and from Schliersee to Tegernsee 10 M. The wholi 
round forms a pleasant drive of 10 hrs. (carriage 20 Jl, with two horses 30 Jl) 

The 'Neureut (4115 ft. ; shelter-hut at the top), to the N.E., is ascende< 
from Tegernsee in 2 hrs. by a marked path. Splendid view (to the S. the 
Venediger). We may then keep along the ridge to the E. to the (1 hr. 
Gindelalmschneid (4350 ft.), with fine views of the Schliersee, the Kaiser 
gebirge, etc., and descend by the (10 min.) Gindel-Alp to (2 hrs.) Schlierse 
(see p. 220). 

The "Hirschberg (5480 ft.; 4'/ 2 hrs.) is an admirable and easily reache< 
point of view. The ascent is best made from Scharling, on the Krentl 
road, 3 M. from the ferry at Egern (see below). Here, or V2 M. before, on thi 
other side of the Lohbach Fall, we diverge to the right from the road 
pass a marble-quarry, and follow a marked path through wood via thi 
Holzpoint-Alp (3705 ft.) to the (2 hrs.) Ringberg-Sattel and the ('A hr. 
Hirschberg-Haus (4950 ft. ; "Inn), 25 min. below the summit. Splendid viey 
at the top (panorama by Waltenberger, 50 pf.). 

Other excursions (Riederstein, Risserkogl, Walmberg, etc.), see Baedeker' 
Eastern Alps. 

The high-road from Tegernsee to Kreuth passes the baths 
Schwaighof (sulphur-spring), crosses the Rottach, and leads througl 
(1 3 /4M.) Rottach (Scheurer), with its pretty country-houses. Abou 
1M. farther on (to the right is Egern, p. 217") it crosses the Weissaci 
(*Bachmair's Inn). 

Pedestrians save 1 M. by taking the ferry (5 pf.) across the S.E. arn 
of the lake from the O/4 M.) Kleine Parapluie to Egern (5 min.; Gastho 
zur Ueberfahrt, with lake-baths); the rjad on the other side reaches thi 
high-road at ( 3 /i M.) the Weissach bridge. 

The road follows the pretty valley of the Weissach via (1^2 M/ 
Scharling (*Hoegg; ascent of the Hirschberg, see above). The valley 
contracts near the village of (1^2 M.) Kreuth (Obermayer), to th< 
right of which rises the conical Leonhardstein (4760 ft.). On th< 
left is ( 3 /4 M.) the prettily-situated *Jnn zur Rainer Alpe, aboil' 
3 /4 M. beyond which a road to the left diverges to the (•/<> M.) — 

441/2 M. Wildbad Kreuth (2720 ft), a large bath-house and 
hotel (R. 2V2-3 M per day, 6-36 Jl per week, D. 3 Jt\ the prop- 
erty of Duke Charles Theodore of Bavaria, situated in a broad green 
basin. The springs, containing salt and sulphur, have been known 
since 1500. Good bathing arrangements; whey-cure, etc. Shady 
walks in the grounds of the Curhaus. 

Excursions (Gaisalpe, Kdnigs-Alpe, Bochalpe, Schildenslein, Schinder. 
etc.), see Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

The road from Bad Kreuth to the W. crosses the Weissach and 
joins the main road. The latter gradually ascends the wooded Weiss- 
ach-Thal, passing the (2 hTs.) hamlet of Glashiilte (2930 ft. ; *Inn), 
with the Bavarian custom-house of Stuben. Beyond the Stuben-Alp 
(3090 ft.), about 1 M. farther on, the road descends rapidly through 

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to the Achensee. ACHENSEE. 36. Route. 219 

profound ravines, and at the Kaiserwacht, in the onoe strongly fortified 
defile of Achen (2860 ft.), crosses the Tyrolese frontier. The Austrian 
custom-house is near the village of (l'/ihr.) Achenuald (2695 ft. ; 
*Inn l Zum Hageninwald 1 ). The road then gradually ascends along 
the Achen, or Walchen, the outlet of the Achensee, which rushes 
noisily in its deep bed. At (1 hr.) Leiten (Hinterer's Inn) the 4m- 
pelsbach-Thal opens on the left; in the background rise the grotesqua 
rocky horn of the Ouffert and the long ridge of the Vnniitz. 

59 M. Achenkiroh (3085 ft. ; *Kern ; *Post, with baths, 3/ 4 M. 
farther on; *Adler, good wine), a village 2*^ M. long, the scattered 
houses of which extend almost to the Achensee. At the N. end of 
the lake is *Maier's Inn, a little beyond which is the *H6tel Schola- 
stika (R. 80 kr., D. 1 fl. 10 kr.), with a veranda, a bath-house, and 
the church. About 8/4 M. farther on, on a green promontory, is the 
*H6lel Seehof (R., L., & A 1 fl. 20, D. 1 fl. 30 kr.), with a cafe' on 
the lake. 

The *Unniitz (6815 ft.; 3 hrs.; guide, unnecessary except for novices, 
3 fl.) affords an easy and attractive expedition. Good paths (marked with 
red) ascend from the inns on the lake to the (n/4 hr.) Kogel-Alp (4695 ft.; 
rfmts.), whence the summit ( Vorder- Urmiitz) is reached in l a /4hr. Extensive 
and magnificent 'View. 

The *Achensee (3050 ft.), 6V2 M. long, about 1/2 M. broad, and 
430 ft. deep, a dark-blue lake, the finest in N. Tyrol, lies 1300 ft. 
above the valley of the Inn. The road, hewn in the rock at some 
places, leads on the E. bank to (6 M.) Buchau (*Prantl), at the S.E. 
end of the lake (a drive of 1 hr.). Preferable is the Steamer, which 
plies eight times daily from Scholastika to Seespitz (and back) in 
50 min., calling at Seehof, Pertisau, and Buchau (circular tour 1 fl. 
30 kr.). Rowing-boat from the Scholastika to Pertisau in li/g nr - 
(1 pers. 70, 2 pers. 80 kr.); to the Seespitz in 2 hrs. (1 fl. and 1 fl. 
20 kr.). On the S.W. bank of the lake is the Pertisau, a green pas- 
ture enclosed by precipitous mountains and frequented as a summer- 
resort [^Fursttnhaus, on the lake, the property of the Benedictine 
abbey of Viecht, R. 90, D. 1 fl. 10, S. 45 kr.; * Hotel Stephanie, D. 
1 fl. 20 kr., pens. 3 fl. ; rooms at the Villa Wbrndle; Pfandler and 
Karl, in the village, V2 M. from the lake, unpretending; Lake Baths). 
Charming view of the lake; to the S. the mountains of the Innthal 
and of the lower Zillerthal. A road leads from Pertisau along the 
W. bank to the (1^2 M.) Seespitz (Brunner's Inn), at the S. end of 
the lake. 

Feom the Achensee to the Inn Valley we may from the Seespitz either 
follow the rapidly descending road through the Kasbach-Thal (3*2 M.) or 
proceed by railway (p. 217) via (1 M.) Maurach and Eben in 3 /4 hr. to (4 M., 
71 M. from Munich) Jenbach, on the railway to (94 M.) Inntbruck (see 
Baedeker's Eastern Alps or Baedeker's Austria). 


37. From Munich to Kuf stein via Schliersee 
and Bairisch-Zell. 

Comp. Map, p. 217. 

63 M. Railway to (33 M.) Schliersee in 2'/2 hrs. From Schliersee to 
(10 M.) Bairisch-Zell Post-Omnibus twice daily in 2 hrs. ; thence to (20 M.) 
Kufstein carriage-road, but no public conveyance. Carriage and pair from 
Schliersee to Kufstein in 6-7 hrs., 45 Jl. 

Railway to (23 M.) Holzkirchen (change carriages), see p. 215. 
The line diverges to the left from the Tblz line, and at (27 M.) 
Darching it enters the picturesque Mangfall-Thal. Opposite is 
Weycirn, formerly a monastery, now a school. — 30^ M. Thalham 
(2005 ft.) ; on the right rises the Taubenberg (3015 ft.), a fine point 
of view (IV4 hr. ; Inn, 10 miti. from the top). The train crosses the 
Mangfall, and traverses the wooded Schlierach- Thai. — 33^2 M. 
Miesbach (2245 ft.; * Waizinger; *Post; Kreiterer; Alpenrose; Wen- 
delstein), a thriving village and summer-resort, prettily situated. In 
the vicinity are several coal-mines. The train crosses the Schlier- 
ach twice, passes Agatharied and Hausham (with coal-mines), and 
reaches — 

38 M. Schliersee (2575 ft. ; Seehaus; Post; Seerose, at the sta- 
tion; Wagner; Messner, plain), prettily situated on the *Schliersee, 
and much frequented in summer. Peasints' theatre on Sun. and 
holidiys in summer at 7 p.m. The (5 min.) Weinberg-Kapelle affords 
the best view of the environs (fromE. to W., the Schliersberg, Rohn- 
berg, Eipelspitz, Jagerkamp, Brecherspitze, Baumgartenberg, and 
Kreuzberg). Baths at Seebad Spitz (*Restaurant, with rooms), l /% M. 
from the station, to the S. 

The road skirts the E. side of the lake. 2 M. Fischhausen (Kel- 
lerer) lies at the S. end of the lake; high up to the left the ruin of 
H ihenwaldeck. At ( 3 / 4 M.) Neuhaus (2653 ft. ; Eham), a summer- 
resort, the road divides, the right branch leading to Falepp, the 
left to Bairisch-Zell. To the E. rises the finely-shaped Wendelstein ; 
to the S. the Brecherspitze and Jagerkamp. 

The Road to Falepp leads through the Josephs-Thai, past (Y2 hr.) a 
paper-mill (Inn), and ascends in numerous windings, which the pedestrian 
may cut off, between the Brecherspitze, on the right, and the Jagerkamp, 
on the left. Beyond the (3/ 4 hr.) pass (3740 ft.), the road descends to the 
O/4 hr.) lonely Spitzing-See (3495 ft.), and follows the Rothe Falepp, past 
the (2 M.) Waizinger Alp (beer), to (2 M.) the forester's house of Palepp 
('2840 ft. ; Inn at the forester's), prettily situated in the midst of wood, 
below the union of the Rothe and Weisse Falepp. In the vicinity is the 
disused Kaiserklause. A marked path leads from Falepp by the Erzherzog- 
Johann-Klause and through the Brandenberger-Thal to (9-10 hrsj Brixlegg 
in the Inn valley. For details, and other excursions from Schliersee and Neu- 
haus (Brecherspitze, Bodenschneid, Rothmund, etc.), see Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

The road to Bairisch-Zell next passes (2 M.) Aurach, enters the 
wide Leitzach-Thal beyond (2'^ M.) Oeitau, and leads via (I1/4 M.) 
Oslerhofen to (2 M.) Bairisch-Zell (2630 ft. ; Wendelstein or Neu- 
wirlh; Post or Altwirth), a village prettily situated in a basin en- 
closed by the Wendelstsin, Seeberg, and Traithen. 

GRAFIXG. 38. Route. 221 

•Wendelstein (6035 ft.; 3 hrs.; guide unnecessary; horse to the Wendel- 
stein-Haus 8 Jl, if kept overnight 12 Jl), a much frequented and very 
fine point of view. We ascend through meadows hy a path (marked with 
white and red) past the Tanner-Miihle and several alps to the (2 hrs.) 
Upper Wendelstein Alp (5215 ft.) and the (s/4 hr.) Wendelstein-Haus (5655 ft.; 
"Inn, with90heds), whence a safe path protected by railings leads to the 
(20 min.) summit, a plateau 6-12 yds. broad and about 26 yds. in length, 
on which stand a new chapel and a cross. The "View (panorama to be 
obtained in the house) embraces (left to right) the Untersberg, Watzmann, 
Kaisergebirge, Tauern Mts. (with the Venediger and Gross-Glockner), and 
the Karwendel and Wettcrstein ranges (with the Zugspitze) ; to the K. the 
extensive Bavarian plain with the Chiemsee, Simmsee, and Starnberger See. 

From Bairisch-Zell to Obeeaudorf, 41/2-5 hrs. A rather rough road 
leads hv the Tanner-Alp and the Graf enherberg- Alp to the Auer-Briicke, 
and through the Auerbach-Thal to the (2'/2-3 hrs.) Tatzelwurm (2510 ft.; 
Inn), near a fine fall of the Auerbach (best viewed from the lower bridge). 
Then by the deep Auerbach-Thal past Rechenau to (2 hrs.) Oberaudorf (see 
Baedeker't Eastern Alps). 

The road to Kufstein (rough at places) follows the finely-wooded 
Vrspring-Thal and crosses the Austrian frontier at the (2 M.) Backer- 
Alp (2770 ft.). ] /2 M. farther on is the Inn Zur Vrspring (good wine) ; 
2^2 M. Landl (2195 ft.; Inn), a pleasant village in the Thiersee-Thal. 
The road forks here. The branch to the left leads through the 
valley of the Thierseer Ache (Kieferthal) to (4^2 M.) the Thiersee or 
Schrecksee (2040 ft. ; *Seewirth). Thence it crosses the Marblinger 
Hbhe (fine view of the Kaisergebirge), and descends through wood, 
passing the dark Langsee and the Ed, to (5 M.) Kufstein. — The 
more attractive road to the right from Landl ascends via (2i/ 4 M.) 
Inner-Thiersee (Grasshammer) and (2!/ 4 M.) Vorder-Thiersee (2200 ft.; 
Kirchenjackl), where the peasants perform passion-plays every tenth 
year, to the (8/4 M.) Thiersee. — Kufstein, and thence to Innsbruck, 
see Baedekers Eastern Alps. 

38. From Munich to Salzburg and Reichenhall. 

Comp. Maps, pp. 214, 222, 224. 

To Salzburg. 95 M., express in 3-3'/zhrs.; ordinary trains in 5 J /2 hrs. 
(fares 14 M 10, 9 Jl 80, c r 12 Jl 40, 8 Jl 20, 5 Jl 30 pf.) ; to Reichenhall, 
103'/2 Jf., express in 33/4, ordinary trains in 53/4 hrs. (fares 14 Jl 60, 10 Jl 30, 
or 13 Jl, 8 Jl 40, 5 Jl 30 pf.). Travellers from Salzburg to Reichenhall 
or Munich should be provided with German money. 

Munich, see p. 137. The railway skirts the town. Beyond the 
(3 M.) Munich S. Station (Thalkirchen) the train crosses the Isar. 
At (6 M.) Munich E. Station (Haidhausen) the Simbach-Braunau 
line diverges to the left (see p. 233). Stations Trudering, Haar, 
Zorneding, Kirchseeon. — 23y 2 M. Grafing (Railway Inn; Kaspers- 
brdu), a considerable place, l'/2 M. from the railway. 

From Grafing to Glonn, railvvny in 36 min. through the smiling 
Qlonnthttl, via Taglaching, Mootach, and Adling. From Glonn (Inns) pleasant 
excursions may be made to the C/2 hr.) chateau of Zmneberg (fine view), 
to the Olonnguelle, to the Steinsee, etc. 

Between Assling and Oster- Milnchen the broad dale of the Attel 
is traversed. To the right, opposite the traveller, rises the Wendel- 
stein, to the left the Kaisergebirge, in the background the Gross- 
Venediger. — 36'/2 M. Gross- Carolinenfeld. 

222 Route 38. CHIEMSEE. From Munich 

40 M. Bosenheim (1470ft. ; *Bayrischer Hof; *Konig Otto ; Alte 
Post; *Deutsche$ Haus, R. ll/ 2 -2 Jl ; Zum Wend'elstein , Thaller, 
both near the station and moderate ; Rail. Restaurant), the junction 
of the Innsbruck, Holzkirchen, and Miihldorf lines, a town of 10,000 
Inhab., with salt-works, lies at the influx of the Mangfall into the 
Inn. The salt-water is conveyed hither from Reichenhall, upwards 
of 50 M. distant. About 3 / 4 M. from the station are the *Kaiser- 
bad, with a large park, the *Marienbad, and the Dianabad, all with 
salt and other baths. Pretty view of the Innthal and the Alps from 
the (V2 hr.) Schlossberg (Restaurant), on the right bank of the Inn. 

Feom Monich to Rosenheim via Holzkikchen, 46 M., in 3 hrs. To 
(23 M.) Holzkirchen, see p. 215. We here diverge from the line to Schlier- 
see and enter the Teufelsgraben (p. 215), which ends at the valley of the 
Mangfall. Stations Westerham, Bruckmuhl, Heu/eld, and (40 M.) Aibling 
(1575 ft.; ' Ludwigsbad ; "H6tel Duschl; *Schuhbrdu;*Wittelsbach,viith£arAen 
and park ; *Johannisbad), a small town on the Glonn, with salt and mud 
baths. The Kaisergebirge, and beyond (43>/2 31.) Kolbermoor, with a large 
cotton-factory, the Gross- Venediger, become visible on the right. — 46 M. 
Rosenheim, see above. 

The train crosses the Inn, passes (44 M.) Stephanskirchen, the 
Simmsee (3 3 / 4 M. long), and (50 M.) Endorf (Post; Wieser), and 
runs to the S. through a hilly district to (56 M.) Prien (1745 ft. j 
*Zur Kampenivand, near the station and also a halting-place on 
the Chiemsee line, with view, R. 2 Jf ; Hotel Chiemsee , at the 
station; Kronprinz; Bayrischer Hof; Railway Restaurant), a fa- 
vourite summer-resort, in the smiling Prienthal. 

From Prien a Steam Tramway runs in 8 min. to (1 M.) Slock (Hotel 
Dampfschiff, with lake-baths), the landing-place of the steamer on the 
Chiemsee, which plies nine times daily in •/« hr. to the Herreninsel and 
six times daily in l fc hr. to the Fraueninsel (return-ticket to the Herreninsel, 
2nd class in the steam-tramway, 1st class on the steamer, 1 Jl 80 pf.; to the 
Fraueninsel 2 Jl 60 pf. ; rowing-boat ihere and back 1 Jl, with a stay of 
some time l'/2 U(). — The Chiemsee (1700 ft.l, 8>. 2 31. long and 61/2 31. broad, 
contains three islands: the large Herreninsel , with a monastery (now the 
old castle) and the new palace; the Fraueninsel, with a nunnery (now a 
girls' school) and an interesting church; and the Krantinsel ('vegetable 
island'), formerly a kitchen-garden for the monks and nuns. The Fraueninsel 
('20 acres in area) is also the site of a fishing-village and an "Inn, a favourite 
resort of artists, as an album kept in the house will testify. On the extensive 
Herreninsel (9 M. in circumference) rises the larj-'e *Schloss Herrenchiemsee, 
built in the style of Louis XIV. by King Lewis II. after the model of 
Versailles, but not completed (adm. daily from 1st May to 15th Oct. 9-5- 
fee 3 Jl, Sun. and holidays IV2 Jl; closed on 13th June). A few' min! 
walk from the pier, where tickets for the palace are obtained (to the 
right), is the Hdtel-Restaurant Artmann, with a veranda and garden. Thence 
we proceed through the grounds of the Old Castle and then through wood 
to (10 min.) the New Palace, built on three sides of a square (open on the 
E.), adjoined on the N. by a wing (unfinished) 480 ft. long. Iu front of 
the W. facade are ornamental Water-Works (without water at present) 
with the basins of Fortune, Fame, Latona, etc. The pillared Vestibule 1 
adorned with an enamelled group of peacocks, opens on a Court paved 
with black and white marble, on the right side of which is the' magni- 
ficent "Staircase, richly adorned with imitation marble ond painting On 
the first floor, turning to the right, we enter successively the Safle des 
Gardes du Roi (blue and gold), the Premiere Anlichambre (lilac), the Salon 
de TOeil de Boeuf (green; with an equestrian statue of Louis' XIV bv 
Perron), and the magnificent "Chambre de Parade. This last apartment 

J San 





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4 1 

1 "Wagner *■ De"bes, LeTpiigf. 

to Reichenhall. TRAUNSTEIN. 38. Route. 223 

an imitation of Louis XIV.'s Bed Chamber at Versailles , adorned in 
purple and gold, with a lavishly gilded bed, is said to have cost alone 
over 125,000*. Of the remaining rooms the chief are the "Oalerie del Qlaces 
or Spiegelgallerie, 245 ft. long and illuminated with 35 lustres and 2500 
candles, the Salon de la Ouerre and the Salon de la Paix, opening on the 
right and left of the Galerie, the royal Bed Chamber and Study, the Dining 
Room (with the table descending and ascending through the floor), the 
Small Gallery, the Oval Saloon, and the Bath Room. In all the rooms are 
costly furniture, clocks, etc. — The woods clothing the S. part of the 
island afford pleasant promenades. The long chain of the Bavarian and 
Salzburg Alps forms the S. background of the landscape. 

From Seebruck (Inn), at the N. end of the lake (steamer from Stock to 
Seebruck and Chieming in summer twice daily, except Frid.), aroadleaJs 
to (3 M.) Seeon, an old monastery on an island in the small Seeoner See. 
About 4V2 M. to the E. is the railway-station of Stein an der Traun (p. 224). 

A Bkanch Railway runs from Prim to the S. through the richly wooded 
Prienthul, in 32 min., past the station of Umratshausen, to the charmingly- 
situated village of (6 M.) (2020 ft.; "Rest and other inns), 
another summer-resort. About 1 M. to the S., in the middle of the valley, 
is the chateau of Hohenaichau, picturesquely situated on a rock, 100 ft. in 
height (at the foot a brewery and the *Inn zur Burg, B,. 3 Jt). Pleasant 
excursions to the Hofalpe (3350 ft.; l'/zhr.), the Hochriis (5115 ft.; 3>/2hr3.), 
the Kampenwand (513B ft.; 3 ] /2 hrs.), etc.; see Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

The line skirts the S. bank of the Chiemsee. 59'/2 M. Bernau. 
From (64 M.) Vebersee (Heindl) a branch-rail-way runs to Marquart- 
stein. The train crosses the Grosse Ache. — 69 M. Bergen; the vil- 
lage (*Huber) is prettily situated IV2M. to the S. 

Carriage-road from the railway-station (diligence twice daily in '/2 hr.) 
via. Bernhaupten to the baths of Adelholzen (2035 ft.), charmingly situated 
IV2M. to the S.E., well fitted up, and possessing three different springs (salt- 
petre, sulphur, and alum). The hilly neighbourhood affords many pleasant 
walks. About 2 M. to the 8.W. are the foundries and blast-furnaces of 
the Maximilians- Hiitte (2000 ft.; "Zum Eisenhammer; Hiitten-Schenke). — 
The easy and attractive ascent of the "Hochfelln (54S0 ft.) may be made 
from the Maximilians-Hiitte in 3 hrs. (guide unnecessary; horse 10, there 
and back lli , overnight 20 JU) , via the Briinnling-Alpe (3800 ft. ; Inn). 
About 65 ft. below the summit is the Hochfelln- Hans ("Inn; post and tele- 
graph office and telephone to Bergen). On the S. summit is the Tabor- 
Kapelle. The splendid "View commands the entire chain of the Salzburg, 
Bavarian, and Tyrolese Alps, the Chiemsee with four other lakes, and to 
the N. the plain as far as the Bavarian Forest. 

73 M. Traunstein (1935 ft.; *Traunsteiner Hof; *Krone, at the 
station ; * Wispauer; *Post; Scheicher; Sailer ;Weisses Brauhaus, etc.; 
*Bad Traunstein, with mineral, saline, and mud baths, a hydro- 
pathic establishment, and large garden, pens. B^/o-TJK^, a thriving 
place with 5400 inhab., on a slope of the Traun, is much fre- 
quented as a summer-resort. The extensive salt-works are situated 
in the suburb of Au, on the Traun ; the brine evaporated here is 
conducted in pipes from Reichenhall (p. 2241, a distance of 22^2 M. 

Feom Tbaunstein to Reichenhall via. Inzell, 22'/2 M. (post omnibus 
to Inzell, 11 M., daily in 3 hrs. ; carr. and pair to Reichenhall 22 M). The 
road, which beyond Inzell will also repay the pedestrian, leads via (4'/2 M.) 
Ober-Siegsdorf through the valley of the Rothe Traun to (4 M.) Inzell 
(2275 ft.; "Post), a village in the bed of an ancient lake. It then passes 
between the Falkenstein on the left and the Kienberg on the right, and 
traverses the deep Weissbach-Thal to the village of Weissbach (1995 ft.). 
Farther on, the road ('Neuweg') is carried along the rocky slope on the 
left, adjoining the salt-water conduit, to the (6 M.) " ifauthhausl (p. 225). 
Thence to (8 M.) Reichenhall, see p. 225. 

224 Route 38. RETCHENHALL. 

Fkom Teaunsteinto Tkostberg, 13 M., local railway in l^br., through 
the pretty Traunthal, via Bad Empfing, Stein an der Traun (Inn), and (11 M.) 
Allenmarkt. The two last-named are both l ! /2hr. from Seecn (p. 223). 

The Salzburg train crosses the Traun by a bridge 75 ft. in height. 
To the S., above the lower heights, towers the Stauffen, and farther 
on, the Untersberg. 77 M. Lauter ; 83 M. Teisendorf, with the 
ruined castle of Baschenberg; 89'/2 M. Freilassing (1380 ft.; 
*F'6ckerer; *Maffei, V4 M. from the station), the junction of the 
lines to the S. to Reichenhall (see below) and on the N. to Titt- 
moning (23 M. in 2 hrs.). The train crosses the Saalach (the 
Austrian frontier) ; to the right is Schloss Klesheim; to the left, the 
church of Maria-Plain. The Salzach is then crossed ; to the right a 
view of Hohen-Salzburg is suddenly disclosed. 

95 M. Salzburg, see Baedeker's Eastern Alps or Baedeker's Austria. 

The Reichenhall Line diverges to the left at Freilassing 
(see above) and ascends the left bank of the Saalach. On the right 
is the wooded Hogelberg; on the left the Gaisberg and Untersberg. 
93 M. Hammerau. On the right, near (95 M.) Piding, at the base 
of the abrupt Hochstauffen (p. 225), stands the ruin of Stauffeneck. 
The train then crosses the Saalach to — 

103^2 M. Reichenhall. — Hotels: "Coehaus Achselmannstein, with 
garden, E. & L. 4 (before the season 3) D. 3 Jl ; *Cue-H6tel Bdekert, 
adjoining the Cur-Park, R. & A. from 3, B. 1, D. 3 Jl; -Deutscheb Kaiser, 
with garden-restaurant, R. 1V2-4, pens. 7-10 Jl ; s Louisenbad ; 'Maximilians- 
bad ; 'Maeienbad (Dr. Hess) ; -Bad Kirchbeeg (p. 225), all suitable for a pro- 
longed stay. Apartments with pension: Villa Hessing, Schadeb, Mann, 
Wittelsbach, etc. — "Hotel Bavaeia, at the Reichenhall-Kirchberg station, 
R. 2-3, D. 2'/2, pens, from 6JI; Villa Thalfeied (hot. garni), with cafe"- 
restaurant; "Russischeb Hof, R. 11/2-272, D. 2'/2 Jl ; "Post (or Keone), 
E. 2J,- "Mdnchner Hoe; Hotel Bahnhof, with garden-restaurant; Gold- 
nee Hiesch, R. 1-3, B. V2 -M, unpretending. 

Cafes, etc.: Cafe Mayr, also a restaurant and lodging-house (R. & A. 
I 1 /! Jl), with garden; Staimer, by the Cur-Garten; * Niedermaier's Caft- 
Meierei, prettily situated 3/ 4 ji. to the N. of the Cur-Park, in the di- 
rection of the Saalach ; Fischerbraukeller, with garden ; Railway Restaurant. 
— Schiffmann, confectioner. 

Visitors' Tax (for a stay of more than a week) 15 Jl (less in proportion 
for members of a family). 

Baths at the Dianabad (with inhalation and pneumatic cabinets), at 
the Curhaus Achselmannstein, Louisenbad, Bad Kirchberg, etc. 

Post and Telegraph Office in the market-place and at the station 
(poste restante). 

English Church Service in summer. 

Eeichenhall (1555 ft.), a favourite watering-place on the Saale 
or Saalach (3800 inhab.), is picturesquely bounded on three sides by 
an amphitheatre of mountains, the L'ntersberg (6480 ft.), Latten- 
gebirge (5700 ft), Eeitalpgebirge (6460 ft.), MiMnerhorn (4500 ft.), 
Ristfeichtkogl(p3Lb ft.), Sonntagshorn (6430 ft.), and Hochstauffen 
(5815 ft.). This is the central point of union of the four principal 
Bavarian salt-works, which are connected by conduits of an aggregate 
length of 50 M. The large Salinengebaude, or salt-work buildings, in 
the market-place, contain the offices on the right, and four Sudhciuser 

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REICHENHALL. 38. Route. 225 

('boiling-houses', from 'sieden'; comp. Engl, seethe, suds) on the 
left, opposite which is the handsome Hauptbrunnhaus, or pump- 
house. In the latter (second door to the left) tickets of admission 
(1 M) to the springs and the salt-pans are obtained. 

The sources of the saline springs of Reichenhall, fifteen in number, 
are about 50 ft. below the surface of the soil, and are reached by a 
flight of 72 step?. Five of them are so strorgly impregnated (Edelquelle, 
25'/2 per cent) that they are at once conducted to the Gradirhaus (see 
below), and alto supply the fountain in the Gradir-Park. The fresh-water 
springs are conveyed to the Saalach by means of a shaft \>\i M. in length 
and 8 ft. in height. The pump-house contains the two huge wheels by 
which the pumps are worked. On the second floor is a chapel in the By- 
zantine style, with stained-glass windows. In the court are two fresh-water 
fountains adorned with statues of SS. Virgilius and Rupert. 

The Church, in the Romanesque style, is adorned -with small 
frescoes by Schwind. A new Protestant Church adjoins the Cur- 
Garten. Above the town rises the old castle of Gruttenstein (1680 ft.). 

Reichenhall is resorted to by patients suffering from general 
debility, chronic rheumatism, pulmonary affections, asthma, etc., 
who find relief in the mild and highly ozonized air, as well as from 
the salt-baths, saline and pine-needle inhalation, etc. The chief 
rallying-point of visitors is the Cur-Garten, beside the Gradirhaus 
(behind the Hotel Burkert), with a covered promenade, a cafe', etc., 
where a band plays from 6.30 to 8 a.m. and from 5 to 7 p.m. (on 
Tues. and Frid. afternoons at Bad Kirchberg, see below). The Cur- 
Anlagen contain the Soolsprudel, a salt-water fountain 20 ft. in height. 
The Gradirwerk (evaporating-house), 180 yds. long, is exclusively 
devoted to the purposes of the inhalation cure. 

Near the station of Reichenhall-Kirchberg (p. 227), a handsome 
new bridge crosses the Saalach to the *Kirchbtrg Bath-House, with 
salt and mineral baths and whey-cure (board 5 Jf per day; K. 10- 
36 Jt per week, L. & A. extra). 

Environs. One of the chief attractions of Reichenhall for invalids con- 
sists in the numerous shady woodland walks in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the town, some level and some gently ascending, e.g. in the Nonner 
Wald, Forstplantage , Kirchholz, etc. These are all marked by guide- 
boards and distance-posts. — On the Salzburg road, 1/2 M. to the N.E. of 
the Curhaus , lies St. Zeno (Bofwirth; Schwab enbrau), once an Augustine 
monastery, of very ancient origin, but suppressed in 1803, and fitted up in 
1863 as a nunnery and school. — The Konigsweg, a winding path among 
the fine pines of the Kirchholz, begins behind the monastery and ascends 
gradually to ('/» hr.) the Klosterhof (1770 ft. •, Cafe). Hence across the hill to 
Gross-Gmain, 20 minutes. 

To Gross-Gmain, a pleasant walk of 40 minutes. The route (footpath 
past Staimer's cafe, or road past the Villas Hessing and Langenfeld) crosses 
the bill, turns to the left by an old lime-tree, and descends gradually. 
Fine view of the Untersberg and Lattengebirge all the way. The pleasant 
little village (1710 ft.; Untersberg; Kaiser Karl) lies on the right bank of 
the Weittbach, just beyond the Austrian frontier. The picturesque ruined 
castle of Plain (popularly called Salzbiichsel; with belvedere) lies IV2 M. 
to the E., at the base of the Untersberg. 

To the W. of the Gradir-Park, beyond the C/2 M.) Nonner Steg (bridge 
across the Saalach), extends the Nonner Wald, which is intersected by 
numerous paths. The most frequented leads straight on (where it forks, 

Baedekeb's S. Germany. 8th Edit. 15 

226 Route 38. UNKEN. 

we pass through the fence to the right) to P/4 M.) Non (1590 ft. ; Fuchs- 
bauer's Restaurant), a village at the foot of the Hochstauffen, with an old 
church containing a Gothic 'Altar of the 15th century. — The "Padinger 
Alpe (2170 ft. ; cafe) may be reached from Non in 50 min. ; splendid view 
of the Reichenhall valley. — Other pleasant promenades : to the Molken- 
bauer (-0 min.), Alpgarlen C/2 hr.), Listsee (1 hr.), etc. ; see Baedeker's 
Eastern Alps. 

Among the nearer mountain-excursions, the ascent of the 'Zwiesel 
(5850 ft.), the W. and highest peak of the Stauffengebirge , is particularly 
recommended (4 hrs. ; guide unnecessary). Road to the (3 M.) farm of 
Langacker (rfmts.), at the foot of the mountain; bridle-path thence, for 
the most part through beautiful beech and pine woods, to the (2 hrs.) 
Zwiesel-Alp (4790 ft. ; Inn) and the (1 hr.) summit, which commands a 
magnificent mountain-panorama. — The ascent of the Hochstauffen (5815 ft.), 
the E. peak of the Stauffengebirge, is laborious (2!/2 hrs. from the Zwiesel- 
Alp; the ascent from Piding, on the N. side, is preferable, see p. 224). 

"To the Mauthhausl, 272 hrs., a very attractive excursion (carr. 
with one horse 6, carr. and pair lOtyiJl; omnibus daily in summer at 
2.30 p.m. from the Hotel Achselmannstein, returning at 6 p.m., return- 
fare l'/z Jl). The road leads to the W., passing Bad Kirchberg (p. 225), and 
ascends a wooded ravine. About 272 M. from Reichenhall, on two rocky 
eminences, are the Chapel of St. Pancras (1800 ft.) and the ruin of Karl- 
stein, two good points of view. About 3 /t M. farther on we reach the 
pretty T/iumsee (1730 ft.), l fe M. long and 74 M. broad (Restaurant on the 
opposite bank). The road ascends from the W. end of the lake through 
the picturesque Nesselgraben to the (IV2M.) pump-house of Obernesselgraben, 
at the summit of the pass (2120 ft.), and 1/4 M. farther on divides. The 
left branch descends to Schnaizlreut and Lofer (see below) ; while the right 
branch, known as the Neuweg, maintains its high level above the valley of 
the Weissbach (opposite rises the huge Bist/eichtkogel, 5315 ft. ; to the S.E. 
the Watzmann), and reaches the p/2 hr.) 'Mauthhausl (20<"5 ft. ; Inn), in 
a most picturesque situation above the profound gorge of the Weissbach. 
A path leads down to the Gorges of the Weissbach and the Schrainbach 
Fall in the ravine beneath. — Beyond the Mauthhausl the road goes on, 
past Weissbach and Inzell, to Traunslein (p. 223). 

Feom Reichenhall to Lofek, 17 j /2 M., diligence twice daily in 472 hrs. ; 
carr. with one horse 17, with two horses 27 Jl. From (5 M.) Ober/iessel- 
graben (see above) the road descends abruptly to (2 M ) Schnaizlreut (1670 ft. ; 
Inn), a hamlet in the Saalach valley, beyond which it crosses the Boden- 
biihl to (274 M.) TJnken (1810 ft.; "Post; Lamm), a favourite health-resort. 
About 2 M. to the S. are the small baths of Oberrain ("Inn). A visit 
should be paid to the imposing gorge of the " Schwarzberg-Klamm, 272 hrs. 
to the W., and to the Staubfall (3 hrs.). The • Sonntagshorn (6436 ft.), 
easily ascended in 41/2 hrs. (guide not indispensable), commands a magni- 
ficent view. — From Unken the road traverses the Kniepass to (6 M.) Lofer 
(2096 ft.; "Post; "Brau; ' Schweizer), a straggling village, much visited as 
a summer-resort, and beautifully situated between the Loferer Steinberge 
to the W. and the Reitalp-Oebirge to the E. Pleasant excursions to the 
Loferer Hochthal, the Loferer Alpe, etc. About 6 M. to the S., on the Ober- 
weissbach road, is the interesting 'Vorderkaser-Klamm. For details, see 
Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

39. From Reichenhall to Berchtesgaden. Konigs-See. 

Gomp. Map, p. 224. 

12 M. Railway in I1/4 hr. (2nd class 1 Jt 60 pf., 3rd class 1 Jl). The 
tickets are sold by the conductor on the train. The view-carriages, for 
which 2nd class passengers have to take an additional 3rd class ticket, 
are scarcely recommended. — Cabriage from Reichenhall via, Hallthurm 
to Berchtesgaden (preferable in fine weather) in 3 hrs., with one horse 
11 Jl 20 pf., with two horses 17 Jl (fee included); via. Hintersee and 
Ramsau (much better than via Hallthurm), 15 or 27 Jl ; see p. 232. — 

BEItCHTESGADEN. 39\ Route. 227 

Omnibus (1 Jl) and Carriages for the Konigs-See (tariff, see p. 228) meet 
the trains at Bcrchtesgaden. 

From Salzburg to Berchtesgaden : Steam Tramway to (8 M.) St. Leon- 
hard-Drachenloch in 53 min. ; omnibus thence to Bcrchtesgaden seven times 
daily in l 1 /* h r -i an( l to Konigs-See four times daily in 2 hrs. Through- 
ticket from Salzburg to Berchtesgaden, 2nd cl. 1 fl. 20 kr., 3rd cl. 1 fl. ; 
to Konigs-See 1 fl. 70, 1 fl. 50 kr., return-ticket 2 fl. 60, 2 fl. 10 kr. Cir- 
cular ticket from Salzburg to Berchtesgaden and back via Reichenhall, 
2fl. 90, 2 fl. 10 kr. — Carriage from Salzburg to Berchtesgaden 5 or8fl., 
there and back 6 or 10 fl. ; to the Konigs-See and back 8 or 12 fl. (visit to 
the salt-mines included in each case; the drive from Salzburg and back, 
with a visit to the salt-works, occupies 8 hrs.). 

Reichenhall (1555 ft), see p. 224. The train skirts the W. side 
of the town to (1 M.) Reichenhall-Kirchberg (*H6tel Bavaria, at the 
station; Bad Kirchberg, to the right, beyond the Saalach, p. 225) 
and then ascends to the left through the valley of the Waidbach 
(4 : 100). To the left is the chateau of Oruttenstein (p. 225). At 
(2M.) Gmain (1765 ft.; Restaurant) we obtain a view of the Unters- 
berg (left) and the Lattengebirge (right). To the left lie the village 
of Gross-Gmain and the ruin of Plain (p. 225). The train then stead- 
ily ascends along the base of the Lattengebirge, crosses the Weiss- 
bach and the old moraine of the Fuchsenstein, and proceeds through 
fine wood to (4i/ 2 M.) Hallthurm (2270 ft. ; ^Pension Hallthurm), 
picturesquely situated on the saddle between the Untersberg and the 
Lattengebirge, with an old tower. We then descend (2 : 100) through 
a wide green valley (in front, to the right, the Hochkalter, with the 
Blaueis glacier, to the left the Watzmann) and skirt the Bischofs- 
wieser Ache, which descends from the right. In front rises the Hohe 
Goll, to the right the Hagengebirge. Below (8 1 /? M.) Bischofswiesen 
(2015 ft.; Brennerbascht Inn, Neuwirth, p. 229) the train crosses 
to the left bank of the Ache. The next part of the line lies through 
the wild Tristram Ravine (short tunnel) to (10 1 /% M.) Omundbriicke 
(1805 ft.), at the confluence of the Bischofswieser Ache with the 
Ramsauer Ache. The train runs along the bank of the latter to 
(12 M.) Berchtesgaden (1770 ft. ; Hotel Bahnhof) ; the station lies to 
the S. of the town, near the salt-works (omnibuses for the principal 
hotels and the Konigs-See in waiting). 

Berchtesgaden.— Hotels. 'Bellevue, with baths, R., L., & A. 
2-1, B. 1, D. 3, pension 7-8 Jl, omn. 60 pf. ; "Leuthaus or Post, R. 2-3 Jl, 
B. 80 pf., pension 6-7, omn. l faJl; Vier Jaheeszeiten, at the upper end 
of the village, with garden and view, R. 2'/2, D. 3, B. 1, pens. 6-8 J; 
Hotel-Pension & Restaurant Deutsches Haus, R. 172-3, pens. 5-7 Jl ; 
"Hot.-Restaurant Bahnhof, at the station, pens. 5>/2^»; Watzmann, R. 
2 Jl; Krone; Salzburger Hof, pens. SJi; Neuhaus; Nonnthaler Wirths- 
haus; Bar; Lowe; Triembacher, R. 1 Jl ; Zur Konigs-Allee, on the 
Salzburg road. — Pensions: Geiger, b-7 Ji per day; Gisela-Bad; Berg- 
hof; Villa Minerva, with park and view; Luitpold; Villa Holzner 
(Cafi Waldlvft), in a cool situation; Wahlheim; Sohwabenwirth; GOhl- 
stein; Furstenstein; Wenig; Zechmeister. — Pens. Gregory, with cafe- 
garden, 6-8 Jl; Malterlehen, Hofreit, Villa Koppeleck, etc., in Sclibnau 
(p. 229); "Moritz, Steiner, and Recina, on the Upper Salzberg (p. 229; 
I1/4-IV2 hr.). 

Cafes. 'Forstner, near the Post, with rooms; Deutsches Haus (see above), 


228 Route 39. BERCHTESGADEN. 

beer; Cafi-Reslaurant Qohlstein, near the Malerhiigel. — Reading Room 
in the Rathhaus (1st floor), adm. free. 

Baths. Fresh and salt water baths at the Bellevue, the Leuthaus, and 
most of the pensions; Huber, Bahnhof-Str. ; Wilhelmsbad, Maximilian-Str. 
River Baths in the Gernbach, */* M. from the town, to the left of the Salzburg 
road, and at the Aschauer Weiher, 2 M. to the W. of the town (p. 229). 

Carved Wares in wood, bone, and ivory, for which Berchtesgaden 
has been famous for centuries, are kept in great variety by S. and P. Zech- 
meister, Kaserer, Walch, Wen'g, Huber, Grassl, and others. 

Carriages. To the Konigs-See and back, with stay of3hrs., one-horse 
carriage 8 Jl, two-horse 11 Jl TO pf. (for each additional hour 1 Jl more); 
to Ramsau 8 Jl 10 or 11 Jl 70, there and back (i/ 2 a day) 11 Jl 10 or 
15 Jl 70 pf. ; Hintersee 11 Jl 40 pf. or 17 Jl, there and back 13 Jl 40 or 
20 Jl 40 pf. ; to the Almbach-Klamm 8 Jl 10 and 11 Jl 70 pf. ; to Vordereck 
(Pens. Moritz), with two horses 11 Jl 70 pf. ; to Ilsank 5 Jl 70 pf. ; to 
Meichenhall via Schwarzbachwacht, returning via Hallthurm, 17 Jl 50 or 
26 Jl 50 pf. Fees included, but tolls extra. — Omnibus from the station 
to Konigs-See in connection with the trains (1 Jl); to the Wimbach-Klamm 
Hotel (Ramsau), twice daily in summer from the station (2'/2 Jl) ; to the 
Hintersee once daily in July and August (3>/2 Jl). 

English Church Service in summer. 

Berchtesgaden (1885 ft.), a small Bavarian town with 2300inhab., 
was down to 1803 the seat of an independent provostry, or ecclesias- 
tical principality, the dominions of which were so mountainous and 
so limited in extent (165 sq. M.), that it was jestingly said to be 
as high as it was broad (interesting relief-map in the above-men- 
tioned reading-room). One-sixth part only was cultivated, the 
remainder consisting of rock, forest, and water. The handsome old 
abbey is now a royal chateau. The Abbey Church possesses Roman- 
esque cloisters, carved stalls, marble tombs of the Abbots of Berch- 
tesgaden, and an interesting crypt. The Luitpold Park, in front of 
the royal villa to the S. of the town, was embellished in 1893 with 
a bronze *Statue of Prince Luitpold, regent of Bavaria, by F. von Mil- 
ler. This point commands a fine view: to the left the Schwarzort, 
Hohe Goll, and Hochbrett, in the background the Stuhlgebirge and 
Sclionfeldspitze, to the right the Kleine and Grosse "Watzmann. In 
the valley, on the Ache, are situated extensive Salt Works and the 
Station of the Reichenhall Railway (p. 227). Berchtesgaden is a 
very favourite summer-resort, and the environs afford an almost in- 
exhaustible variety of beautiful walks and excursions. 

Walks (comp. the guide-book issued by the local Alpine Club). 
About 3/4 M. to the E., on the Salzburg road, is the Salt Mine, a visit to 
which requires about 1 hr. Ticket for the regular trips at 11 a.m. and 
5 p.m., I1/2 Jl each; at other hours, from 6 a.m. to 7 p.m., admission for 
one person 'A l /-i Jl, for each additional person I1/2 Jl. Visitors of each 
sex are provided with appropriate miners' costumes and with lanterns. 
The mine is enlered on foot, numerous flights of steps ascended, and an 
occasional descent accomplished by means of wooden slides inclined at 
an angle of 45° or more. The 'Salz-See', illuminated somewhat feebly by 
miners 1 lamps, is traversed in a boat. The party then passes through 
several other chambers and galleries, the most interesting of which is the 
huge Kaiser-Franz chamber, now deserted, and reaches the tramway by 
which the mine is quitted. 

The 'lockstein (2235 ft. ; 1/2 hr.) commands an admirable view of the 
valley of Berchtesgaden, particularly by evening-light. We turn to the 
right by the abbey-church and ascend the Doctorberg by the old Reichen- 

BERCHTESGADEN. 39. Route. 229 

hall road; at the hospital we turn to the right, again keeping to the right 
where the path divides, and proceeding through the wood to the restau- 
rant. — A few hundred paces before the hospital, a charming path to the 
left skirts the precipitous Kdlberstein (see below) by the 'Soolenleitung', 
or salt-water conduit, to the (','4 hr.) Calvarienberg (fine view), and pro- 
ceeds thence, passing above the royal villa, to the new Reichenhall road. 
— Another 'pleasant excursion may be made by following the old Reichen- 
hall road past the hospital (see above) as far as the (V2 hr.) Roelhausl 
(2185 ft.), and then proceeding to the right through the Rcstwald to O/4 hr.) 
the Aschauer Weiher (2135 ft.), with swimming and other baths (1/4 M. to 
the N.E. the "Restaurant Dietfeldkaser, picturesquely situated). — A pleas- 
ant return-route from the Rosthausl to Berchtesgaden is offered by the 
Konigsweg, extending for I1/2 M. along the wooded slopes of the Kalber- 
stein, and joining the old Reichenhall road at the hospital (see above). — 
A very pleasant walk may be taken to Bischofswiesen (p. 227) by follow- 
ing the old Reichenhall road to the (3 M.) Neuwirth p/4 M. farther on, near 
the station, the Brennerbascht Inn), returning by the new Reichenhall road. 
A fine return-route is also afforded by the beautiful Maximilians-B.eitweg', 
which is reached through meadows (marked path) in about 10 min. from 
the railway-station of Bischofswiesen. This bridle-path traverses the 
Roslwald, on the slope of the Untersberg, and ends at the Dietfeldkaser 
near the Aschauer Weiher (see above). — Another excursion leads to the 
(1 hr.) Bockl Weiher in the Strub (1985 ft.; Restaurant; baths), via the 
new Reichenhall road as far as Reilofen, then to the left via, Urbanlehen 
to the Bischofswieser Ache, the right bank of which we ascend (from the 
pond to the Neuwirth, 25 min.). 

The Schlbsslbichl (V2 hr. ; 2075 ft.), an inn with a pretty view, at the 
mouth of the Qerner-Thal, is reached from Nonnthal by the Silgerberg; 
in the vicinity are the Etzerschlossl, a villa belonging to Prince Urusoff, 
and the Etzer-Milhle, with a waterfall. A new road leads hence to (20 min.) 
the village of Gern (2390 ft. ; Inn), with the pilgrimage-church of Maria- 
Oern (good ceiling-paintings and old votive tablets). A new path (red 
marks) ascends to the right between the school and the inn to the (23 min.) 
* Marxen-Hbhe (2566 ft.), affording a splendid view. 

Schonau is a scattered village on the plateau between the Konigsseer 
Ache and the Ramsauer Ache (pensions, see p. 227). A picturesque walk 
leads from the station past the chateau of Lustheim, to the (1 hr.) Vienna 
Gafi-Garden at the Pens. Gregory and (V4 M.) the Kohlhiesl (Cafe), re- 
turning by the Unterstein road (H/4 hr.) passing the Sulzberglehen, or via, 
Ilsarik (p. 231; 2 hrs.). Charming views of the Hohe G611, Brett, Kahlers- 
berg, etc. 

The Upper Salzberg (to Vordereck or Pens. Moritz, l'/s hr. ; on. 
from the station to Pens. Moritz daily at 3.30 p.m., 3 Jl, carr. and pair 
11 M 70 pf.) may be reached by crossing the Ache at the rifle-range, and 
proceeding by a road, shaded the greater part of the way, past (I1/4 hr.1 
the Pension Steiner. Beyond this point the road divides, the left branch 
leading to ('/< ir.) the forester's lodge at Vordereck (3180 ft.; Cafe; adjoin- 
ing the "Ptnsion Villa Regina), the right to ( l /t hr.) the "Pension <£ Restau- 
rant Moritz (3135 ft.), in a sheltered situation (pens. 8 Jl). The pensions 
on the Upper Salzberg (besides those already mentioned: Bergler; Hblzl; 
Kurz, etc.) are steadily growing in reputation as health-resorts. 

The "Almbach-Klamm, a picturesque gorge through which the Aim- 
bach descends in cascades from the Untersberg, is an interesting object 
for an excursion (l'/2 hr. ; carr. to the hotel in 3/4 hr.). We follow the 
Salzburg road to (3'/4 M.) the 'Almbach-Klamm Hotel, turn to the left to 
(5 min.) a bridge over the Ache, descend the left bank for 5 min., and 
near the Almbach-MUMe ascend on the left side of the gorge, which has 
recently been made accessible by a well-constructed path ('Pionierweg') 
as far as the p/4 hr.) Thtresienklavse (2338 ft.). The finest point is the 
Gumpe, a rocky basin with a cascade 33 ft. high falling into a durk-green 
pool, about 8 inin. from the entrance of the gorge. 

"Vorderbrand (l'/2-2 hrs.; carr. and pair there and back 13 M 70 pf. ; 
donkey with attendant 10 Jl). At the 0/4 hr.) Wemholz, on the old Konigs- 

230 Route 39. KONIGS-SEE. 

See road, we diverge to the left to (IV2 hr.) Vorderbrand (3485 ft. ; Inn). 
Thence in 20 min. to the Vordere and Bintere Brandkopf (3795 ft.), which 
afford magnificent views. 

"Seharitzkehl-Alp (3360 ft. ; l>/2-2 hrs. ; guide, unnecessary, 3, donkey 
and attendant 10 Jl). From the rifle-range we ascend the Herzogberg to 
the right, passing the Kalte Keller (a deep rocky cleft), or diverge to the 
left from the Konigs-See road opposite the station, and pass the Wald- 
hdusl. Both routes unite near the Bchiedlehen. The Alp (rfmts.) lies in 
an extensive meadow, surrounded by trees, between the Gonlstein and the 
Durreckkopf. About 3 /i hr. farther up is the Endsthal, a desolate valley 
at the W. base of the Hohe Gbll, containing rocky debris and patches of 
snow. From the Scharitzkehl-Alp to Vorderbrand 3 /t hr. , to Vordereck 
l'/2 hr. (p. 229). 

Mountain ascents (Knmfelspitze, Todte Mann, Jenner, Breft, Gbhlslei 
Ilohe Goll, etc.), see Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

The gem of this district is the clear, dark-green **K6nigs-See 
("1975 ft.), or Lake of St. Bartholomew, 6 M. long and 1 1/4 M. broad, 
the most beautiful lake in Germany, vying in grandeur with those 
of Switzerland and Italy. Some of the surrounding mountains, which 
rise almost perpendicularly from the water, are 6500 ft. in height 
above the lake. The new road, opened in 1894, crosses the Ache 
near the station by an iron bridge, and gradually ascends along the 
right bank of the stream to (l^hr.) the village of Kbnigssee (Zum 
Konigsseo, Schiffmeister, both on the lake), on the bank of the lake, 
with a small bath-house. 

The 'Schiffmeister' Moderegger presides over the rowing-boats and 
their crews, and regulates their trips. The fares are paid to him on return- 
ing; the rowers usually receive a small gratuity. The latter are sometimes 
stalwart peasant-girls, the sinews of whose arms might well be coveted by 
heroes of the Isis or the Cam. From the middle of June to 1st Oct. there 
are four regular trips daily round the lake, starting at 8.30 a.m., 11.30 
a.m., 1.30 p.m., and 2.30 p.m., and occupying about i 3 /t hrs., including 
3 /i hr. at the Sallet-Alp and 1 hr. at St. Bartholoma (fare for each pers. 
IV2 Jl). Small boat (2 pers.), with one rower, to St. Bartholoma 3 Jl; 
with two rowers (1-4 pers.) to St. Bartholoma 4 ] /2, to the Sallet-Alp ty-jzJl; 
with three rowers (7 pers.) 772 and 11 Jl ; for parties of 10 or upwards 
1 Jl and IV2 Jl each. The best plan is to row direct to the Sallet-Alp 
(l ] /2 hr.), and call at St. Bartholoma in returning. The most favourable 
light is in the early morning or late in the afternoon. 

Lake Voyage. To the left, on a promontory, is the Villa Beust; 
in the lake lies the islet of Christlieger, with a statue of St. John 
Nepomuk. The boat passes the Falkenstein, a rock with a cross com- 
memorating the wreck of a boat with a party of pilgrims about 150 
years ago. The lake now becomes visible in its entire extent; in 
the background rise the Sagereckwand, the Oriinsee-Tauern, and the 
Funtensee-Tauem, and adjoining them on the right the Schonfeld- 
spitze (8700 ft.). On the E. bank the Konigsbach falls over a red 
cliff (about 2525 ft.) into the lake. A little farther on, at the deepest 
part of the lake (616 ft.), a long, reverberating echo is awakened 
by a pistol tired in the direction of the W. cliffs (Brentenwand). In 
the vicinity, on the E. bank, not far from the Kessel Fall, is a cavern 
on a level with the water, called the Kuchler Loch, from which a 
streamlet enters the lake. The boat touches at the Kessel, a wooded 
promontory on the E. bank, whence a good path, leading through 

OBERSEE. 39. Route. 231 

the Kesselgraben, ascends to the (10 min.) pretty waterfall of the 
Kesselbach (briile-path to the Gotzen-Alp, see below). 

The boat now proceeds to the S.W. to St. Bartholoma, a green 
promontory, with a chapel and a former royal hunting chateau. At 
the restaurant kept by the forester good salmon-trout (Salmo salve- 
linus, Ger. Saibling) may be obtained (dear). In the cellar is a large 
tank for keeping the fish. 

On the S.W. bank of the lake the Schrambach is precipitated 
into it from a rocky gorge. The SalUt-Alp, a poor pasture */2 M. in 
breadth and strewn with moss-grown rocks, with a villa of the Duke 
of Meiningen, separates the Konigs-See from the beautiful *Obersee 
(2000 ft.), a lake 1 M. long, enclosed on three sides by lofty pre- 
cipices of limestone. To the left rises the sheer Kaunerwand; beyond 
it tower the Teufelshorner (7855 ft.), from which a brook descends 
over the Rolhswand in several arms from a height of 1800 ft. On the 
E. bank is the Fifchunkel-Alp, to which a narrow path (not recom- 
mended) leads on the S. bank in 1/2 hr. 

From the Kessel (p. 230) a good path in long windings ascends to the 
(3V2-4 hrs. ; guide, unnecessary, 5 Jt) "Gotzen-Alp (5530 ft.), opposite St. 
Bartholoma (rustic quarters, with 5 beds, in the Springel- Kater). Magni- 
ficent view of the Uebergossene Aim, Steinerne Meer, Watzmann, Hohe 
Goll, Untersberg, etc. The view towards the N. is imperfect until we 
reach the O/4 hr.) Feuerpalfen (5640 ft.) on the N.W. margin of the Alp. 
Somewhat beyond that point, from the brink of the rock lower down, the 
lake and St. Bartholoma are visible 3300 ft. below us. Descfnt to the 
(2 hrs.) Ketsel. where a boat (previously ordered) should be in waiting. 

To the Ramsau a road leads direct from the Konigs-See via Schonau 
(p. 229) to (41/2 M.) Ilsank (see below). 

From Bekchtesgaden to Reichenhall (12 M.), railway via. 
Hallthitrm in l 1 ^ hr. ; see p. 227. A far preferable route, however, 
is the Road by the Ramsau and the Schwarzbachwacht (20 M. ; 
omn. daily to the Hintersee, see p. 228). The road passes the Luit- 
pold Park and beyond the Theresien-Allee joins the new Reichen- 
hall road. After 3 / 4 M. (direction- post) it descends to the left, 
crossing the (^3 M.) Qmundbrucke over the Bischofswieser Ache. 
At (2i/ 4 M.) Ilsank (1910 ft. ; Inn, pens. 4-5 Jf) a brook descend- 
ing about 400 ft. works a pump by which the salt-water from the 
mines is forced up to the Solderikopfl, 1200 ft. higher, and over the 
Schwarzbachwacht to Reichenhall, a distance of 20 M. 

A flight of steps ascends thence to the Soldenkopfl (3110 ft. ; simple re- 
freshments in the pump-house) whence a good path with fine views leads 
along the brine conduit to the (i 1 /* hr.) Zipfelhausl (rfmts.) and the (t 3 /« hr.) 
Schwarzbachw; cht (p. 232). 

The fine new road now runs along the left bank of the foaming 
Ache ; to the left a grand view of the Watzmann; before us rises the 
broad Steinberg. The *Bamsau is remarkably picturesque owing to 
the contrast of the luxuriant vegetation of the valley with the impos- 
ing and picturesquely-shaped grey mountains. — On the left (l^M.) 
a Anger-post indicates the path to the 'Jagdschloss Wimbach'. 

A path crossing the bridge (2050 ft. ; "Restaurant) to the left, and 
ascending to the right by the 'Trinkhalle', leads to the (V4 hr.) "'Wimbach- 

232 Route 39. HINTERSEE. 

Klamm. The clear blue water of (he brook here forms beautiful falls in 
ils rocky ravine, into which the sun shines about noon. 

The ascent of the "Watzmann (6-7 hrs. ; guide 10 Jl, to the middle 
peak 12 Jl; to the Watzmann-Haus, 6 Jl), is not dilficult for experts. 
We ascend from (U/4 hr.) Ilsank by Schappach (rfmts.) to the (Q 1 /* hrs.) 
Mitterkaser-Alpe (4570 ft.) and the (U/2 hr.) Watzmann-Haus on the Falz- 
kiipfl (6330 ft.; "Inn in summer). Thence we ascend the arete to the B. 
of the Watzmann-Grube and over the Watzmann-Anger to the (2-2>/2 hrs.) 
Waizmann-Hocheck (8700 ft.), on which are a frigonrmetrical bench-mark 
and two crosses. The 'View embraces the Gross-Glockner, Gross -Vene- 
diger, Krimmler Tauern, the vast Bavarian plain, the entire Salzkammer- 
gut and district of Berchtesgaden, with the Wimbach-Thal below, and the 
Konigs-See and Obersee to the S. 

On the road, '/2 M. above the finger-post (see p. 231), is the *Inn 
zur Wimbachklamm (pens. 4-5 Ji\ and a little beyond it the *lnn 
zum Hochkalter. Then ( 3 / 4 M.) Ramsau (2190 ft. ; Oberwirth, well 
spoken of). About % M. farther on the road divides, the branch to 
the Hintersee and the Hirschbichel (see below) leading to the left. 
The Road to Retchenhall ascends straight on (right), past the 
small Taubensee (2845 ft.) and through beautiful pine-woods, to the 
(2'/4 M.) Schwarzbachwacht (2910 ft.), a pump-house on the sum- 
mit of the pass, beyond which the Brine Conduit (p. 231) runs par- 
allel with the road (V4 M. farther on is the small Inn zur Schwarz- 
bachwacht). The road then descends into the deep wooded valley 
between the Reiter-Alpe on the left and the Laltengebirge on the 
right, and (3 M.) crosses the Schwarzbach. At the (1 M.) Jettenbertj 
pump-house (1795 ft. ; rfmts.), at the end of the valley, another 
bridge crosses the Schwarzbach, which forms a fine cascade (Staub- 
fall) here and falls into the Saalach immediately b?low. The road 
skirts the right bank of the Saalach, passing opposite Fronau, to 
(41/2 M.) Retchenhall (p. 224). 

The Ober-Weissbach Road crosses the Ache and again forks. 
The new road leads to the left, partly through wood, with fine views 
of the Reiter-Alpe, etc., and skirting the S.E. bank of the Hinter- 
see, to the (1 hr.) Auzinger Inn (see below), where it rejoins the 
old road. The latter, to the right at the fork, recrosses the Ache, and 
ascends to the (l'/2 M.) Hintersee (2580 ft.), the W. bank of which 
it follows. Not far from the N.W. end of the lake, near the small 
St. Antoni Chapel, is the Wartstein Inn (pens. 4-5 Jl), affording a 
picturesque view of the Hochkalter with the Blaueis, the Hohe Goll, 
etc. About 3/4 M. farther on, 1 / i M. from the upper end of the lake, 
are the forester's house of Hintersee (2605 ft.) and the Bavarian 
custom-house. Opposite is *Auzinger's Inn. 

Excdesions from the Hintersee (Blaueis, Edelweisslahnerkopf, Stadet- 
hom, Hochkalter, etc.), see Baedeker's Eastern Alps. 

Those who desire to proceed to Reichenhall from the Hintersee take 
the road to the left at the N. end of the lake, skirting the W. side of the 
Wartstein (ascended in 25 min. ; pretty view), turn to the left again 10 min. 
farlher on, and in '/« hr. reach the Beichenhall road below the Taubensee 
(see above). 

The beautiful valley between the Hochkalter (left) and the ifeifer- 
Alpe (Grundiibelhorner, Muhlsturzhorn ; right) is now ascended to 

MUHLDORF. 40. Route. 233 

the (6 M.) Hirschbichel (3780 ft. ; Inn), with the Austrian custom- 
house of Mooswacht. 

The 'Kammerlinghorn (8045 ft.), ascended from the Hirschbichel in 3>/2- 
4 hrs. (somewhat fatiguing ; guide, desirable, 5 Jl, from Ramsau 11 Jl), 
is an admirable point of view (Steinerne Meer, Tauern, etc.). 

The road ascends a few hundred paces farther to its highest 
point (3870 ft.), and then descends into the Saalach-Thal (the marked 
footpath saves l /^ hr.). Before us rise the imposing Leogang Stein- 
berge. About 2*/4 M. from the Hirschbichel, near a saw-mill, a 
finger-post indicates the way to the *Seisenberg-Klamm, a profound 
and very picturesque gorge, hollowed out by the action of the Weiss- 
bach, which dashes over huge blocks of rock below. At the (25 min.) 
Binder- Miih'e, at the lower end of the ravine, we reach the Saalach- 
Thal; a road leads hence to (V2 M.) Ober -Weissbach (2150 ft.; 
*Auvogl, near the church), where we rejoin the road from the Hirsch- 
bichel (to the left). The *Inn zur Frohnwies lies V2 M. to the S. 

The road to Saalfelden (one-horse carr. from Frohnwies 4, two- 
horse 6-7 fl. ; omnibus twice daily in summer, 1 fl.) traverses a defile 
(Hohlwege), 6 M. long, on the right bank of the Saalach. Near the 
deserted mill of Diesbach, the stream of that name forms a pretty 
waterfall (8 min. to the left of the road). The valley then expands, 
and the Tauern chain is seen towards the S. 

9 l /% M. Saalfelden, on the Salzburg and Tyrol Railway, see Bae- 
deker's Eastern Alps. 

40. From Munich to Linz by Simbach 

148 M. Railway in 41/4-U1/2 hrs. (fares 16 Jl 80, 10 Jl 90, 6 Jl 50 pf. ; 
by 'Orient Express', first class only, 21 Jl 60 pf.). 

From the Munich Central Station to the (6 M.) East Station, 
where the Rosenheim line branches off to the right, see p. 221. To 
the right, in the distance, are the Alps, with the Wendelstein. 

Several unimportant stations. 19 M. Schwaben, a thriving village 
(branch-line to Erding~). Near (47 M.) Ampfing Emp. Lewis the 
Bavarian defeated and took prisoner his rival Frederick of Austria 
in 1322. To commemorate the victory he erected the small church 
to the left on the railway. — 52 M. Miihldorf (1260 ft.; Post; *Eberl, 
by the rail, station, plain), a little town on the Inn, with 2925 
inhah., lies below the level of the line, from which its towers only 
are visible. To Rosenheim and Plattling, see R. 43. 

Near (60 M.) Neu-Oetting (Post) the line crosses the Isen above 
its confluence with the Inn. 

Alt-Oetting (Posl; Cafl Warner), 3 3 /« M. to the E. (diligence in 8/4 hr.), 
is a famous pilgrimage-resort, with a miraculous image of the Virgin (in 
the small church in the market), said to have been brought from the East 
in the 7th century. The abbey-church contains the tomb of Tilly (p. 132) ; 
in the treasury are precious relics dating from the 8th cent, downwards. 

The line approaches the Inn; broad willow-clad valley; to the 
left, wooded hills. 64 M. Perach, prettily situated on the hill to 
the left. A long embankment on the river-side is next traversed. — 

234 Route 40. BRAUNAU. 

Near (68 M.) Marktl the mountains recede, and the train quits the 
Inn, into which the Salzach falls 3 M. to the S. An omnibus plies 
thrice daily in P/4 hr. from Marktl to Burghausen, on the Salzach, 
with an interesting old ducal castle. — 73 l /2 M. Buch. — 76 M. 
Simbach (Alte Post; Rail. Restaurant), the last Bavarian station; 
luggage is examined here by Austrian custom-house officers. The 
Inn is then crossed. 

78 M. Braunau (Ente; Post), an old-fashioned town with 3100 
inhabitants. The late-Gothic Church of the 15th cent., has a fine 
tower (interior modernized in bad taste). In the Promenaden-Platz 
by the Spitalkirche rises the *Palm Monument, in bronze, designed 
by Knoll, in memory of John Palm, the patriotic bookseller of Nurem- 
berg, who was shot at Braunau by Napoleon's order (comp. p. 102). 
— Branch-line to Stein dor f, see Baedeker's Austria. 

Beyond this the country is pretty and wooded. 84 M. Minning ; 
88 M. Obernberg-Altheim. The line ascends; to the left, farther on, 
we have a fine survey of the Innthal. 90 M. Geinberg ; 92^2 M. 
Gurten. — 100M. Ried (Lowe), a thriving town (4500inhab.) on the 
Oberach and Breitach, and junction of the Salzkammergut Railway 
(see Baedeker's Eastern Alps). The Schwanthaler-Str. contains the 
ancestral home of the famous sculptor of that name. 

The line again ascends, affording views to the right and left. 
104 M. Peterskirch; 108 M. Pram-Haag ; 116 M. Neumarkt. Thence 
to Wels and (148 M.) Linz, see p. 240 and Baedeker's Austria. 

41. From Nuremberg to Furth (and Prague). 

100 M. Railway to Furth in 31/2-GV2 hrs. (fares 12 M 90, 8 Jl 60, 5 M 
bO pf.), to Prague in 8V2-HV2 hrs. ; custom-house examination at Furth. 

Nuremberg, see p. 95. The line ascends the left bank of the 
Pegnitz (on the right bank runs the line to Eger via Schnabelwaid, 
p. 109). — 21/2 M. Mogeldorf (Restaurant zur Ostbahn) ; 3 / 4 M. from 
the station the Schmaussenbuck, a favourite resort from Nuremberg 
(p. 109). — 4 M. Laufamholz. On the right near (7 M.) Rothenbach 
rises the Moritzberg (shady path to the top in l 3 / 4 hr., via Rocken- 
brunn), which commands the plain of Nuremberg and the valley of 
the Pegnitz. IO1/2 M. Lauf, on the left bank of the Pegnitz (p. 109 ; 
Oertel's Restaurant, at the station); 13 M. Ottensoos ; 15 M. Henfen- 
feld, with a small chateau. — 17'/2M. Hersbruck(p. 109); the station 
lies on the left bank of the Pegnitz, 1/2 M. from the town, and 
1^4 M. from the other station (p. 109) on the right bank of the Peg- 
nitz, on the N. side of the town. 

Near (20 M.) Pommelsbrunn (Rimer, at the station ; *Paulus, 
Vogel, in the village), a summer-resort, prettily situated at the base 
of the Houbirg, the line quits the Pegnitz-Thal, which here turns to 
the N. Scenery picturesque. 23 M. Hartmannshof ; 26 M. Etzelwang 
(N.E., the ruined Rupprechtstein and the well-preserved Schloss 

AMBERG. 41. Route. 235 

Neidstein). — 28 M. Neukirchen , on the watershed between the 
Main and the Danube. 

Fkom Neukirchen to Weiden (31'/2 M. , railway in 2 hrs.). Stations 
Grossalbershof, SchSnKnd, and (12 : /2 M.) Vilseck, an old town on the Vils, 
with a late-Gothic church. Then Langenbr-uck, Freiung, Rothenbach, Weihev- 
hammer, where the Heidenab is crossed, and (31V2 M.) Weiden (p. 134). 

34 M. Sulzbach (1394 ft. ; Krone ; pop. 4668), with an old Schloss 
of the Dukes of Pfalz-Neuburg-Sulzbach, now a house of correction 
for women. 36 M. Rosenberg, with the blast-furnaces of the Max- 
hutte (p. 134); 39'/2 M. Altmannshof. To the right rises the Erz- 
berg. with its iron-mines. 

411/2 M. Amberg (1235 ft. ; PfalzerHof; Mayerhofer's Restau- 
rant, both near the station), a town on the Vils, with l9,100inhab., 
has a well-preserved wall and moat , and is encircled by a flue 
avenue. The large Jesuits 1 College is now occupied by the gymna- 
sium, a seminary, and a brewery. The late-Gothic Church of St. 
Martin (15th cent.), with a tower 295 ft. high, contains a tombstone 
of Count Palatine Rupert (d. 1393). The Rathhaus , with its two 
fine halls , contains the valuable archives of the town. The large 
Prison has room for 1300 convicts. Guns for the Bavarian army 
are made at the Gewehrfabrik here. Outside the Vilsthor is a mon- 
ument to Max Joseph I. The Mariahilfberg (1630 ft.), with a 
pilgrimage-church, affords an extensive prospect (Inn). 

45 M. Hiltersdorf; 50 M. Freihols; 55 M. Irrenlohe. We then 
cross the Nab. 58 M. Schwandorf (p. 134), junction of the Eger 
and Ratisbon line (R. 27). Our line turns to the E., traversing 
wood and passing several large ponds. 66 M. Altenschwand ; 70 M. 
Bodenwbhr ; 76 M. Neubau ; 80 V> M. Roding (1 164 ft. ; Kleber, Post), 
a thriving village on the Regen, V/4 M. to the S. ; 82 M. Posing. 

88 M. Cham (1263 ft. ; Post; Vogel), an old town with 3600 
inhab, , on the N. margin of the Bavarian Forest (p. 245), is the 
old capital of the Chamberich. Gothic Rathhaus of the 15th cent. ; 
adjoining it the late-Gothic church of St. James (1514). 

The old Chammunster , l'/2 M. to the E. of the town, is a late-Gothic 
church on Romanesque foundations. Near it is the lofty ruin of Chomereck. 

Feom Cham to Lam. 25 M., railway in 2>/3 hrs., through the winding 
valley of the Regen. — From (3 M.) Runding (Simeth's Brewery), with a 
ruined castle, a pleasant excursion may be made to the (2 hrs.) Ilaidstein 
(2450 ft.), a fine point of view, with a chapel and some scanty ruins. The 
descent may be made via Ried, with its gigantic lime-tree, to (l>/2 hr.) 
Kotzting (see below). — 5 J /2 M. Chamerau; 9 3T. Miltach. Above (11 M.) 
Blaibach the Schwarze Regen unites with the Weisse Regen. — We follow 
the valley of the latter via Pulling to (I31/2 M.) Kotzting (1345 ft. ; "Decker ; 
'Post; "Krans), a small industrial town at the foot of the steep Kailerslevg 
(3300 ft.). The Burgstall (Hohe Bogen; see p. 23G) is ascended hence via 
Rimmbaeh in 3'/2 hrs. Over the Haidstein to Runding 3'/2 hrs. (see above). 
A road leads to the S.E. to Viechlach (see p. 246). — 17 31. Grafenwiesen; 
20 M. Hohenwarth, at the base of the Hohe Bogen (p. 236); 22>/2 31. Ar- 
rach. — 25 M. Lam, see p. 247. 

"We now traverse the deep Chambthal. 92 M. Kothmaissling ; 
96 M. Ahrnschivang, with an old castle and church. 

236 Route 42. STRAUBING. 

To the S.W. rises the finely-shaped Hohe Bogen (highest point, the 
Eckstein, 3523 ft.), ascended from Ahrnschwang or Furth in 2-2'/2 hrs. The 
Burgstall (3210ft.), the W. peak, commands a fine survey of the valley 
of the Regen, and of a great part of Bohemia and the Upper Palatinate. 
Amongst the woods on the W. spur lies the ruin of Lichteneck (2438 ft.). 
From the Burgstall to Kbtzting , see p. 235. — We may penetrate farther 
into the Bavarian Forest by descending from the Eckstein on the S.E. side 
to the (25 min.) Diensthutte (refreshments), whence we may either descend 
to (3/ 4 hr.) Hohenwarth (p. 235), or follow the top of the hill to the ( 3 /» hr.) 
belvedere on the IJohenstein (path marked in red), and go thence via Kager 
to (l'/ 2 hr.) the high-road, which leads to (.41/2 M.) Lam (p. 247). 

100 M. Furth (1345 ft.; *Post; ZumHohenbogen, at the station; 
Waschinger ; breweries of Utz and Altmann; Rail. Restaurant), a 
small town with an ancient tower and a ruined castle, the junction 
of the Bohemian W. Railway (luggage examined). 

In the Cljambthal, about '/iM. to the E., lies the Wutzmuhle ("Hotel- 
Pension). Fine points of view are the Aepflet-Kvppe, 25 min. from Furth, 
and the Voitenberg-Oed, 35 min. farther on (path marked in white). 

Omnibus twice daily in 4>/« hrs. to (15 II.) Lam (p. 247; fare 2 Jl 
50 pf.). The road leads by (4 M.) Eschlkam (1543 ft. ; "Neumaier), a prettily 
situated summer-resort, and (4'/4 M.) Neukirchen ("Moreth; Koepl), at the 
N.E. base of the Hohe Bogen (see above), with a pilgrimage-church. 

From Furth to Prague, see Baedeker's Austria. 

42. From Ratisbon to Passau and Linz. 

The Danube from Fassau to Linz. 

140 M. Railway to (74 M.) Passau in 2-4 hrs., to (140 M.) Linz in 5-8 hrs. 
— Steamboat from Passau to Linz daily in summer in 3 hrs. (fares 2 (1. 
60, 1 fl. 55 kr.); up from Linz to Passau, 8 hrs. (fares 1 fl. 60, 1 fl. 20 kr.). 
The custom-house examination takes place on Ihe purchase of tickets in 
the Rathhaus. The check received is given up on embarking. 

To (5 M.) Obertraubling, see p. 135. Our line diverges to the 
left from the Munich railway (R. 27). Stations Mangolding, Moos- 
ham, Taimering, Siinching (branch-line to Geiselhbring , p. 135), 

251/2 M. Straubing (1090 ft.; Schwarzer Adler ; Post, R. II/4- 
2 Jl, B. 60 pf., D. 2 Jl; Kraus), a very ancient town (pop. 13,850) 
on the Danube, lies in an extensive and fertile plain, the granary 
of Bavaria. The late-Gothic church of *St. James (1429-1512) con- 
tains paintings attributed to Wohlgemut, a fine altar with statues of 
the year 1500, and good stained glass (1442 and 1503). The Ro- 
manesque church of St. Peter, in the cemetery on the lofty bank of 
the Danube, passes for the oldest building in the town and is sup- 
posed to occupy the site of the Roman Serviodurum. The Gothic 
Oymnasialkirche (of 1430), formerly the church of the Carmelites, 
contains the fine monument of Duke Albert II. (d. 1397). The 
Schloss (now barracks) was once occupied by Duke Albert III. with 
his wife Agnes Bernauer (p. 114), the beautiful daughter of a barber 
of Augsburg. Her father-in-law Duke Ernest, exasperated by his 
son's mesalliance, cruelly and unjustly caused her to be condemned 
to death and thrown into the Danube from the bridge (1435). Her 
remains were interred in the churchyard of St. Peter, as recorded 

PASSAU. 42. Route. 237 

by an inscription on a marble slab in the Agnes Bernauer Chapel 
(of 1436). The square Stadt-Thurm (223 ft.), with its five turrets, 
was erected by Duke Lewis I. in 1208. 

30 M. Amselfing; 33 V2 M. Strasskirchen, 4 M. to the S.W. of 
which are the mineral -baths of Munchshofen ; 37 M. Stephans- 
posching. On the left the Natternberg (1260 ft.), with a ruined castle 
and a modern chateau. — 41 M. Flattliug (1040 ft.), where the line 
crosses the Isar, near its confluence with the Danube, junction for 
Miihldorf and Eisenstein. (Excursion in the Bavarian Forest, see 
p. 245.) 

46J/2 M. Langenisarhofen ; 50 M. Osterhofen; 54 M. Girching ; 
56^2 M. Pleinting. The line nears the Danube, and follows it to Passau. 
On the opposite bank rises the well-preserved ruin of Hiltgersberg . 

60 M. Vilshofen (1007 ft. ; Ochs; Bayrischer Hof), the Roman 
Villa Quintanica, at the confluence of the Vils and Danube, has a 
Gothic church of 1376. — 64 M. Sandbach. On a rock to the left, 
farther on, we observe a recumbent lion, erected to the memory of 
Maximilian I., the projector of the high-road, which between this 
point and Passau is in many places hewn through the rock. 

69 M. Schalding ; 71 M. Heining. The towers of Passau, the 
fortress of Oberhaus, and the charming environs of the town now 
come into view. Luggage is examined at the station. 

74 M. FaBSaa. — Hotels. *Bayrischer Hof (PI. a; C, 3), E., L., & A. 
from 21/2, D. 2'/2 M, -Moiie, R., L., & A. from IV2, D. 2 Jt, B. 55 pf., 
both in the Ludwig-Str. ; -Wenzel zuk Sonne (PI. c ; C, 3), corner of The- 
resiengasse and Untere Sand, near the bridge over the Inn ; Zue Eisen- 
bahn, near the rail, station, moderate. — Wine Saloons: "Zum Wilden 
Mann, Schrott.gasse ; "Bathhauskeller, in the Rathhaus (p. 239); Miihlbauer; 
Cottel; Heilige-Geist-Btiftsschenke (see p. 238; good Austrian wine). — Beer 
at the "Stadt Wien (PI. B, 3), Ludwigs-Platz ; Stockbauer-Garten (PI. E, 2, 3), 
with view of the Danube; Krembauer, at Anger (PI. C, 2; p. 239); Peschl- 
keller (PI. A, 3), near the station, with terrace towards the Danube ; Stock- 
bauerkelkr (PI. B, 4), Schmerdldkeller , Hellkeller (PI. A, 4), beyond the 
drill-ground; Innstadt Brewery (PI. E, 4). — Post & Telegraph Offices, at 
the rail, station (PI. A, 3) and in the old Canonical Court in the Domplatz 
(PI. C, 3; p. 238). — Baths in the Danube, left bank; also in the Ilz, 
right bank, warmer. 

Passau (960 ft.), the Castra Batava of the Romans, the capital 
of an episcopal see from 739 to 1803, with 16,600 inhab., lies on 
a rocky tongue of land formed by the confluence of the Inn (319 yds. 
in breadth) with the Danube (only 264 yds. wide). Numerous 
houses, chiefly of the 17th and 18th cent., on the banks of the 
rivers, especially on the Inn, give the town an imposing appearance. 
The peculiar and picturesque situation of the town at the confluence 
of the Danube, Inn, and Ilz, and the variety of views commanded by 
the neighbouring heights, will amply repay a short visit to Passau, 
one of the most beautiful places on the Danube. 

From the station (PI. A, 3) the Bahnhof-Str. leads to the E. to 
the Ludwigs-Platz (PI. B, 3), and thence, somewhat to the left, to 
he Neum arkt or Ludwig-Str., which, with its E. continuation the 

238 Route 42. PASSAU. From Ratisbon 

Rindermarkt, is the busiest part of the town. To the right, at the 
corner of the Heilige-Geist-Str., is the Votivkirche in the Roman- 
esque style, erected in 1564 and remodelled in 1864. On the facade 
are statues of Christ and the Apostles. The interior, -which has no 
aisles, is tastefully decorated. Above the high-altar is a group of the 
Coronation of the Virgin by Knabl. — Adjacent, on the right, is the 
Heilige Oeistspital, with a church and the tavern mentioned at p. 237. 

Farther on, on the left side of the Rindermarkt, is the St. Jo- 
hannes-Spitalkirche (PI. C, 2), with numerous wood-carvings, an- 
cient and modern, ranged along the walls, and tombstones in red 
marble. To the right, higher up, is the Parish Church of St. Paul 
(PI. C, 2), built in 1678 and skilfully paintedin the interiorin 1851. 

Passing through the Paulusbogen adjoining the church, we 
ascend to the right through the Postgasse to the Parade-Platz or 
Domplatz (PI. C, D, 3). On the E. side, on a height overlooking the 
town, rises the Cathedbal or St. Stephen, founded perhaps as 
early as the 5th cent. , restored in the Gothic style in the 15th cent. , 
and rebuilt in a florid rococo style by C. Lorago after a fire in 1662 
(nave completed in 1684, towers in 1695). This is one of the finest 
German churches of the 17th century. The outside of the choir, 
transept, and dome date from the 15th cent, restoration, but the 
interior has been modernized. The fine organ , by Hechenberger 
(1889), is the largest in Bavaria. On the N. side is the Domhof, 
with interesting restored chapels ; on the wall of the cathedral here 
are numerous old gravestones. The chapel of the Holy Trinity (1572), 
with a large modern carved altar and the names of all the bishops of 
Passau, contains the monument of the founder, Prince-Bishop Tren- 
bach (d. 1598). The Heinrichs-Kapelle, with modern stained-glass 
windows and gilded carving , dates from 1710. The Via Dolorosa 
or Kreuzweg Chapel (1414) has four slender octagonal pillars, and 
old tombstones of red marble on the walls. The adjacent Mt. of 
Olives or Oelberg Chapel, founded in 1288, contains a marble tomb 
of Count Heinrich III., erected in 1360. 

The Parade-Platz in front of the cathedral is adorned with a 
Statue of Maximilian I. in bronze. Opposite to it, on the W. side, is 
the Post Office, formerly the Canons' Residence, historically inter- 
esting as the place where the Treaty of Passau (1552), establishing 
religious toleration, was concluded between Emp. Charles V. and 
Elector Maurice of Saxony. See the inscriptions above and adjoin- 
ing the entrance. The present building dates from 1724. 

The choir of the cathedral adjoins the Residenz-Platz (PI. D, 3), 
in which rise the Old Bishop's Palace (now containing the Amts- 
gericht and the Landgerichi) and the New Bishop's Palace (1771), 
both with rich rococo portals. 

A street descends hence to the right to the Inn Bridge (see 
p. 239). To the left the Schrottgasse leads to the pier of the Danube 
steamers, passing the Rathhaus (PI. E, 3), rebuilt after a fire in 

to Linz. PASSAU. 42. Route. 239 

1662, and considerably enlarged and provided with a tower in 1888- 
93. The walls and ceiling of the Council Chambers are embellished 
with paintings from the history of Passau, by F. Wagner. Below 
is the tastefully decorated Eathhauskeller (p. 237). Going farther 
E., we then follow the Braugasse to the right to the Church of the 
Holy Cross (PI. E, 3), belonging to the dissolved nunnery of Nie- 
dernburg, a Romanesque basilica of the beginning of the 13th cent., 
with low vaulting, lately restored. It is now a school kept by Eng- 
lish nuns. The Maria-Parz Chapel on the S. side contains the tomb 
of the Abbess Gisela, Queen of Hungary, and sister of Emp. Henry II. 
(shown on application). 

The Braugasse leads on to the promontory at the E. end of the 
town, with a few relics of the old castle of Ort, where we obtain a 
fine view of the broad expanse formed by the confluence of the rivers, 
whose different-coloured waters seem to strive for the mastery. 

An iron bridge crosses the Inn to the Innstadt (PI. C-E, 4), the 
ancient Bojodurum, rebuilt since its destruction by Are in the war 
of 1809. The church of St. Severinus (PI. C,4), who was a mission- 
ary here in the 5th cent., dates from the Romanesque period but 
was remodelled in the Gothic style in 1476. The Parish Church of 
St. Gertraud (PI. D, 4) was restored in 1888. Following the Maria- 
hilfgasse from the bridge and then ascending to the right, outside 
the town-gate, by the road leading to the "Waldschloss (see below), 
we reach (!/ 4 hr.) the pilgrimage-church of *Mariahilf (1256 ft.; 
PI. E, 4). Both on the way to the church and above it we obtain 
charming surveys of the town, the confluence of the Inn and Danube, 
and the fortress of Oberhaus. The church, with its richly gilt altar, 
attracts numerous worshippers. The court contains tasteful modern 
Stations of the Cross, with coloured reliefs. From the vestibule of 
the church, garnished with votive tablets, a flight of 164 steps de- 
scends to Innstadt. — In Austrian territory, 72 M. from Mariahilf, is 
the Waldschloss, a restaurant prettily situated on the margin of 
a wood. 

The Town Park (PI. A, 2), on the slopes of the left bank of the 
Danube, ^2 M. to the W. of the Maximilians-Briicke (see below), 
affords a number of shady wood-walks. A little higher up is the 
Plantage (beer-saloon), whence roads and paths lead back to the 
Danube via the episcopal chateau of Freudenhain (PI. A, 1 ; 1790- 
92), now a school. 

The fortress of "Oberhaus (1378 ft. ; PI. E, 2), built by Bishop 
Ulric II. in 1219, crowns the precipitous, wooded height of the 
Oeorgsberg, on the left bank of the Danube, opposite Passau. It is 
connected by a rampart and walls with the old fortress of Nieder- 
haus (PI. F, 2), on the tongue between the Hz and the Danube. The 
road leaves the town at the upper end, crosses the Danube by the 
Maximilians-Briicke, 240 yds. long, and descends on the, left bank 
through the small suburb of Anger, and through a tunnel in the 

240 Route 42. PASSAU. From Ratisbon 

rock, to the Ilz. The shortest route for pedestrians is by the new 
Chain Bridge at the lower end of the town (3 pf.). On the left, be- 
yond the tunnel, is the Gothic Salvator-Kirehe (PI. E,2), a curious 
three-storied edifice, with groined vaulting and a series of chapels, 
erected in 1479-84 on the site of a synagogue and restored in 1861. 
Modern carved altar, gilded and painted, with good imitations of 
Adam Krafft's Stations of the Cross at Nuremberg (p. 103). 

From the Ilz Bridge (see below) the road ascends to the left to 
the lower gate of the fortress in y 4 hr. The *Belvedere on the Katz 
battery (adm. 50 pf. , on Sun. 20 pf. ; adjacent the Lusenhiitte 
Restaurant) affords a beautiful survey (best in the evening) of the 
town, of the valleys of the Ilz, the Danube, and the Inn, and of 
the hills of the Bohemian and Bavarian Forests (see the excellent 
indicator). A red flag on the fortress indicates that the weather is 
clear enough for a view of the Berchtesgaden and Salzburg Alps to 
the S. The tower contains a small collection of objects from the 
Bavarian Forest. The well which supplies the fortress is 426 ft. 
deep, and extends down to the level of the Danube. In the middle 
ages the Oberhaus, now a state-prison, frequently afforded the bish- 
ops a refuge from civic broils. In 1809 it was occupied by the 
French, and the Austrians prepared to besiege it; but they aban- 
doned their intention after their defeat at Ratisbon (p. 119). 

Those whose time is limited may take the footpath from Oberhaus 
to the right, by a small house before the old powder-magazine is reached, 
and descend direct to the Ilz and Danube , or they may follow the tele- 
graph-posts to the left and then descend the steps to the bridge over the 
Danube. But the traveller who has 2 hrs. to spare should follow the top 
of the hill from the upper gate of the fortress , passing the old powder- 
magazine, to (25 min.) Ries (*lnn), and descend thence to O/4 hr.) 'Hals 
(960 ft.; Hydropathic Etlablishments) , a village charmingly situated in the 
valley of the Ilz, and commanded by the ruined castle of the same name. 
There is an old pillory by a corner-house in the market-place. Above 
the village (finger-post), by the Hofbauer, we cross the Ilz (3pf.), and descend 
the promenade on the left bank to the (Vihr.) Durchbruch, a tunnel, 143 yds. 
in length, hewn in the rock in 1831, through which an arm of the Ilz flows. 
On the wooded hill above the tunnel is the ruined castle of Reschenstein. In 
clefts of the rocks here is found a beautiful luminous moss. A footway, 
protected by a balustrade , leads through the tunnel. At the farther end 
there is a long barrier to intercept the floating timber as it descends from 
the Bavarian Forest (p. 245). A foot-bridge crosses from the upper end of 
the tunnel to the Triflhamchen (rfmts.) on the right bank. We return 
through the Durchbruch, follow the left bank for 8 min., and cross to the 
steam saw-mill ; then follow the right bank to the O/4 hr.) bridge of Hals. 
We return by the road on the right bank of the Ilz to (l'/2 M.) the suspen- 
sion-bridge of Passau (see above). 

At the mouth of the Ilz (see above) , an important channel for 
the timber-traffic, a bridge crosses to the Ilzstadt (PI. E, 1, 2), at 
the base of the Nonnberg, inhabited by boatmen and raftsmen. 
Above it rises the (20 min.) *Klosterberg, or Nonnengiitl (PI. E, 2 ; 
visitors generally admitted), a charming point of view, which af- 
fords the best survey of the union of the light-gray Inn, the yellow- 
ish-green Danube, and the inky Ilz. After having received the 
waters of the Inn, the Danube becomes a noble stream. 

to Linx. FREYUNG. 42. Route. 241 

The belvedere on the *Schardenberg (1785 ft.) is another of the nu- 
merous fine points near Passau. We cross the bridge over the Inn, and 
ascend the Linz road to (3 M.) Qattern, l l fe M. beyond which a road, slightly 
descending to the right from the high-road, leads to the tower (adm. 
10 pf.) in a few minutes. Restaurant adjacent. A most extensive view is 
here enjoyed of the Bavarian Mts. and the Alps of the Salzkammergut and 
Styria, with a picturesque foreground. We may now descend in 3 /< hr. 
to Wernstein (p. 242). 

From Passau to Neurnarkt (Rott-Thal Railway), see p. 244. 

From Passau a pleasant excursion may be taken to the S.E. part of 
the Bavarian Forest (comp. p. 245). 

From Passau to Freyung, 30 M., railway in 3 hrs. The train crosses 
the Danube above Passau, ascends through wood to (6 M.) Tiefmbach 
(1207 ft.), and then winds down to the pretty valley of the Ilz. Stations: 
Fischhaus ; Kalteneck; 15V2 M. Fiirsleneck (1397 ft.), a prettily situated chateau, 
now an inn. We then follow the valley of the Osterbach. 19'/2 M. Rbhm- 
bach (1692 ft. ; "Pfreimter) ; 24 M. Waldkirchen ("Post; Abel; Meindl); 27 M. 
Karlsbach. — 30 M. Freyung (2170 ft.; 'Prbbstl; Post), a busy little town. 
About i/« nr - to tne N., on a rock towering above the brawling Sausbach, 
is the imposing chateau of Wolfstein, now occupied by the district-authori- 
ties; and Va br. to the S.W. rises the Qeiersberg (2592 ft.), a splendid point 
of view. From Freyung we may proceed to the N., via the Bierhiitte and 
Haslach, to (2 hrs.) Hohenau (2638 ft.; 'Moosbauer). Or we may choose 
the longer but pleasanter route, which descends by the church of Freyung, 
crosses the Sausbach, and descends on the right bank, through the "Bueh- 
berger Leite, a romantic rocky gorge, to (4'/2 M.) the mill of Buchberg ; we 
then ascend to the right by Saulohrn and Haslach to (l'/s hr.) Hohenau. 
From Hohenau roads lead to the S.W. to (41/2 M.) Qrafenau (p. 246), and 
to the N.W. to (6 M.) St. Oswald (p. 247; route to the Rachelsee and over 
the Rachel to Klingenbrunn , 5 hrs. , see p. 247). Ascent of the Lusen 
(p. 247) direct, via the Schonauer Glashiitte, 3V2 hrs. (guide 'ijl); descent 
by Waldhauser to St. Oswald, 2 1 2 hrs. (comp. p. 247). 

Excursion to the Deeisesselstein, very attractive (2 days ; diligence 
from Passau to Breitenberg daily in 5'/2 hrs. ; from Waldkirchen in 3 hrs.). 
We cross the Ilz and descend by the Danube to the (3 M.) Kernmiihle. Here 
we ascend to the left to (1 hr.) the baths of Kellberg (1443 ft.; "Pension, 
moderate; omnibus to and from Passau on Wed. and Sat.), prettily sit- 
uated on the hill and commanding a charming view. Thence to the N.W., 
through the finely situated little town of Tyrnau (1560 ft. ; Zum Edelfurt- 
ner; Enzinger), and by the old road to (2 l /2 hrs.) Sauzenberg (1800 ft.; 
Post; J. Stemplinger; A. Stemplinger) , near which rises the Staffelberg 
(2600 ft.), with a belvedere-tower. The road then leads via Freudensee, 
with its ruin and small lake, Passreut, and Krinning, to (2'/2 hrs.) Somien 
(2676 ft.; 'Post; Metzger), a high and prettily situated village, and thence 
(picturesque) to (l 3 /4 hr.) Breitenberg (see below). Or we may go from the 
Kernmuhle (see above) along the bank of the Danube to Erlau and (2 ! /2 hrs.) 
Obernzell (see p. 242); then ascend the valley to the left to (3 M.) Gries- 
bach (1828 ft. ; "Oetzinger) , where the road forks. The branch to the left 
leads to Bauzenberg (see above). We take the branch to the right, by 
(1 hr.) Wildenranna and (l'/4 br.) Wegecheid (2360 ft. ; Fenzl ; Haydn) , a 
small town with linen factories, to (3 hrs.) Breitenberg (2316 ft. ; "Post, with 
fine view from the veranda). The road now descends towards the N. to 
P/4 hr.) Klafferstrais, and ascends slightly to C/4 hr.) Lackenhauser (2668 ft. ; 
Rosenberger). A good path ascends thence in IV2 hr. to the top of the 
Dreiaesselstein (4300 ft. ; inn). The summit consists of huge piled-up blocks 
of granite; admirable view of the Bohemian Forest and the Alps. Still 
finer from the Hohenstein (4365 ft.), 1 /t M. distant. From the Dreisessel- 
stein a path on the crest of the hill leads past the Dreieckmarkstein (4330 ft.), 
where the boundaries of Bavaria , Bohemia , and Austria meet , to (IV4- 
lV2hr.) the Blbekenstein (4523 ft.), mirrored in the dark waters of the soli- 
tary, forest-girt BlUckenstein-See (evening light best). On the bank of the 

Baedeker's S. Germany. 8th Edit. 16 

242 Route 42. SCHARDING. From Passau 

lake is a monument to Adalbert Stifter (d. 1868), who has celebrated this 
spot in his poems. Back to Lackenhauser in 2 hrs. — From the Drei- 
sesselstein to Hirschbergen and Salznau (Budweiss), see Baedeker's Austria. 
A visit to the Bohemian Forest on the Kubani is best accomplished 
by taking the diligence (once daily in 3 hrs.) from Freyung (see p. 241) 
to (12 M.) Kuschwarda (2735 ft. ; *Reif ; Paullik), a village and summer- 
resort prettily situated at the foot of the Schlosslberg. Hence we proceed 
to the (IV2 hr.) glass-works of Eleonorenhain ("Tourists' Inn), whence a 
visit to the highly interesting primaeval forest on the S. slope of the Ku- 
bani (4468 ft.) may be made in 3 hrs. (there and back). — From Kusch- 
warda via Bohmisch-Rohren and Neuthal to the Dreisesselstein (p. 241), 5 hrs. ; 
guide advisable. — A very attractive trip crosses the Lusen to St. Oswald 
in 7 hrs. (guide). The route leads via the (2 hrs.) Aim (3743 ft.; rfmts.), 
with a splendid view, to (I1/4 hr.) Maulh ('Strunz), and then follows a 
marked path via. the Tummelplatz (rfmts.) to the (2 hrs.) Lusen-Spitze (p. 247) ; 
descent to St. Oswald (p. 247), I1/2 hr. 

The Raii/way to Linz passes through a long tunnel , crosses the 
Inn, and ascends on the right bank of the river. 80 M. Wernstein, 
with an old chateau, on a height opposite. — 83 M. Scharding('*i7dt. 
Altmann; Rail. Restaurant), an ancient town with 3600inhab., 
picturesquely situated on the Inn, junction of the Salzkammergut 
Railway (see Baedeker's Austria*). Near it is the village of Brunnen- 
thal, with a chalybeate spring. — The line now ascends the Pram- 
thai. 89 M. Taufkirchen ; 92 M. Andorf; 98 M. Riedau ; 106 M. 
Neumarkt (*Reiss), junction of the Simbach-Munich line (R. 40) ; 
113 M. Grieskirchen. We now descend (to the right a view of the 
Alps with the Traunstein) by Wallern to (12472 M.) Wels, a station 
on the Linz and Salzburg railway. Thence to (140 M.) Linz, see 
Baedeker's Austria. 

Steamboat Journey. The steamer, far preferable to the railway, gen- 
erally leaves Passau at 3 p.m., and reaches Linz in 4 hrs. Luggage examined 
before embarkation (comp. p. 236). 

The scenery of the Danube is grander, but less smiling than that of 
the Rhine, while the finest points are often rather far apart. The moun- 
tains are higher, and the banks are generally fringed with forest, or clothed 
with luxuriant pasture ; but the population is poor and sparse, and there is 
an almost total absence of the busy traffic which characterises the sister-river. 

A beautiful retrospect of the town and environs is enjoyed immedi- 
ately after starting. Below Passau the right bank belongs to Austria, and 
the left bank as far as Engelhartszell to Bavaria. 

L. Erlau. 

R. Sehloss Krempelstein, on an abrupt cliff. 

L. (3. 30p.m.) Obernzell or Hafnerzell (964 ft.-, "Post; Saxinger), the 
last Bavarian village, with large quarries of graphite and manufactories of 
lead-pencils and fire-proof crucibles. Excursion to the Bavarian Forest, 
see p. 241. 

R. Viechtenstein, an old Sehloss on the hill, formerly the property of 
the bishops of Passau and now of Count Pachta. Farther on , below 
Qriinau, the Jochenstein, jutting far into the river on the left, was the 
ancient boundary between Bavaria and Austria. The present boundary is 
a wooded ravine on the left bank, a little lower down. 

R. (4 p.m.) Engelhartszell (*Post), prettily situated, with the Austrian 
custom-house (p. 236). Near it is Engelszell, once a Cistercian monastery 
now owned by Count Pachta. ' 

L. Ranariedl, an ancient mountain-castle, still inhabited; at the foot 
of the hill is the village of Niederranna. 

to Lim. ASCHACH. 42. Route. 243 

E. (4.18 p.m.) Wetenufer or Wesenurfahr, an old town, with a large 
wine cellar hewn in the rock, formerly owned by the cathedral chapter of 

L. Marsbach, with the ancient tower of a medieeval castle. 

R. Waldkirchen, a ruin on a pine-clad rock. 

L. Hayenbach, or the Kirschbaumer Schloss , destroyed by Emp. Maxi- 
milian I., is seen a second time after a bend in the river. 

The channel of the river now contracts to nearly half its former 
width, and is confined between precipitous wooded hills, 600-1000 ft. in 
height. This is one of the grandest parts of the river. At — 

L. Obermichl, a pleasant village, the Kleine Michl descends from a 
wooded ravine into the Danube. 

L. Neuhaus, a handsome chateau on a lofty wooded height, the prop- 
erty of Herr von Plank. The Danube suddenly emerges on a broad plain 
shortly before we reach — 

R. (5. 30 p.m.) Aschach (Sonne ; Adler), a small town extending pictur- 
esquely along the bank, with the chateau and park of Count Harrach. The 
Pbstlingberg with its church, near Linz, comes into view; in clear weather 
the Styrian and Austrian Alps form the background towards the S. ; and 
to the right rises the Traunstein. The view is soon concealed by the nu- 
merous islands, overgrown with underwood, between which the river flows. 
— From this point to Linz, and beyond it, the valley was the scene of 
many a sanguinary encounter during the revolt of the peasantry of Upper 
Austria. In 1626 Aschach was the headquarters of the insurgents, where, 
as well as at Neuhaus, they had barricaded the Danube with chains to 
prevent the Bavarians from assisting Count Herberstein, the Austrian gov- 
ernor, who was shut up at Linz. 

[Railway to Wels, 17V2 M., in l'/j hr., via, Efferding, Breitenaich, and 
Heading. Welt, flee Baedekers Handbook to Austria.] 

Perched on the hills to the right are the ruined castles of Stauf and 
Schaumburg. The latter was once the ancestral seat of a powerful family 
which held sway over the whole valley between Passau and Linz, but 
became extinct in 1559. 

L. Landshag, with a small chateau of Count Harrach. 

R. Brandstatt is the station fur Efferding (rail, stat., see above), one 
of the most ancient places in Upper Austria, mentioned in the Nibelungen- 
Lied (21st Adventure) as the place where Kriemhild passed the night on 
her journey to the land of the Huns. The village is said formerly to 
have lain on the Danube, but the tower only is now visible. To the left 
in the distance rises the Pbstlingberg. 

L. Ottensheim, with its white walls, is conspicuous (rail, stat., see 
p. 251). Chateau of Count Coudenhove. 

R. Withering, a Cistercian abbey (1146), with a pleasant garden. 

L. Schloss Buchenau. Then the PbstUngberg, crowned with its church 
and fortifications. 

R. The Calvarienberg, with the Jagermayr rifling above it. The steamer 
passes under the handsome new bridge and reaches — 

R. (7 p.m.) linz (see Baedeker's Austria). 

43. From Rosenheim to Eiaenstein by Miihldorf and 
Plattling. The Bavarian Forest. 

133 M. Railwat in &/t hrs. (fares 17 Jt 20, 11 Jl 40, 7 Jt 40 pf.). 

Rosenheim, see p. 222. Soon after starting, the train diverges to 
the right from the Munich railway and runs to the N., across the 
plain of the Inn. 51/2 M. Schechen; 10 M. Rott, with an old Bene- 
dictine abhey on a hill to the left. The line crosses the valley of the 
Attel on a lofty embankment, passing on the right the ancient pro- 
vostry of Attel, and at (16 M.) Wasserburg reaches the top of a 


244 Route 43. DEGGENDORF. From Rosenheim 

lofty plateau on the left bank of the Inn. The town of "Wasserburg 
(1640 ft.; Hdtel Schliessleder ; 3700 inhab. J, a summer-resort, lies 
3 M. to the right, on a peninsula formed by the Inn, and is not vis- 
ible from the railway. 

The train passes the Soyer See, or Kitzsee, and (19 M.J Soyen, 
and skirts the steep slopes of the Nasenbach. Reaching the lofty 
left bank of the Inn , we now cross the river , flanked here with 
wooded heights , at Konigswarth, by means of a viaduct 330 yds. 
long and 161 ft. high. We next descend on the right bank to (25 M.) 
Oars, opposite which lie the village and monastery of that name. 
Lower down, on the left bank, is the extensive monastery of Au. 
Beyond (28Y2 M.J Jettenbach, with a chateau of Count Torring, 
the river is again crossed. On the wooded table-land lies the station 
of (32 M.J Kraiburg (a village on the right bank of the Inn, 3M. to 
the E.J. The train quits the forest, passes the church and lunatic 
asylum of Ecksberg on the right, and near (38 4 /2 M.J Miihldorf 
(p. 233J reaches the Munich railway. 

The train runs to the N. (to the right the railway to Simbach, 
p. 233J, and crosses the Isen. Beyond (43 M.J Rohrbach it crosses 
the watershed between the Inn and the Rott. — 48 M. Neumarkt an 
der Rott (1470 ft.), with two late-Gothic churches. 

From Neumakkt to Pas9au, 61 M. (branch-railway, 5-5'/2 hrs.). The line 
skirts the left bank of the Rott. Stations Horbering , Massing, Dietfurt, 
(12'/2 M.) Eggenfelden. Beyond (22 M.) Pfarrkirchen (1250 ft.) the train 
crosses the Rott. Stations Anzenkirchen, Birnbach, Karpfham. Then (39 M.) 
Pocking, in the broad valley of the Inn. Next stations Suhstorf, Sulzbach 
am Inn , Engertsham , Bohenstadt (with sulphur-baths), Furstenzell, NeustifU 
— 61 M. Passau, see p. 237. 

From Neumarkt to Lundshut, see p. 136. 

Leaving the Rott-Thal 2 M. below Neumarkt, the train runs to 
the N. through a hilly district to (54 4 / 2 M.J Gangkofen, on the Bina, 
crosses at (58 M.J Trembach the watershed between the Rott and 
the Vils, and descends to the Vilsthal. — 63 M. Frontenhausen ; 
the village, with an interesting late-Gothic church, lies l^M. to 
the "W. "We cross the Vils, ascend the opposite bank, cross the 
profound Seegraben by a lofty viaduct, and reach the watershed be- 
tween the Vils and the Isar. 67y 2 M. Griesbach ; 721/2 M. Mam- 
ming, where the Isar is crossed ; 75 M. Pilsting, junction for Lands- 
hut (p. 136). Then (77i/ 2 M.J Landau; the town, with 3200 inhab., 
lies 1 M. to the S., on the right bank of the Isar. — To Landshut 
(and MunicK), see p. 136. 

Below Landau the train enters the broad plain of the Danube. 
Fine glimpse of the nearer hills of the Bavarian Forest, with the 
distant Arber (p. 247J. — 82 M. Wallersdorf ; 85 1/ 2 M. Otzing ; 89 M. 
Flattling, where we cross the Ratisbon and Passau railway (p. 237). 

Beyond Plattling the line nears the Danube , passing the iso- 
lated Natternberg with its ruin on the left, and crosses the river by 
an iron bridge, i\0 yds. long. — 94 M. Deggendorf (1090 ft. • *Drei 



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to Eisenstein. GOTTESZELL. 43. Route. 245 

Mohren, R. l l fajl; Post; Villa Wittelsbach, pension %Ji; Dasber- 
gerbrdu and Hallerbrau, moderate), a pleasant old-fashioned town 
with thriving trade and manufactures (6200 inhab.). On the out- 
skirts of the town is the District Lunatic Asylum. 

The Qeiersberg (1243 ft.), l h hr. to the N., with a pilgrimage-church, 
commands a fine view of the valley of the Danube; that from the Kanzel 
(2378 ft.), reached by a marked path in l'/2 hr., is more extensive. — 
Pleasant excursion from Deggendorf by the old post-road , through the 
valley of the Sollenbach, to the (9 M.) beautifully-situated Rusel (2595 ft. ; 
'Inn), formerly a monastery. Thence on foot through the wood to the 
(Va hr.) "Hausstein (3007 ft.), which commands a magnificent view of the 
plain of the Danube and the distant Alps (Watzmann, Steinerne Meer, Dach- 
stein, etc.). — The road leads from the Rusel through the valley of the 
Ohebach, past the castle of Au, destroyed last century, to ,9 M.) Regen (see 
below). *■ 

To the W. of Deggendorf (2'/2 M. ; narrow-gauge railway in 1 /t hr.) 
lies Metten (1043 ft. ; Post), a Benedictine abbey with a celebrated school, 
founded by Charlemagne in 792. 'Schloss Egg (1243 ft.), seat of Count Hohen- 
thal, 3 /« M. to the N., has been restored in the mediseval style by Volz. 

The railway from Deggendorf to Eisenstein, traversing the Ba- 
varian Forest, has had many engineering difficulties to encounter. 

The Bavarian Forest is the S. W. portion of the extensive Bohemian 
Forest Mountains, and includes the highest peaks in the range (the Arber 
4780 ft., the Rachel 4763 ft.). Nearly one-half of this mountain -region, 
which is upwards of 1800 sq. M. in area, and lies between the Danube 
and the Bohemian frontier, extending from Cham and Furth on the N. 
to below Passau towards the S., is covered with pine and beech-forest, 
much of which, especially in the less frequented parts (_e.g. the Rachel 
and Falkenstein), is still in a primaeval condition. At Hals (p. 240), Zwie- 
sel (p. 246), and other places there are traces of glacier-action and mo- 
raines, indicating that the mountains were once covered with ice. The 
beautiful dark forest-tarns also owe their origin to ancient glaciers. The 
timber-trade and cattle-breeding are the chief resources of the natives, 
but glass and linen are also manufactured. Snuff, to which they are 
much addicted, is carried about in little glass bottles made in the district. 
The paths are good ; the inns , though unpretentious , are generally clean 
and cheap. 

The line ascends the W. slopes of the Kollbach-Thal, crosses the 
valley by an embankment, turns to the S., and reaches (lOO 1 ^ M.) 
Vlrichsberg (1319 ft.), V2 nr ' above which is the Vlrichsberg (1750 ft. • 
Inn), with a pilgrimage-church and a fine view. The train then 
skirts the Kiihberg (to the right a magnificent view of the plain of 
the Danube, bounded by the Salzburg Alps), passes through a curved 
tunnel, 530 yds. in length, and ascends the Oraflinger-Thal in long 
windings. Then through another tunnel, 630 yds. long, to (109 M.) 
Gotteszell (1805 ft. ; Brauhaus, ^ hr. from the station), in the 
Teisnach-Thal, with aCistercian abbey, rebuilt since a fire in 1S30. 

Interesting excursion (3 hrs. ; road) from Gotteszell by Tnfertsried, Achs- 
lach, and the forester's house of Oedwies (good quarters) to the Hirschenstein 
(3662 ft.), with an extensive view. To the E. of this point is the ('A- hr.) 
Jlauhe Kolm or Klauenstein (3420 ft.), with a fine view to the S. To the 
N.W. are the Olashuttenriegel and the Prediglstuhl (3556 ft.); in a pretty 
valley at the foot of the latter lies the village of Engelmar (2637 ft. ; 

From Gotteszell to Viechtaoh, 15>/2 M., narrow-gauge railway in 
ltyt hr. The line runs through the Teisnach-Thal. 2'/2 M. Ruhmannsfelden 
(Post), a large and prettily situated village; 4y 2 M. Petersdorf; 6 M. Teis- 

246 Route 43. ZWIESEL. From Rosenheim 

vach (Ettl), at the confluence of the Teisnach with the Schwarze Regen 
(hence to Bodenmais l'/2 hr.). The train now follows the valley of the 
latter stream, passing BSbrach, Gumpenried, and (11 M.) Schonau. — 15'/2 M. 
Viechtach (1323 ft.; "Seue Post; Obermaier), a pleasant little town, the seat 
of the district authorities. To the S. rise the highest summits of the Pfahl 
(see below). An attractive excursion (from Schonau 1/2 hr., from Viecht- 
ach via Blossersberg and Bdrndorf IV2 hr.) may he made to the ruin of 
Neu-Nussberg (2276 ft.), the tower of which commands a fine view (Inn). 
To the S. we may go to (l 1 /* hr.) Eollnburg (Brewery), with a picturesque 
ruined castle, now used as a church ; and thence we may proceed through 
fine woods, passing Markbuchen on the Predigtstuhl (p. 245), to (2'/2 hrs.) the 
forester's house of Oedwies and the Hirschenstein (p. 245). — A pleasant 
road leads to the N.W. from Viechtach to Pirka, Lammerbach, Wettzell (Inn), 
and (9 M.) Kbtzling (p. 235). 

U31/2 M. Triefenried (2120 ft. J. The line skirts the forest- 
clad hills of the Teufelstisch (see below), crosses the Ohebach by 
means of a lofty viaduct, and descends on the left bank of the 
Schwarze Regen to (HS 1 /^ M.) stat. Regen (1770 ft.), opposite the 
small town of that name {Post; Oswald; pop. 2200). Diligence 
daily in 2 l / t hrs. to Bodenmais, see p. 247. 

To the S.E. ( 3 /4 hr.) rises Weissenstein am Pfahl (2474 ft.), a ruined 
castle on a jagged quartz rock, with a restored tower commanding a fine 
view (custodian to the left of the entrance). — The Pfahl is a broad seam 
of quartz and hornblende running from S.E. to N.W. for a distance of 
60 M. ; it may be conveniently examined in the railway-cutting near the 
bridge over the Ohe. 

From the pleasantly situated village of Bischofsmais (2182 ft. ; Eder's 
Brauhaus), 4V2 M. to the S. of Regen, attractive excursions may be made to 
(3/ 4 hr.) Ober-Breitenau (3490 ft.), the P/4 hr.) Teufelstisch (2960 ft.), and other 
points. From Bischofsmais to the Rusel (p. 245) l'/2 hr. , to Deggendorf 
(p. 244) 4 hrs. 

The train crosses the Regen , recrosses it near Schweinhutt by 
means of a bridge with a span of 236 ft., and regains the right 
bank at the Poschinger Saw Mill near Zwiesel. 

125 M. Zwiesel (2135 ft. ; Post, well spoken of; Deutscher Rhein, 
R. l-l 1 ^^; Bayrischer Wald), a pleasant little town with 3500 
inhab., in a broad basin at the confluence of the Kleine and Orosse 
Regen, is a good starting-point for excursions in the Bavarian Forest, 
but lacks shade and is at a considerable distance from the woods. 
Near it are the glass-works of Theresienthal, Ludwigsthal, Ober- 
Zwieselau, Ober-Frauenau, and Buchenau, and numerous saw-mills. 

The Zwieselberg (2250 ft.), a hill strewn with blocks of granite, >/» hr. 
to the S., affords a good survey of the environs. 

Fkom Zwiesel to Gkafenau, 19>/2 M., narrow-gauge railway in 2 hrs. 
The line sweeps round the town. 3!/2 M. Zwieselau; 5 [ /2 M. Frauenau, 
the station for Unter-Frauenau (two inns) and for Ober-Frauenau (2358 ft. ; 
1 M. to the N.E.), the latter with the imposing chateau of Herr von 
Poschinger. — Farther on we ascend rapidly through the narrow wooded 
valley to (10 M.) Klingenbrunn, the station of which lies 3 M. to the N.W. 
of the village (2693 ft.; Stangl). The Ludwigsstein (2900 ft.), 1/4 hr. to the 
W. of the village, is a good point of view. Ascent of the Rachel from 
the station, see below. — The train next descends to (12 M.) Spiegelau 
(Inn, poor; ascent of the Eachel, see p. 247) and then runs high on the 
left side of the narrow gorge of the brawling Grosse Ohe to (15 M.) Gross- 
Armschlag and (19V2 M.) Grafenau (2004 ft.; Meindl; Dresely's Brewery; 
Stangl). The line is to he continued from this point to (5 M.) Hohenau 
(p. 241) and (5 M.) Freyung (p. 241). Near Grafenau are the Bdrnsteiner- 

to Eisenstein. RACHEL. 43. Route. 247 

leile, the narrow wooded ravine of the Kleine Ohe, anil the ruin of Bdrn- 
ttein (garden-restaurant). Eoads lead from Grafenau to (372 M.) St. Oswald 
(see below) on the N., and to Timing and (26 M.) Passau on the S. 

The 'Rachel (4770 ft.) is best ascended either from Klingenbrunn 
(p. 346; path marked with blue; 21/2 hrs.) or from Spiegelau (along the 
Schwarzach ; 3 hrs.). The barren summit (refuge-hut ; no rfmts.), strewn 
with blocks of granite, commands a splendid view of the Bohemian Forest 
and the plain of the Danube, extending in clear weather to the distant Alps. 
On the S.E. side lies the dark forest-girt 'Rachelsee, 1250 ft. below. It 
may be reached from the top in 3 Jt hr. (path indicated by blue marks); 
and we may then, passing the forester's hut (rfmts.), go by Guglbd and 
Siebenellen to (3 hrs.) St. Oswald (see below). Or from the Rachel we may 
follow the frontier-line to the E. (black marks ; but as this route is mono- 
tonous , it is better to follow the white marks , running on the hillside 
above the lake and past the chapel, and to descend to the right through 
the wood and cross the Zwolferlinie, about 5 hrs. in all) to the (41/2 hrs.) 
Lusen (4494 ft.), the granite-strewn summit of which also commands a 
superb view. Descent by the Waldhauser (3028 ft. ; Inn) to (2 hrs.) St. Oswald 
(2b95 ft. ; "Schreiner's Brauhaus), once a monastery, beautifully situated 
("View from the 'gloriette'), whence we may proceed by Reichenberg to 
(1 hr.) Spiegelau (p. 246). — The little town of Grafenau (p. 246) lies 
about 41/2 M. to the S.W. of St. Oswald. 

A good road leads to the N.W. from Zwiesel to Klautzenbach and 
(2i/4 M.) Rabenstein (2248 ft. ; "Villa Rabenstein, D. I1/4, pens. 3-4 Jl, pret- 
tily situated), and thence through splendid timber, past a quarry with a 
small subterranean lake (beautiful rose-coloured quartz) and via Schb'neben 
to (8 SI.) Bodenmais (2220 ft. ; "Post; Dresely's Brauhaus, with rooms), pleas- 
antly situated on a hill. (A pleasanter but longer route leads from Raben- 
stein to Bodenmais via the Hiihnerkobel, 3110 ft., a hill affording a splendid 
view of the Arber, Zwiesel, and Rachel.) Opposite Bodenmais rises the 
red Silberberg, composed of a kind of slag, with its indented peak called 
the Bischofshaube (unitre' ; 3136 ft.). Vitriol and red polishing powder are 
made from the ore obtained here. Rare minerals are also found (good 
collection at the overseer's house). Diligence to Regen, see p. 246. 

The *Arber (4780 ft.), the 'King of the Forest', is easily ascended from 
Bodenmais in 2'/2-3 hrs. (guide, unnecessary, 4 Jl; to the Arber and 
Sommerau 6 Jl). The path leads through the Riesloch, a pretty ravine with 
small waterfalls. (Attractive digression of 1/2 hr. from the upper end of 
this gorge to the Rechensblden/elsen, with pretty views of the valley and 
of Bodenmais.) On the bare rock-strewn summit of the Arber stand a 
chapel and the Arber-Schutzhaus (Inn, 13 mattresses in 3 rooms, 1 Jl, clean). 
A peregrination of the summit-plateau takes about 3 /t hr. Superb view of a 
great part of Bohemia to the E., the Fiohtelgebirge to the W., and in clear 
weather the Alps to the S. On the E. side, far below, lies the sombre 
Grosse Arbersee (3064 ft.; rfmts., dear), surrounded with wood. Descent to 
the frontier-station Eisenslein (see p. 248) either past the lake and through 
the Beebachwald and Bayrisch- Eisenstein in 2 hrs., or by the ruined Ober- 
(hurnhof (good water), the Brennes-Sattel, and Bayrisch- Eisenstein in 3 hrs. 

The excursion to the Arber may be agreeably extended thus. From the 
( 8 /4 hr.) Oberthurnhof (see above) we cross the Brennes-Sattel (where the 
path from Eisenstein comes in on the right) to (l'/4 hr.) Sommerau (2200 ft. ; 
Brewery) on the Weisse Regen , and thence go to the right (poor path) to 
(V2 hr.) Lohberg (2126 ft. ; 'Kellermayer), a village with a richly decorated 
Romanesque church, a good centre for excursions (over the Scheiben-Sattel 
to Eisenstein, 3 hrs., see p. 248). From Lohberg a road (one-horse carr. to 
Lam 4 Jl, incl. fee) leads along the base of the Osser (see below) to (81/2 M.) 
Lam (1896 ft.; Post, poor), a large village prettily situated on the Weisse 
Regen , the valley of which ('Lamer Winker) seems to be closed by the 
Hohe Bog en (p. 236); thence on foot (with guide) across the Scharreben 
(3470 ft.), through beautiful woods, back to (4'/2 hrs.) Bodenmais. — Rail- 
way from Lam to Rotating and Cham (21/4 hrs.), see p. 236. 

[From Lohberg (see above) to Eisenstein across the Osser, 6-7 hrs., 
a beautiful walk. A distinct path (indicated by red marks), steep at 

-Route 43. EISENSTEIN. 

places, ascends in 2 hrs. to the saddle between the Little or Bavarian Osser 
(4075 ft.) on the left, and the Great or Bohemian Osser (4210 ft.) on the 
right. The top of either is reached in 10 minutes. The Great Osser (strewn 
with granite-blocks ; open refuge-hut) commands a fine view of the Arber 
chain ; the Little Osser, a good view of the Lam, etc. From the saddle we 
next follow the bridle-path (direction-boards) to the E. to the 0/2 hr.) 
Giitelplatz (3120 ft.), whither also a route leads direct in I1/2 hr. from Loh- 
berg, diverging from the Osser route to the right (guide-post 'Zum Schwar- 
zen See'), and crossing the Sesselplatz (3696 ft.). Then through wood (be- 
low, to the left, the glass-work Mullerhiitte) either direct to the Seewand 
(see below) or (better) to the (IV2 hr.) Schwarze See (3310 ft.; also called 
Bistritzer or Bohmische See), 90 acres in area, in a grand solitude. The open 
pavilion (no rfmts.) on the lake belongs to Prince Hohenzollern - Sig- 
maringen, who also caused the bridle-path from the Osser to be construct- 
ed. From the end of the lake we ascend to the right and follow a path 
soon diverging to the right to the Seewand (4406 ft. ; view limited ; more 
extensive from the Zwergeck, 10 niin. to the N.W.), whence we descend 
through the Pichelbach-Thal to (U/4 hr.) Eisenstein. Or we may turn to the 
left at the end of the. Schwarze See, cross the watershed between the Elbe 
and the Danube, and skirt the (1 hr.) gloomy Teufels-See or Girglsee (3380 ft.) ; 
then, passing Stiegelruck and Berghaus, we descend lastly to Markt Eisen- 
stein or to the glass-works of Elisenthal (Hotel, with baths) and the (I1/4 hr.) 
railway-station of Eisenstein. Or, thirdly, from the end of the lake, we 
may go to the left to the (1/2 hr.) Seefbrster (Inn, high charges), and then 
cross the Spitzberg- Sattel (3300 ft.; Hot.-Pens. Eixi, Pens. Prokop, both 
Bohemian ; line view) to the (l'/j hr.) station of Spitzberg (see below), l /t hr. 
by train from Eisenstein.] 

Above Zwiesel the train again crosses the Regen, and then the 
Kolbersbach by a lofty viaduct. 128 M. Ludwigsthal (2163 ft.J, with 
glass-works. The line ascends the left bank of the Regen, running 
parallel with the road to Bohemia and passing many glass and 
smelting houses, and reaches the Bavarian and Bohemian frontier- 
station (133 M.) Eisenstein (2365 ft.; *Rail. Restaurant, R. 1 fl.), 
where we have a fine view of the Arber to the W. (see above). 

To the W. lies the village of O/2 M.) Bayrisch-Eisenstein (2398 ft. ; Brau- 
haus, with garden, but no beds ; "Oberst, rustic). To the N., beyond Elisen- 
thal (see above), is the Bohemian Markt-Eisen stein (2540 ft.; Osser, with 
garden; Post; Arber; Bbhmerwald), prettily situated at the confluence of 
the Regen and the Eisenbach, with a fine view of the Arber. It is a station 
on the railway to Pilsen and is frequented as a summer-resort, affording 
opportunity for many agreeable excursions. — To the O/2 hr.) Grosse 
Tanne (a fir 6>/2 ft. in diameter), with descent to the (V2 hr.) rail, station. 
— To the (I1/4 hr.) Zwieseler Waldhaus (2283 ft. ; *Inn ; to Zwiesel 2 hrs.), 
and thence either to (I1/2 hr.) the summit of the Grosse Falkenstein (4316 ft.), 
or through fine wood via the Hochberg to the (IV2 hr.) frontier rail, station, 
or to (I74 hr.) Ludwigsthal (see above). — To the (2 hrs.) Avber-See, and 
ascent of the (IV2 hr.) Arber, with descent to (IV2 hr.) Bodenmais or (2 hrs.) 
Lohberg, see p. 247. — By railway to Spitzberg or Hammern-Eitenstrass (see 
below) and back thence via the Schwarze See and Teufels-See (3!/ 2 -4 hrs. ; 
see above); or we may ascend the Osser (l'/2 hr. ; see above) from Ham- 
mern-Eisenstrass. — Ascent of the Seewand (2>/2 hrs.), see above; over the 
Scheiben to (3 hrs.) Lohberg (p. 247). 

From Eisenstein to Pilsen, 61 M., railway in 3Vj hrs The more im- 
portant stations are: 3 M. Bohmisch- Eisenstein (see above); 5 M. Spitzberg 
(2725 ft.), at the S. end of the Spitzberg Tunnel (1 M. long) ; 10 M. Hammern- 
Eisenstrass, at the S.E. foot of the Osser (see above ; ascended hence in 
IV2 hr.) and also the starting-point for a visit to the Schwarze See (see 
above); 15 M. Griin; 21 M. Neuem; 26 M. Janowitz; 31 M. Klattau. Comp. 
Baedeker's Austria. 


Aach, the 53. 51. 
— Linz 55. 
Aalen 28. 
Abbach 125. 
Abensberg 127. 
Ablach, the 54. 
Abusina 127. 
Achalm 46. 
Achen 219. 
— , the 216. 219. 
— , the Grosse 223. 
Achenkirch 219. 
Achensee 219. 
Achenwald 216. 219. 
Achslach 245. 
Adelholzen 223. 
Adelsberg 30. 
Adelschlag 132. 
Adel3heim 71. 
Adlerstein 93. 
Adling 221. 
Adorf 73. 

Aepflet-Kuppe, the 236. 
Aeschach 201. 
Agatharied 220. 
Aggenstein 202. 
Ahornthal 94. 
a.hrnschwang 235. 
Aibling 222. 
Aichach 127. 
Ailsbach, the 94. 
Aisch, the 69. 
Aistaig 40. 
Aitrang 199. 
Alb, the Swabian 42. 
— , the Rauhe 32. 
St. Alban 197. 
Albeck, ruin 40. 
Aldingen 40. 
Alexanderabad 92. 
Alfalter 110. 
Algau, the 199. 
Allach 133. 
Allensbach 55. 
Allersdorf 127. 
Ailing 125. 
Allmannsdorf 57. 
Allmannshausen 196. 
Allmannahohe 57. 
Allmendingen 53. 
Almbach-Klamm 229. 
Alpgarten 226. 
Alpirsbach 39. 

Alpsee, the 200. 201. 
Alpspitze 210. 
Altbach 30. 
Altdorf 118. 
Alteburghof 47. 
Altenberg 84. 
Altenburg 72. 
— , castle 80. 
Altengronau 85. 
Altenmarkt 224. 
Altenmuhr 131. 
Altenschwand 235. 
Altenstadt 33. 
Alte Veste 70. 
Althegnenberg 134. 
Altheim 39. 136. 234. 
Althengstett 16. 
Altlach 214. 
Altmannshof 235. 
Altmuhl, the 111. 125. 

— Thai, the 126. 
Alt-Oetting 233. 
Altshausen 54. 55. 
Altstadt 38. 40. 
Altstadter Berg 81. 
Alwind 201. 
Alzenau 59. 
Ambach 196. 
Amberg 235. 
Ammer, the 197. 207. 
Ammerland 194. 196. 
Ammersee, the 197. 
Ammerthal, the 197. 212. 
Ammer wald 2 12. 

— Thai, the 212. 
Amorbach 62. 
Ampelsbach-Thal 219. 
Amper, the 134. 136. 198. 

— Thai, the 133. 
Ampflng 233. 
Amselflng 237. 
Amstetten 32. 
Andecbs 197. 
Andelsbach, the 55. 
Andorf 242. 
Anger 216. 
Anhausen 54. 
Ankathal, the 110. 
Annahbhe, the 63. 
Anabach 130. 26. 
St. Anton 208. 
Arber, the 247. 

Arbersee, the 247. 
Arch, the 213. 

— Bach, the 206. 
Argen, the 54. 
Arnstein 64. 
Arrach 235. 
Arzberg 111. 
Asamshohe, the 207. 
Aach 73. 

Aschach 85. 243. 
Aachaffenburg 60. 
Aschauer Weiher 229. 
Asperg 15. 
Aaaling 221. 
Athayingen 54. 
Attel, the 221. 243. 
— , provoatry 243. 
Au, castle 245. 
— , monastery 244. 
Aubing 198. 
Auerbach 71. 

— (Saxony) 72. 

— Thai, the 221. 
Aufhausen 194. 
Aufkirchen 196. 194. 
Augsburg 113. 
Aulendorf 34. 54. 

A urach 220. 
— , the 69. 
Axljoch, the 206. 

Baar, the 40. 
Babenhausen 23. 61. 
Bacher Tobel 200. 
Backer-Alp 221. 
Backnang 25. 
Baderaee 209. 
Baierbrunn 194. 
Baiersdorf 80. 
Bairisch-Zell 220. 
Balingen 50. 
Balterataried 202. 
Bamberg 75. 
Bammenthal 22. 
Banz 74. 75. 
Barenfang 91. 
Barenthal 53. 
Barmsee 210. 215. 
Barndorf 246. 
Barnreut 90. 
Barnstein, ruin 247. 
Barasteiner Leite 246. 
St. Bartholomii 231. 



St. Bartholoma, Lake of 

Baumenheim 113. 
Bavarian Forest, the 236, 

241. 245. 
Bayerdiessen 197. 
Bayersoyen 197. 
Bayreuth 86. 
Bayrisch-Eisenstein 247. 

Bebenhausen 3S. 
Beckstetten 198. 
Beerfelden 23. 
Befreiungshalle, the, near 

Kelheim 126. 
Behringersdorf 109. 
Behringersmuhl 93. 
Beihingen 25. 16. 
Beilngries 118. 
Beimerstetten 32. 
Belsener Chapel 48. 
Bempilingen 36. 
Benediktbeuern 213. 
Benediktenwand 213. 
Beratzhauseti 119. 
Berchtesgaden 227. 
Berg 12. 136. 
— , Schloss 196. 
Bergen 223. 
Berghaus 2i8. 
Bergrheinfeld 82. 
Bergtheim 82. 
Bernau 223. 
Berneck 89. 
Berahaupten 223. 
Bernried 196. 218. 
Berolzheim 131. 
Bertaburg-Kornberg 31. 
Bertholdsheim 128. 
Besenbach 213. 
Besigheim 19. 
Bettelmannshdhle 54. 
Bettinger Berg, the 63. 
Betzigau 199. 
Betzingen 36. 
Beuerberg 195. 
Beaten 44. 

Beurener Fels, the 44. 
Beuron, monast. 52. 
Beutelsbach 27. 
Biberach 34. 
Bibersohl 32. 
Biberwier 207. 
Biburg 127. 
Bichelbach 206. 
Bichishausen 54. 
Bichl 213. 
Bichtlingen 55. 
Bieringen 38. 
Biessenhofen 199. 
Bietigheim 15. 26. 
Bina, the 244. 
Binau 22. 

Binder-Muhle 233. 
Bindlach 86. 
Birgsau 200. 
Birkenfeld 18. 
Birkensee 134. 
Bischofsgrun 90. 
Bischofshaube 247. 
Bischofsheim 85. 
Bischofsmais 246. 
Bischofswiesen 227. 229 
Bisingen 50. 
Bislritzer See 248. 
Blaibach 235. 
Blaichach 200. 
Blankenberg 73. 
Blasibad 48. 
Blasiberg 48. 
Blau, the 32. 52. 
Blaubeuren 53. 
Blaue Gumpen 210. 
Blaueis, the 232. 
Blautopf, the 53. 
Blenheim 113. 
Blindheim 113. 
Blindsee 207. 
Blockenau 205. 
Blockenstein, the 241. 

— See, the 241. 
Blossersberg 246. 
Blumenberg, the 132. 
Blutenburg 195. 
Bobing 197. 
Bobingen 198. 
Bbblingen 39. 
Bobrach 246. 
Bockl-Weiher 229. 
Booklet 85. 
Bodelshausen 48. 
Bodenbtihl 226. 
Bodenlaube 83. 84. 
Bodenmais 247. 246. 
Bodensee, see Lake of 

Bodenschneid 220. 
Bodenwohr 235. 
Bodmann 58. 
Bogenhausen 193. 
Bohemian Forest, the 

242. 245. 
Bbhlen 72. 
Bbhmisch-Eisenstein 248. 

— Rohren 242. 
Biihmische See, the 248. 
Bbhringen 53. 
Bolberg, the 48. 

Boll, baths 31. 
Bbllatfels, the 50. 
Bondorf 39. 
Bopflngen 29. 
Bopser, the 11. 
Bornheim 59. 
Bosler, the 81. 

Brambach 73. 
Brandenberger Thai 220. 
Brandholz 90. 
Brandkopf, the 230. 
Brandschrofen, the 205. 
Brandstatt 243. 
Braunau 234. 
Braunenberg, the 28. 
Brecherspitze, the 220. 
Bregenz 201. 
Breitach, the 200. 234. 
Breitenaich 243. 
Breitenberg 241. 
Breitenbrunn 197. 
Breiten-Gussbach 75. 
Breitenstein 31. 
Breitenwang 206. 213. 
Bremstall-Wald, the 209. 
Brendlorenzen 85. 
Brendthal, the 85. 
Brennes-Sattel, the 247. 
Brentenwand, the 230. 
Brenz, the 28. 113. 
Brenzkofer Berg, the 52. 
Brenztopf, the 28. 
Brett, the 230. 
Brettach, the 24. 
Bretten 14. 
Bretzfeld 24. 
Brigaehthal, the 40. 
Brixlegg 220. 
Bronnbach 70. 
Bronnweiler 47. 
Brbtzingen 18. 
Bruchsal 14. 
Brnck on the Amper 198. 
Bruckberg 136. 
Briickenau 85. 
Briihl 57. 
Brunnenthal 242. 
Briinnling-Alpe 223. 
Buch 234. 
Buchau 219. 
Buchberg 241. 
Buchberger Leite 241. 
Buchelberg 26. 
Buchenau 246. 
— , castle 243. 
Buchhaus 91. 
Buchloe 193. 
Budweiss 242. 
Bug 80. 
Buhl 200. 

Biihlerbach, the 25. 
Bundesstein, the 92. 
Buoch 27. 
Burgau 133. 
Burgberg 25. 28. 200. 

, the 74. 
Burgbernheim 180. 
Burgfarrnbach 69. 
Burgfelden 50. 
Bureeailenreuth 93. 94. 



Burghalde 199. 
Burghausen 234. 
Burgheini 128. 
Burgholz, the 14. 
Burgkunstadt 74. 
Burglengenfeld 134. 
Biirgstadt 62. 
Burgstall 25. 
— , the 200. 235. 236. 
Burgstein, the 46. 92. 131. 
Burkardus-Hohle 63. 
Burlafingen 133. 
Burren, the 31. 
Biirrenhof, the 44. 
Busa-Thurm, the 38. 
Bussen, the 54. 
Buttenhausen 54. 
Buxheim 54. 

Cadolzburg 70. 
Calmbach 18. 
Calw 16. 
Oannstatt 13. 
Carolinenfeld, Gross- 221. 
Cham 235. 

Chamb-Thal, the 235. 
Chamerau 235. 
Chamereck 235. 
Charlottenhohle, the 28. 
Chemnitz 72. 73. 
Chiemsee, the 222. 
Christlieger, Islet of 230. 
Clemenshall 22. 
Constance 55. 201. 
— , Lake of 56. 201. 
Crailsheim 25. 
Creglingen 130. 
Creussen 110. 
Crimmitzachau 72. 
Culmbaca 74. 

Dachau 133. 

Dachauer Moos 133. 134. 

Dallau 71. 
Dambach 70. 
Dammbach-Thal 63. 
Danube, the 32. 40. 51. 

126. 236. etc. 
D arching 220. 
Darmstadt 61. 
Dasing 127. 
Degerloch 11. 
Deggendorf 244. 
Deggingen 31. 
Deining 118. 
Deisenhofen 215. 
Derneck, ruin 54. 
Dettelbach 69. 
Dettingen (on the Main) 

— (Swabia) 36. 44. 53. 

Dettwang 130. 
Deuerling 119. 
Diedorf 133. 
Diemendorf 197. 
Diepoldsburg 43. 31. 
Diesbach 233. 
Diessen 187. 
Dietersbach, the 200. 
Dietfurt 52. 244. 
Dikenreis 34. 
Dillingen 113. 
Dilsberg 72. 
Dingolflng 136. 
Dinkelsbuhl 112. 
Dinkelscherben 133. 
Distelhausen 70. 
Ditzenbach 81. 
Ditzingen 16. 
Dobel 19. 

Dobraberg, the 73. 
Dolderthal, the 47. 
Dollnstein 131. 
Dombuhl 26. 112. 
Donauheuneburg 54. 
Donaumoos, the 127. 
Donaustauf 124. 
Don au worth 112. 
Donzdorf 31. 
Doos 70. 81. 93. 94. 
Dorfen 194. 
Dorfgvitingen 112. 
Dorfprozelten 62. 

Dosbach, the 112. 
Dottenheim 69. 
Drei Briider 91. 
Dreieckmarkstein 241. 
Dreifaltigkeitsberg 124. 
Dreifurstenstein 48. 
Drei Qnellen, the 93. 
Dreisesselstein 241. 
Dreistelzenberg 86. 
Durach 202. 
Dnrlach 18. 
Durlesbach 34. 
Durnbuch 127. 
Diirreberg 206. 
Diirrenzimmern Hi. 
Diisselbach 110. 
Dusslingen 48. 
Dutzendteich 118. 109. 

Ebelsbach 82. 
Eben 219. 

Ebenhaus'en 83. 85. 194. 
Ebenhofen 202. 
Ebenafeld 75. 
Eberbach 22. 71. 
Eberhartsberg 81. 
Ebermannstadt 93. 
Ebersbach 80. 
Ebingen 50. 

Ebnisee 25. 
Echaz, the 36. 47. 
Eckarts 85. 
Eckartshauaen 25. 
Eckbauer 209. 
Eckenberg 208. 
Eckeradorf 88. 
Ecksberg 244. 
Eckstein 236. 
Ed, the 221. 
Edelflngen 70. 
Edelsberg 202. 
Edelstein 58. 
Efferding 243. 
Eger 73. 111. 
-, the 
Egern 218. 
Egg, chateau 245. 
Eggen 199. 
Eggenfelden 244. 
Egglkofen 136. 
Eggmuhl 135. 
Eggolsheim 80. 
Egloffstein 81. 93. 
Eglosheim 16. 
Ehingen 38. 53. 
Ehningen 39. 
Ehrenberg 22. 
Ehrenberger Klause 206. 
Ehrenfels, chateau 64. 
— , Old, ruin 54. 
Ehrwald 210. 
Ehrwalder Schanze 210. 
Eibsee 209. 
Eichhofen 119. 
Eichicht 74. 
Eicholzheim 71. 
Eichatatt 132. 
Eining 127. 
Einkorn 25. 
Einodsbach 200. 
Einsingen 34. 
Eisenbach, the 248. 
Eisenstein 248. 
Eislingen 31. 43. 
Elchingen 133. 
Eleonorenhain 242. 
Elisabethenburg 27. 
Elisenthal 248. 
Ellingen 131. 
EUrichahausen 26. 
Ellwangen 26. 
Elm 63. 

Elmau 209. 218. 
Elmauer Qries 212. 
Elsawa-Thal, the 68. 
Elsenz, the 22. 72. 
Elster 73. 
— , the Weisse 72. 
— Thai, the 72. 
Eltersdorf 81. 
Eltmann 82. 



Elz, the 22. 71. 
Empflng, baths 224. 
Emakirchen 69. 
Endersbach 27. 
Endorf 222. 
Endsthal 230. 
Engelhardaberg 93. 
Engelhartazell 242. 
Engelhof 43. 
Engelmann8rcath 110. 
Engelmar 245. 
Engelsberg,mona8tery 62. 
Engel8burg 89. 
Engelazell, monastery 

Engen 41. 
Engstlatt 50. 
Eningen 46. 
Enter-Rottach 218. 
Enz, the 15. 17. 18. 19. 
Enzberg 17. 
Enzenau 216. 
Enzenatetten 203. 
Enzxsweiler 201. 
Enzklosterle 19. 
Epfendorf 40. 
Epfenhausen 198. 
Epprechtstein 91. 134. 
Erbach 23. 34. 
Erding 233. 
Eremitage, chateau 88. 
Ergenzingen 39. 
Ergoldabach 135. 
Erkenbrechtsweiler 44. 
Erlangen 80. 
Erlau 211. 242. 
Erlenbach 60. 
Ermetzhofen 128. 
Erms, the 36. 44. 
Erpfingen 47. 
Ertingen 54. 
Erzberg, the 235. 
Erzherzog - Johann - 

Klause 220. 
Eschau 63. 
Eschelbronn 71. 
Eschenau 24. 
Eschenbach 31. 110. 131. 
Eschenlohe 207. 
Eschlkam 236. 
Essendorf 34. 
Easing, Alt and Neu 126. 
Essingen 28. 
Essleben 82. 
Easlingen 29. 
Esterberg-Bauer 210. 
Ettal 211. 

Ettaler Mandl, the 211. 
Etterzhauaen 119. 
Etwashausen 69. 
Etzelwang 234. 
EtzerschlSssl 229. 
Eubigheim 71. 

Euerdorf 64. 
Euraaburg 195. 
Euasenheim 64. 
Eutingen 17. 39. 
Eyach 38. 
— , the 50. 
Eyachhbrnle 50. 
Eyachmuhl 19. 
Eybach 31. 
Eybachthal, the 31. 

Falepp 220. 

— , the Rothe 220. 

— , the Weisse 218. 

Falkenatein, ruin, near 

Sigmaringen 52. 

• (Saxony) 72. 

-, the 202. 223. 

■ — (Konigs-See) 230. 
— , the Grosse 248. 
Fall 216. 
Fallmuhle 202. 
Falls-Gefrees 74. 
Falterbaeh Waterfall200, 
Falzkopfl, the 232. 
Falznerweiher 109. 
Fantaisie, chateau 88. 
Farchant 203. 
Faukenbach, the 208. 
Faukenschlucht 208. 
Faulenbach 203. 

, the 40. 
Faurndau 30. 
Fechenbach 62. 
Federsee 54. 
Feilberg 199. 
Feldafing 196. 
Feldmoching 136. 
Feldstatten 53. 
Fellbach 27. 
Ferchenbach, the 210. 
Ferchen-See 209. 211. 
Fern Pass 207. 
Fernstein 207. 
Fessenheim 112. 
Feucht 118. 
Feuchtwangen 112. 
Feuerbach 17. 
Fenerbacher Heide 11. 
Feuerpalfen 231. 
Fichtelberg 110. 
Fichtelnab, the 110. 134. 
Fichtenberg 25. 
Fichtelgebirge, the 89. 
Fieberberg 216. 
Filder, the 39. 
Fils, the 30. 31. 
Filseck, chateau 30. 
Fischburg-Thal 45. 
Fischen 197. 200. 
Fischhausen 220. 
Fiachingen 40. 

Fleck 216. 
Flochberg, the 29. 
Floriansberg, the 36. 
Forchheim 80. 
Fomsbach 25. 
Forstershoble 94. 
Fortschendorf 74. 
Francon. Switzerland 92. 
Frankfort 59. 
Franzensbad 73. 
Frauenau 246. 
Fraueninsel 222. 
Freiberg-See 200. 
Freihola 235. 
Freilassing 224. 
Freising 136. 
Freiung 235. 
Fremdingen 112. 
Freudenberg 62. 
Freudensee 241. 
Freudenstadt 39. 
Freundschafts -Hdhlen 

Freyatadt 118. 
Freyung 241. 
Fridingen 52. 
Friedberg 127. 133. 
Friedrichshafen 35. 
Friedrichshall 22. 
Frommern 50. 
Fronau 232. 
Frondeck 38. 
Frontenhausen 244. 
Fuchseck 31. 
Fuchsenstein 227. 
Fuchsstadt 64. 
Funtensee-Tauern 230. 
Fiirstenau 23. 
Fiirsteneck 241. 
Furstenfeld 198. 
Fiiratenfeldbruck 198. 
Furstenhbhe 51. 
Furth 236. 
Furth 69. 81. 
Fiissen 203. 

Gabelbach 133. 
Gacht, Pass 206. 
Oachtspitz 206. 
Gadheim 82. 
Gaildorf 25. 
Gailenkirchen 24. 
Gailenreuther Hohle 94. 
Gaimersheim 132. 
Gaimiihle 23. 
Gaisalpe 218. 
Gaiahohe, the 63. 
Galgenberg 109. 
Gamburg 70. 
Gamertingen 50. 
Gangkofen 244. 
Garatshauaen 196. 
Garmisch 208. 



Gars 244. 

Gartringen 39. 

Gaschwitz 72. 

Gasseldorf 93. 

Gattern 241. 

Gau, the 39. 

Gausmannsweiler 25. 

Gau ting 195. 

Gebhardsberg 201. 

Gebrochen - Gutenstein 

Gefrees 74. 89. 

Geiersberg, the 241. 245, 

Geinberg 234. 

Geiselhoring 135. 236. 

Geisenhauaen 136. 

Geislingen 31. 43. 

Geislinger Steig, the 32. 

Geitau 220. 

Gelber Felsen 43. 

Gemunden 63. 

Genderkingen 128. 

Genkingen 47. 

Gennach, the 198. 

St. Georgen 86. 88. 

Georgenau 44. 

Georgensgmiind 111. 

Georgsberg 239. 

Gera 72. 

Gerbershohle 54. 

Gerhausen, castle 53. 

Gerlachsheim 70. 

Gem 229. 

Gernsbach 39. 

Gernspitz 206. 

Gernthal 216 

Gerold 210. 

Geroldsgriin 73. 
Geroldshausen 70. 
Gersthofen 113. 
Gessertshausen 133. 
Geyerkopf 212. 
Geyersberg, the 63. 

Giech, castle 75. 
Giengen 28. 
Giessenbach, the 211. 
St. Gilgenberg 88. 
Gimpel, the 206. 
Gindel-Alp 218. 
Gindelalmschneid 218. 
Gingen 31. 
Girching 237. 
Girgelatein 92. 
Girglsee, the 248. 
Glasenmuhle 90. 
Glashiitte 218. 
Glashiitten 89. 
Glashiittenriegel 245. 
Glasthal, the 54. 
Glauchau 72. 
Glon, the 133. 
Glonn 221. 
— Thai, the 221. 

Gmain 227. 
Ground 217. 
Gmundbriicke 227. 231. 
Gmund (Swabia) 28. 
Gogging 127. 
Goggingen 55. 118. 
Gohlstein 230. 
Goldmiihl 90. 
Goldmiihlthal 90. 
Goldshofe 28. 26. 
G6U, the Hohe 230. 
Gbltzschthal, the 72. 
Gomadingen 47. 
Gompelscheuer 19. 
Gondelsheim 14. 
Gdnningen 47. 
Goppingen 30. 43. 
Gosberg 93. 
Gossenheim 64. 
Gossmannsdorf 128. 
Gossnitz 72. 
Gbssweinstein 94. 
Gottes-Zell, monast. 28. 

Gottfrieding 136. 
Gottmadingen 41. 
Gotzen-Alp 231. 
Grabenstetten 43. 
Grablensberg 50. 
Grafenau 246. 
Grafenberg 81. 
Grafeneck, castle 47. 54. 
Grafenherberg Alp 221. 
Grafenwiesen 235. 
Grafing 221. 

Graflinger-Thal, the 245, 
Grafrath 198. 
Grassemann 90. 
Graswang 212. 
Grat, the 50. 
— , the Schwarze 54. 
Greifenberg 198. 
Greifenstein, the 46. 
Greiz 72. 

Griesbach 241. 244. 
Griesen 212. 
Grieskirchen 242. 
Gronhard 131. 
Gronsdorf 126. 
Groschlattengriin 134. 
Grossaltdorf 25. 
Gross-Armschlag 246. 

— Auheim 59. 

— Carolinenfeld 221. 

— Gmain 225. 
Grossgriindlach 81. 
Gross-Heppach 27. 
GTosshesselohe 193. 215. 
Grossheubach 62. 
Gross-Krotzenburg 59. 

Sachsenheim 15. 

— Umstadt 23. 
Grotzingen 18. 

Grun 248. 
Griinau 242. 
Grunbach 27. 
Griinbach, the 70. 
Griiner Felsen 45. 
Gr'unenbnrg 31. 
Orunenwbrth 62. 
Griinsee-Tauern 230. 
Griinsfeld 70. 
Grunstein 89. 
Grunten 199. 200. 
Grtinwald 194. 
Gruttenstein, castle 225. 


Gschwand, the 213. 
Gschwandner Baner 209. 
Guckhiill 93. 
Guffert, the 219. 
Guglbd 247. 
Gumpe, the 229. 
Gumpenried 246. 
Gundelflngen 54. 113. 
Gundelsdorf 74. 
Gundelshausen 125. 
Gundelsheim 22. 
Gundershofen 53. 
Giindlkofen 136. 
Gundringen 17. 
Giinz, the 133. 
Giinzach 199. 
Gunzburg 133. 
Gunzenhausen 111. 131. 
Gurgler-Thal 207. 
Gurten 234. 
Giissbach 75. 
Gussmanns-Hohle 43. 
Gutenberg 43. 
— Stalactite Grotto 43. 
Gutenstein 51. 52. 
Guterstein 45. 
Guttenberg 22. 

Haag 234. 
Haar 221. 
Haberstein 92. 
Haderfleck 127. 
Hafenlohr 62. 63. 
Hafenlohr, the 63. 
Hafnerzell 242. 
Hagel-Hiitte 216. 
Hagelstadt 135. 
Hagenbuchach 69. 
Hagenmuhle 109. 
Hahnenkamm, the GO. 
Haidhausen 157. 221. 
Haidhof 134. 
Haiding 243. 
Haidstein 235. 
Haigerloch 38. 
Hainberg, the 73. 
Hain-Saulen, the 62. 
Hainstadt 23. 
Hall (Swabia) 24. 



Hallstadt 75. 
Hallthurm 227. 
Hals 240. 
Hammelburg 63. 
Hammern - Eisenstrass 

Hammerau 224. 
Hanau 59. 

Hangende Stein, the 48. 
Hansgorgl-Berg, the 109. 
Harbatzhofen 200. 
Harburg 112. 
Hard, the 110. 
Harsdorf 86. 
Hartenstein 110. 
Hartershofen 128. 
Harthwald, the 85. 
Hartmannahof 234. 
Haselbach 85. 
Hasenberg 12. 39. 
Haslach 241. 
Haspelmoor 134. 
Hassfurt 82. 
Hasslach, the 74. 

— Thai, the 74. 
Hassmersheim 22. 
Hattingen 41. 
Hausach 39. 

Hausen (Franconia) 84. 

— (Swabia) 52. 
Hausener Felsen 31. 
Hausham 220. 
Hausstein, the 245. 
Hauzenberg 241. 
Hayenbach, ruin 243. 
Hechendorf 207. 
Hechingen 48. 
Heersberg, the 50. 
Hegau, the 41, 
Heidelberg 72. 
Heidelsheim 14. 
Heidenab, the 89. 110. 

134. 235. 
Heidenheim 28. 
Heidenlocher 58. 
Heidingsfeld 128. 70. 
Heigenbriicken 62. 
Heilbronn 20. 
Heilbrunn," baths 216. 
Heilbrunnen 36. 
Heiligenbergl 58. 
Heilsbronn 26. 
Heimenstein 31. 
Heimgarten 207. 214. 
Heining 237. 
Heinsheim 22. 
Heiterwang 206. 
Helfenstein, ruin 31. 
Hellenstein, ruin 28. 
Hellmitzheim 69. 
Helmbreehts 73. 
Henfenfeld 234. 
Heppenloch, the 43. 

Herbertingen 54. 
Herblingen 41. 
Herbrechtingen 28. 
Hergatz 200. 
Herlasgrun 72. 
Hermaringen 28. 
Herrenalb 19. 
Herrenberg 39. 
Herrenchiemsee 222. 
Herreninsel 222. 
Herrlingen 52. 
Herrnbergtheim 128. 
Hersbruck 109. 234. 
Hersching 197. 
Herzogberg 230. 
Herzogstand 214. 
Heslach 11. 39. 
Hesselberg 111. 
Hessenthal 24. 25. 
Hetzbach 23. 
Heubach 23. 28. 
Heuberg 40. 
Heuchelberg 15. 
Heuchelberger Warte 19. 
Heudorf 54. 
Heunensaulen 62. 
Hienheim 127. 
Hilgerberg 229. 
Hiltersdorf 235. 
Hiltgersberg, ruin 237. 
Himmelkron 74. 
Himmelschroffen 200. 
Hinter-Graseck 209. 

— Riss 216. 
Hintersee, the 232. 
Hirsau 18. 
Hirschaid 80. 
Hirschbachthal, the 110. 
Hirschberg, the 218. 

— Haus 218. 
Hirschbergen 242. 
Hirschbichel 233. 
Hirschenstein, the 245. 
Hirschhorn 71. 
Hirschlanden 71. 
Hobbach 63. 
Hochalpe, the 218. 
Hochberg 54. 

— , the 44. 248. 
Hoehdorf 17. 39. 
Hochfelln 223. 
Hochhausen 22. 70. 
Hochkalter, the 232. 
Hochkopf 214. 
Hochriss 223. 
Hochschloss 197. 
Hochst 23. 
Hochstadt 59. 74. 
Hochstadt 113. 
Hochstauflfen 224. 226. 
Hochzoll 127. 133. 
Hof 73. 134. 

Hofen 18. 
Hofheim 82. 
Hofle 209. 
Hofmannsruhe 200. 
Hogelberg 224. 
Hohe Bogen, the 236. 

— Fricken 208. 
Hohenaschau, chateau 

Hohen-Gerhausen 53. 
Hohenasperg 15. 
Hohenau 241. 
Hohen-Baldern, castle 29. 
Hohenberg,. the 40. 
Hohenburg, chateau 216. 
Hohen-Gundelftngen 113. 
Hohengutenberg, ruin 43. 
Hohenhain 194. 
Hohenheim 14. 
Hohenhowen 41. 
Hohenkarpfen 40. 
Hohenkrahen 41. 
Hohennagold 17. 
Hohenneuffen 44. 
Hohenrechberg , ruin 42. 
Hohenschaftlarn 194. 
Hohenschwangau 203. 
— , castle 204. 
Hohenstadt 109. 
Hohenstadt 244. 
Hohenstaufen 42. 
Hohenstein, the (Bavaria) 

93. 236. 241. 

— (Swabia) 31. 
— , ruin 110. 
Hohenstoffeln 41. 
Hohentwiel, ruin 41. 
Hohen-TJrach, ruin 45. 44. 
Hohenwaldeck, ruin 220. 
Hohenwarth 235. 
Hohenwittlingen 44. 
Hohenzollern , castle 48. 
Hohe Licht 200. 

— Wacht, the 93. 
Warte, the 63. 88. 

Hohlefels 53. 
Hohlohthurm, the 19. 
Hohlwege (Defile) 233. 
Hoierberg, the 201. 
Hoiren 201. 
Holenbrunn 92. 134. 
Holledau 127. 
Hbllenbach, the 245. 
Hollenthal, the 73. 

— Klamm 210. 
Hollriegelskreut 193.194. 
Hblltobel 200. 
Holzkirchen 216. 
Holzpoint Alp 218. 
Homburg, ruin 62. 64. 
Honau 46. 

Honauer Steige 46. 
Honburg, ruin 41. 



Hopfenbach, the 126. 
Hopfensee, the 203. 
Hopferau 202. 203. 
Hoppingen 112. 
Horb 39. 38. 
Hornberg, castle 22. 
Hornle, the 36. 44. 207. 
Hosbach 62. 
Houbirg, the 234. 
HradschiD, castle 72. 
Huglfing 207. 
Hiihnerkobel, the 247. 
Hiilben 44. 
Hummerstein 93. 
Hundersingen 54. 
Hunding-Hiitte 212. 
Hundsruck 50. 
Hurbeti 28. 
Hiirbethal, the 28. 
Hutten 53. 

Icking 194. 
Igersheim 26. 
Igling 198. 
St. Ilgen 14. 
Ilkahohe 196. 
lller, the 32. 34. 199. etc. 
Illereichen 33. 
Illertissea 33. 
Illingen 15. 
Ilm, the 127. 133. 
Ilsank 231. 
Ilz, the 240. 241. 
Ilzstadt 240. 
Immendingen 41. 
Immenreuth 110. 
Tmmenstadt 199. 
Immenstadter Horn 199 
Imnau 38. 
Imst 207. 
Indelhausen 54. 
Ingolstadt 132. 127. 
Inn, the 222. 233. 237. 243. 
Inner-Thiersee 221. 
Inningen 198. 
Innsbruck 219. 221. 
Inzell 223. 
Inzigkofen 51. 
Ipf, the 29. 111. 
Iphofen 69. 
Ipsheim 69. 
Irrenlohe 134. 235. 
Irrsee, monastery 198. 
Irschenhausen 134. 
Isar, the 135. 136. 144. 215 

237. 244. 
Isareck 136. 
Isen, the 233. 244. 
Isenbvrg, castle 58. 
Isny 54. 

Jachenau 216. 
Jagerkamp 220. 

Jagermayr, the 243. 
Jagersburg, the 80. 
Jagst, the 22. 25. 71. 
Jagstfeld 21. 
Jakobsthal 60. 62. 
Janowitz 248. 
Jenbach 219. 
Jenner, the 230. 
Jettenbach 244. 
Jettenberg 232. 
Jettingen 133. 
St. Jobst 109. 
Jochenstein, the 242. 
Jochplatte 214. 
St. Johann 45. 
Johannesberg 61. 

, the 196. 
Johannisbad 198. 
Jordanbad 34. 
Josephslust 55. 
Josephs-Thai 220. 
Jossa 63. 85. 
Jugend, the 205. 
Jungingen 50. 
Jusiberg 36. 
Justingen, rain 53. 

Eager 236. 
Kahl 59. 
Kahlgrund 59. 
Kailbach 23. 
Kainzen-Bad 210. 
Kaiserbrunnen 213. 
Kaiserklause 220. 
Kaiserwacht 219. 
Kaiseringen 50. 
Kaiteraberg 235. 
Kalberau 60. 
Kalte Keller, the 230. 
Kaltenbrunn 19. 210. 217 
Kaltenburg, ruin 28. 
Kammerlinghorn 233. 
Kampenwand 223. 
Kapfenburg 29. 
Kappel 202. 
Kapps-Hohle, the 95. 
Karchei 91. 
Karlsbach 241. 
Karlsbad (near Mergent 

heim) 71. 
Karlsburg 64. 
Karlshohle, the 47. 
Karlslinde 44. 36. 
Karlstadt 64. 
Karlstein, ruin 226. 
Kasbach-Thal 219. 
Karwendel-Gebirge 210. 
— Spitze 211. 

atzenbuckel, the 22. 
Katzenkopf 215. 
Kaufbeuren 199. 
KRaufering 198. 
Kaunerwand 231. 

Kelheim 125. 
Kellberg 241. 
Kemnath-Neustadt 89. 
Kempten 199. 
Kentheim 16. 19. 
Kernmuhle 241. 
Kessel, the 230. 
Kesselberg, the 214. 
Kieferthal 221. 
Kienberg 223. 
Kieritzsch 72. 
Kilchberg 38. 
Kinzig, the 39. 59. 
Kirchahorn 89. 
Kirchberg 25. 
— , baths 226. 225. 227. 
Kirchdorf 202. 
Kirchehrnbach 93. 
Kirchenbirkig 95. 
Kirchenlaibach 89. 110. 
Kirchenlamitz 134. 
Kirchentellinsfurt 36. 
Kirchheim 14. 19. 70. 

— unter Teck 43. 
Kirchleite, the 89. 
Kirchseeon 221. 
Kirnach, the 71. 
Kirnachthal, the 71. 
Kirschbaumer Schloss 

Kislau 14. 
Kissingen 83. 
Kisslegg 54. 
Kitzingen 69. 
Kitzsee, the 244. 
Klafferstrass 241. 
Klais 210. 215. 
Klardorf 134. 
Klattau 248. 
Klauenstein, the 245. 
Klausenberg, the 136. 
Klaushohe, the 84. 
Klautzenbach 247. 
Klein-Auheim 23. 
Kleinblankenbach 60. 
Klein-Engstingen 47. 
Kleinhesselohe 193. 
Kleinheubach 61. 
Klein-Hohenheim 14. 

— Komburg 24. 

— Ostheim 60. 
Steinheim 59. 
Umstadt 23. 

Kleinwallstadt 61. 
Klesheim 224. 
Klingenberg 61. 
Klingenbrunn 246. 
Klingenstein 52. 
Klosterberg, the 240. 60. 
Klosterhof 226. 
Klumpermuhle 95. 
Knaufelspitze 230. 
Kniebis 39. 



Kniepass 206. 226. 
Knittlingen 15. 
Kochel 213. 216. 
Kochelsee 213. 
Kochendorf 21. 
Koeher, the21.24.25.etc. 
Kofel, the 212. 
Kogel-Alp 219. 
Kofering 135. 
Kohlgrub 207. 
KohlhiesI 229. 
KoMstetten 47. 
Kolbermoor 222. 
Kolbersbach, the 248. 
Kollbachthal, the 245. 
Kollenberg 62. 
Kollnburg 246. 
Komburg, abbey 24. 
Kbngen 35. 
Konig 23. 
Konigs-Alpe 218. 
Konigsbach, the 230. 
Konigsberg 82. 
Konigsbronn 28. 
Konigsbrunnen, the 28. 
Konigsdorf 195. 
Konigsegg, castle 55. 
Konigshofen 71. 
Konigs-See 230. 
Konigswarth 244. 
Konstanzer Ach, the 199. 
— Thai, the 200. 
Kornberg, the Grosse 73. 
Kornthal 16. 
Kornwestheim 16. 
Kbssein, the 110. 134. 
Kosseine, the 92. 110. 
Kothbach Fall 202. 
Kothmaissling 235. 
Kotzting 235. 
Krahenbad, the 39. 
Krahenberg, the 23. 
Kraiburg 244. 
Kraichgau, the 15. 
Krankenheil, baths 216. 
Kranzberg 211. 
Krauchenwies 54. 
Krauaenbach 63. 
Krebsstein 43. 
Krekelmoos 206. 213. 
Krempelstein, castle 242 
Kreuth 218. 
— , Wildbad 218. 
Kreuz, the 92. 
Kreuzberg, the 85. 
Kreuzlingen 57. 
Kreuzwertheim 63. 
Krinning 241. 
Kronach 74. 
Kronheim 111. 
Kronwinkel 136. 
Krottenkopf 209. 
Krottensee 110. 

Kriin 215. 
Kubani 242. 
Kuchalb 31. 
Kuchen 31. 
Kuchler Loch 230. 
Kufstein 221. 
Kugelberg 47. 
Kiihberg 245. 
Kuhflucht 203. 
Kuhlenfels 95. 
Kiihlenfelser-Thal 95. 
Kulmbach 74. 
Kupfer 24. 
Kuppenburg 93. 
Kups 74. 
Kuschwarda 242. 

Laber 119. 
— , the 118. 

■, the Grosse 135. 

, the Kleine 135. 

, the Schwarze 119. 

Labyrinthenberg 73. 
Lackenhauser 241. 
Laiz 51. 
Lam 247. 

Lamboiwald, the 59. 
Lammerbach 246. 
Landau 244. 
Landestrost, castle 133. 
Landl 221. 
Landsberg 198. 
Landshag 243. 
Landshut 135. 
— , castle 135. 
Langacker 226. 
Langenargen 35. 
Langenau 28. 
Langenauer-Thal 73. 
Langenbach 136. 
Langenbruck 235. 
Langenbriicken 14. 
Langenbrunn 52. 
Langenenslingen 54. 
Langenfeld 69. 
Langenisarhofen 237. 
Langenprozelten 63. 
Langenschemmern 34. 
Langentheilen 110. 
Langenzenn 69. 
Lange Thai, the 93. 
Langlau 111. 
Langsee 221. 
Langstadt 23. 
Langweid 113. 
Latten-Gebirge 224. 232 
Lauchert, the 54. 
Lauchhelm 29. 
Lauda 70. 

Laudenbach 26. 61. 64. 
iLauenstein 74. 
|t *i. T ^ 

Lauf 109. 234. 
Laufach 62. 
Laufamholz 234. 
Laufen an der Eyach 50. 
Laufenmiihle 53. 
Lauflfen 19. 
Lauingen 113. 
Lauphelm 34. 
Lauter 224. 

, the Grosse 47. 53. 
Lauterach 53. 
Lautereck 25. 
Lantern 53. 
Lauter-See 209. 211. 
Lauterthal, the Grosse 

Lautlingen 50. 
Lech, the 114. 127. 128. 

133. 198. etc. 
Lechfeld, the 198. 
Lehberger, the 217. 
Lehesten 74. 
Lehrberg 130. 
Leinleiter Thai 93. 
Leipheim 133. 
Leiten 211. 219. 
Leitzach-Thal 220. 
Lemberg, the 40. 
Lengenwang 202. 
Lenggries 216. 
Lenninger Thai, the 43. 
Leogang Steinberge 233. 
Leonberg 16. 
Leonharastein 218. 
Leoni 196. 194. 
Lermoos 206. 
Leutasch-Klamm 211. 

Valley 211. 
Leuterschach 202. 
Leutershausen 26. 
Leutkirch 54. 
Lichtenau 63. 
Lichteneck, ruin 236. 
Lichtenfels 74. 
Lichtenstein, chateau 

Lichtenstern 24. 
Liebenstein 19. 
Liebenzell 18. 
Lierheim 112. 
Lindau 201. 
Lindenhart 110. 
Lindenhof, the 201. 
Linder 212. 
Linderhof, castle 212. 
Lindich, chateau 48. 
Linz 234. 242. 243. 
Listsee 226. 
Lochenstein, the 50. 
Lochhausen 134. 
Lochle-Thal 90. 
Lockstein 228. 
ILofer 226. 



Loferer Alpe 226. 

— Hochthal 226. 

— Steinberge 226. 
Lohbach Fall 218. 
Lohberg 247. 
Lohhof 136. 
Lohr 62. 

Lohrbach-Thal GO. 62. 
Loisach, the 194. 207. 212. 
Lonsee 32. 
Loquitz-Thal 74. 
Lorch 27. 
St. Loretto 200. 
Losoburg 39. 
Lowenstein 23. 
Liibnitz, the 89. 

— Thai, the 74. 
Ludwigsbad-Wipfeld 82. 
Ludwigsburg 15. 
Ludwigs-Canal, the 75. 

111. 125. 
Ludwigahafen 201. 
Ludwigshall 22. 
Ludwigshbhe, the 109. 
Ludwigshbhle, the 94. 
Ludwigs-Insel, the 209. 
Ludwigsquelle 90. 
Ludwigsstadt 74. 
Ludwigsstein 246. 
Ludwigsthal 246. 248. 

— (Danube) 52. 
Ludwigsthurm 60. 61. 
Luhe 134. 

Luisenburg, the 92. 
Lukas-Terrasse, the 208. 
Lupfen, the 40. 
Lusen, the 242. 247. 
Lustheim , chateau 229. 
Lustnau 36. 
Luxburg, the 92. 
Madchenfels, the 40. 
Madelegabel 200. 
Magdeberg 41. 
Malhingen 112. 
Main, the 59. 74. 90. 123 
Main, the Eothe 74. 110 

— , the Weisse 74. 86. 89. 
Mainau, Island of 57. 
Mainberg 82. 
Mainbernheim 69. 
Mainkur 59. 
Mainleus 74. 
Mainroth 74. 
Mairhalde, the 31. 
Maisach 134. 
Maisenburg, ruin 54. 
Mamming 244. 
Manching 127. 
Mangfall, the 217. 220. 
Mangolding 236. 
Mangoldstein, fortress 

Mantler "Wald 89. 
Marbach (Baden) 40. 

— (Wurtemberg) 25. 47. 

Marblinger Hohe 221. 
St. Maria-Einsiedel 194. 
Mariahilfberg 118. 235. 
Maria-Plain '224. 
Marienberg, fortress 

(Wiir/.burti") 68. 
— , the (Algau) 199. 
Marienbriicke 205. 
Markbuchen 246. 
Markelfingen 55. 
Markelsheim 28. 
Markt 113. 
Markt-Bibart 69. 
Marktbreit 128. 
Markt-Einersheim 69. 
Markt-Eisenstein 248. 
Marktgblitz 74. 
Marktheidenfeld 62. 
Marktl 234. 
Marktleuthen 134. 
Marktoffingen 112. 
Markt-Redwitz 110. 134. 

— Schorgast 74. 
Marktzeuln 74. 
Marquartstein 223. 
Marsbach, castle 243. 
Martinlamitz 134. 
Marxen-Hbhe 229. 
Marxgriin 73. 
Matze, the 92. 
Maubach 25. 
Mauer 22. 
Maulach 25. 
Maulbronn 15. 
Maurach 219. 
St. Maurus 52. 
Maushain 119. 
Mauth 242. 
Mauthhausl 226. 
Maximilianshohle 110. 
Maximilianshiitte 134. 

Mayence 61. 
Meckenbeuern 35. 
Meckesheim 22. 71. 72. 
Meersburg 57. 201. 
Mehltheuer 73. 
Mehrstetten 53. 
Meiningen 86. 
Meitingen 113. 
Mellrichstadt S5. 
Memmingen 33. 198. 
Mengen 54. 
Menningen 55. 
Menterschwaige 193. 
Mergelstetten 28. 
Mergentheim 70. 26. 
Mering 133. 
Merlbach 194. 

Mertingen 113. 
Mespelbrunn 63. 
Messelstein 31. 
Messkirch 55. 
Metten 245. 
Metzingen 36. 
Michaelsberg 19. 126. 
Michelbaeh 60. 
Michelfeld 110. 
Michelsberg, the (near 
Hersbruck) 109. 

— (Swabia) 81. 

— (on the Neckar) 22. 
Michelstadt 23. 
Miesbach 220. 
Miltach 235. 
Miltenberg 62. 
Mindel, the 133. 
Mindelheim 198. 
Minneburg 22. 
Minning 234. 
Mirskofen 135. 
Mistelgau 89. 

Mittag, the 199. 
Mittelberg 199. 
Mittel-Graseck 209. 
Mitten 201. 
Mitten wald 210. 
Mitterkaser-Alpe 232. 
Mittersendling 215. 
Mitterteich 73. 
Mochenwangen 34. 
Mockmuhl 22. 71. 
Modishofen 133. 
Mbgeldorf 109. 234. 
Mbgglingen 28. 
Mbhringen 41. 
Molkenbauer 226. 
Mombris 60. 
Mondfeld 62. ^ 
Monrepos, chateau 16. 
Montfort, chateau 35. 
Moosach 221. 
Moosburg 136. 
Moosham 236. 
Mooswacht 233. 
Moritzberg, the 234. 
Mosbach 71. 
Mbssingen 48. 
Mottingen 112. 
Mudesheim 64. 
Muggendorf 93. 
Miihl 206. 213. 
Muhlacker 15. 
Milhlbach 111. 
Miihlberg, the 52. 
Milhldorf 233. 244. 
Miihlen 38. 
Miihlfeld 197. 
Miihlhausen (Swabia) 41. 
— (Franconia) 64. 
Miihlheim 52. 59. 
Miihlingen 55. 




Miihlthal 195. 
Miiller am Joch 214. 
Mullerhiitte 248. 
Miillnerhorn 224. 
Mumling, the 23. 
— Grumbach 23. 
Miinchberg 73. 
Miinchshofen 237. 
Miinchsmiinster 127. 
Munderkingen 53. 
Munich 137. 
Academy of Art 152. 

— of Science 180. 

Alte Hof, the 152. 

— Residenz, the 145. 
Anatomical Institute 

St. Annakirche 156. 
Antiquarium 179. 
Arcades 148. 
Archives 151. 
Arco-Zinneberg, Palace 

Arsenals 187. 192. 
Art-Industrial School 


— Union 149. 
Au 192. 

Auer Kirche 192. 
Basilica 187. 
Baths 140. 
Bavaria 191. 
St. Benno's 186. 
Blind Asylum 151. 
Botanic Garden 187. 
Brienner-Strasse 157. 
Bronze Foundry 186. 
Cabinet of Coins 190. 

— of Drawings 172. 

— of Engravings 172. 

— of Vases 173. 
Cattle Market 191. 
Cemeteries 180. 191. 

192. 193. 
Clinical Institutes 191. 
Coach Houses, Royal 

Collection, Palseonto- 

logical 190. 
— , Prehistoric 190. 

— of Minerals 190. 

— of Phys. and Opt 
Instruments 190. 

— , Zoological-Zootnm- 

ical 190. 
Corn Hall 192. 
Court Chapel 148. 
Crystal Palace 187. 
English Chapel 144. 


— Garden 193. 

Ethnograph. Museum 

Exhibitions of Art 142. 
— of Exports 190. 
Exhibition Building 

Feldherrnhalle 149. 
Festsaalbau 147. 
Fischbrunnen 189. 
Frauenkirche 189. 
Georgianum 151. 
Giesing Church 192. 
Glass-Painting 142. 
Glyptothek 180. 
Government Buildings 

Gynaecological Institute 

Haidhausen 157. 
Hall of Fame 191. 
Herzog-Max-Burg 188. 
Hofbrauhaus 138. 152 
Hofgarten 148. 
Holy Ghost, Church of 

the 192. 
Hospital, General 191. 
Hygienic Institute 191. 
Isarthor 192. 
St. John's 157. 
Justice, Courts of 190. 
Karlsthor 190. 
Kaulbach-Museum 150. 
Konigsbau 147. 
Kunstgewerbehaus 188. 
Landtagsgebaude 188. 
Leopoldstrasse 152. 
Library 150. 
Loggie 171. 
Lotzbeck Collection 

Ludwigsbriicke 192. 
Ludwigskirche 151. 
Ludwigstrasse 149. 
Luitpold-Terrace 15 (. 
Maillinger Collection 

Mariahilfkirche 192. 
Marien-Platz 188. 
St. Mark's 157. 
Market, Provision 1S2. 
Marstall 148. 
Mary, Column of 188. 
Maternity Hospital 191. 
St. Matthew's 191. 
Maximilianeum 158. 
Maximiliansplatz 188. 
Maximilianstrasse 152. 
Max-Joseph-Platz 145. 
Max-Joseph-School 151. 
St. Michael's 190. 
Military Museum 187. 

Munich : 

Mint, the 152. 

Municipal Hist. Mu- 
seum 192. 

National Museum 153. 

Nat. Hist. Collection 

Nibelungen Frescoes 

Nymphenburg 194. 

Obelisk 157. 

Observatory 193. 

Odeon 150. 

Ophthalmic Institute 

Palace, Royal 145. 

— of PrinceRegentLuit- 
pold 150. 

— of Duke Max 150. 
Panoramas 143. 180. 

Pathological Institute 

St. Peter's 189. 
Pharmacological Insti- 
tute 191. 
Physiological Institute 

Pinakothek, New 173. 
-, Old 158. 
Plaster Casts, Museum 

of 149. 
Polytechnic School 180. 
Porcelain Paintings 174. 
Post Office 152. 140. 
Priests' Seminary 151. 

Promnade-Platz 188. 
Propyla;a 184. 
Protest. Church 192. 
Railway Station 137. 

Rathhaus, New 189. 
-, Old 189. 
Reiche Capelle 146. 
Reisingerianum 191. 
Residenz, Alte 145. 
Ruhmeshalle 191. 
Schack Gallery 184. 
Schwanthaler Museum 


Siegesthor 152. 
Slaughter House 191. 
Statue of Deroy 152. 

— of Ehrhardt 156. 

— of Fraunhofer 152. 

— of Gabelsberger ,188. 

— of Gartner 192. 

— of Gluck 188. 



Munich : 
Statue of Goethe 190. 

— of Klenze 192. 

— of Kreittmayr 18S. 

— of King Max Joseph 

— King Maximilian II. 

— of Elector Maxim. I. 

— of Elector Max Em- 
anuel 188. 

— of Lewis I. 149. 

— of Liebig 188. 

— of Nussbaum 191 

— of Orlando di Lasso 

— of Rumford 152. 

— of Schelling 152. 

— of Schiller 157. 

— of Senefelder 191 

— of Westenrieder 188. 
Synagogue 190. 
Thai, the 192. 
Theatine Church 149. 
Theatres 141. 148. 191. 

Theresienwiese 191. 
Treasury 146. 
University 151. 
War Office 150. 
Wittelsbach Fountain 


— Palace 157. 
Miinnerstadt 85. 
Munsiug 194. 
Miinsingen 47. 
Murgthal , the 39. 
Murnau 207. 
Murr, the 25. 
Murrhardt 25. 
Musau 206. 
Mylau 72. 

Nab, the 110. 119. 134. 

Nabburg 134. 
Nagold 17. 
Nagold, the 16. 17. 
Naiderach-Thal, the 212. 
Naila 73. 
Nannhofen 134. 
Nase, the 214. 
Nasenbach, the 244. 
Nassereit 207. 
Katternberg, the 237. 244. 
Nebelhohle, the 47. 
Nebelhorn 200. 
Nebringen 39. 
Keckar, the 12. 21. 71. 

Neckarburken 71. 
Neckarelz 22. 71. 

Neckargemund 22. 72 
Neckargerach 22. 
Neckarhausen 10. 71. 
Neckarsteinach 71. 
Neckarsulm 21. 
Neckarthailfingen 35. 
Neckarzimmern 22. 
Neidenstein 71. 
Neidingen 52. 
Neidstein 235. 
Nellenburg, ruin 55. 
Nellmersbach 25. 
Nendingen 62. 
Nenzingen 55. 
Nersingen 133. 
Nesselgraben 226. 
Nesselwang 202. 
Netzschkau 72. 
Neubau 235. 
Neuberg 71. 73. 
Neuburg 123. 
— , abbey 72. 
Neudeck, ruin 93. 
Neudenau 22. 71. 
Neudorf 63. 
Neuenburg 18. 
Neuenmarkt 74. 86. 
Neuenreuth 110. 
Neuenstein 24. 
Neuern 248. 
Neu-Essing 126. 
Neufahrn 135. 136. 
Neuffen 44. 
Neufra 40. 
Neuhaus, castle (on the 
Danube) 243. 

— (Bavaria) 110. 220. 

— (Baths) 85. 
Neuhausen 41. 
Neu-Kelheim 126. 
Neukirchen 235. 236. 
Neumark 72. 
Neumarkt (Austria) 234. 


— (on the Rott) 244. 
(on the Sulz) 118. 

Neundorf 72. 
Neu-Nussberg, ruin 246. 

— Oetting 233.